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Am J Hum Genet ; 100(3): 428-443, 2017 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28257690


Subcutaneous adipose tissue stores excess lipids and maintains energy balance. We performed expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses by using abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of 770 extensively phenotyped participants of the METSIM study. We identified cis-eQTLs for 12,400 genes at a 1% false-discovery rate. Among an approximately 680 known genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci for cardio-metabolic traits, we identified 140 coincident cis-eQTLs at 109 GWAS loci, including 93 eQTLs not previously described. At 49 of these 140 eQTLs, gene expression was nominally associated (p < 0.05) with levels of the GWAS trait. The size of our dataset enabled identification of five loci associated (p < 5 × 10-8) with at least five genes located >5 Mb away. These trans-eQTL signals confirmed and extended the previously reported KLF14-mediated network to 55 target genes, validated the CIITA regulation of class II MHC genes, and identified ZNF800 as a candidate master regulator. Finally, we observed similar expression-clinical trait correlations of genes associated with GWAS loci in both humans and a panel of genetically diverse mice. These results provide candidate genes for further investigation of their potential roles in adipose biology and in regulating cardio-metabolic traits.

Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Idoso , Animais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transativadores/genética , Transativadores/metabolismo
Diabetes ; 62(10): 3618-26, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23557707


We investigated the association of the levels of ketone bodies (KBs) with hyperglycemia and with 62 genetic risk variants regulating glucose levels or type 2 diabetes in the population-based Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) study, including 9,398 Finnish men without diabetes or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Increasing fasting and 2-h plasma glucose levels were associated with elevated levels of acetoacetate (AcAc) and ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). AcAc and BHB predicted an increase in the glucose area under the curve in an oral glucose tolerance test, and AcAc predicted the conversion to type 2 diabetes in a 5-year follow-up of the METSIM cohort. Impaired insulin secretion, but not insulin resistance, explained these findings. Of the 62 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes or hyperglycemia, the glucose-increasing C allele of GCKR significantly associated with elevated levels of fasting BHB levels. Adipose tissue mRNA expression levels of genes involved in ketolysis were significantly associated with insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index). In conclusion, high levels of KBs predicted subsequent worsening of hyperglycemia, and a common variant of GCKR was significantly associated with BHB levels.

Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Corpos Cetônicos/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Acetoacetatos/sangue , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Jejum , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Hiperglicemia/genética , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
Hum Mol Genet ; 22(15): 3023-37, 2013 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23562819


The genetics of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression has been extensively studied in humans and other organisms, but little is known about genetic factors contributing to microRNA (miRNA) expression. We examined natural variation of miRNA expression in adipose tissue in a population of 200 men who have been carefully characterized for metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) phenotypes as part of the Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) study. We genotyped the subjects using high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism microarrays and quantified the mRNA abundance using genome-wide expression arrays and miRNA abundance using next-generation sequencing. We reliably quantified 356 miRNA species that were expressed in human adipose tissue, a limited number of which made up most of the expressed miRNAs. We mapped the miRNA abundance as an expression quantitative trait and determined cis regulation of expression for nine of the miRNAs and of the processing of one miRNA (miR-28). The degree of genetic variation of miRNA expression was substantially less than that of mRNAs. For the majority of the miRNAs, genetic regulation of expression was independent of the expression of mRNA from which the miRNA is transcribed. We also showed that for 108 miRNAs, mapped reads displayed widespread variation from the canonical sequence. We found a total of 24 miRNAs to be significantly associated with MetSyn traits. We suggest a regulatory role for miR-204-5p which was predicted to inhibit acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase ß, a key fatty acid oxidation enzyme that has been shown to play a role in regulating body fat and insulin resistance in adipose tissue.

Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Interferência de RNA , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , Transcrição Genética , Transcriptoma
Diabetes ; 61(7): 1895-902, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22553379


We investigated the association of glycemia and 43 genetic risk variants for hyperglycemia/type 2 diabetes with amino acid levels in the population-based Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) Study, including 9,369 nondiabetic or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic Finnish men. Plasma levels of eight amino acids were measured with proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Increasing fasting and 2-h plasma glucose levels were associated with increasing levels of several amino acids and decreasing levels of histidine and glutamine. Alanine, leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine, and glutamine predicted incident type 2 diabetes in a 4.7-year follow-up of the METSIM Study, and their effects were largely mediated by insulin resistance (except for glutamine). We also found significant correlations between insulin sensitivity (Matsuda insulin sensitivity index) and mRNA expression of genes regulating amino acid degradation in 200 subcutaneous adipose tissue samples. Only 1 of 43 risk single nucleotide polymorphisms for type 2 diabetes or hyperglycemia, the glucose-increasing major C allele of rs780094 of GCKR, was significantly associated with decreased levels of alanine and isoleucine and elevated levels of glutamine. In conclusion, the levels of branched-chain, aromatic amino acids and alanine increased and the levels of glutamine and histidine decreased with increasing glycemia, reflecting, at least in part, insulin resistance. Only one single nucleotide polymorphism regulating hyperglycemia was significantly associated with amino acid levels.

Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Aminoácidos/sangue , Hiperglicemia/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Finlândia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
Eur J Cell Biol ; 87(3): 147-61, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18023499


Leakiness of the endothelial bed is attributed to the over-perfusion of the pulmonary bed, which leads to high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). Inhalation of nitric oxide has been successfully employed to treat HAPE patients. We hypothesize that nitric oxide intervenes in the permeability of the pulmonary macrovascular endothelial bed to rectify the leaky bed under hypoxia. Our present work explores the underlying mechanism of 'hypoxia-mediated' endothelial malfunction by using human umbilical cord-derived immortalized endothelial cells, ECV-304, and bovine pulmonary artery primary endothelial cells. The leakiness of the endothelial monolayer was increased by two-fold under hypoxia in comparison to cells under normoxia, while optical tweezers-based tethering assays reported a higher membrane tension of endothelial cells under hypoxia. Phalloidin staining demonstrated depolymerization of F-actin stress fibers and highly polarized F-actin patterns in endothelial cells under hypoxia. Nitric oxide, 8-Br-cGMP and sildenafil citrate (phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor) led to recovery from hypoxia-induced leakiness of the endothelial monolayers. Results of the present study also suggest that 'hypoxia-induced' cytoskeletal rearrangements and membrane leakiness are associated with the low nitric oxide availability under hypoxia. We conclude that nitric oxide-based recovery of hypoxia-induced leakiness of endothelial cells is a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent phenomenon.

Actinas/metabolismo , Hipóxia Celular , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Animais , Permeabilidade Capilar/fisiologia , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Humanos