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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(13): 5574-5582, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal use of feed resources must be considered by most livestock farmers. The use of low-cost agricultural by-products and the processing of these materials is one possible solution in this respect. One such compound is edible button mushroom waste (EM), a large amount of which is produced annually in the mushroom production cycle worldwide. RESULTS: Bulk density 100 of EM was smaller than the other groups. These changes also applied to alfalfa for bulk density, which was higher than the replaced waste. The dry matter solubility of EM was higher than that of alfalfa hay, whereas the ash solubility rate for EM was greater compared to alfalfa. Replacing up to 210 g kg-1 alfalfa with EM did not affect the production of purine derivatives, microbial protein, nitrogen excreted in urine and feces, and retained nitrogen, although the organic matter digestibility (OMD) increased, whereas the crude protein digestibility and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) decreased (P < 0.05). Fermentation potential, gas production rate, metabolizable energy and short-chain fatty acids were increased. On replacing up to 210 g kg-1 alfalfa with EM, the diet OMD increased, whereas the crude protein and NDF digestibility decreased (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: EM usage in the experimental diets did not affect the production of purine derivatives, microbial protein, nitrogen excreted in urine and feces, and retained nitrogen. The physical properties, chemical composition and nutritional value of EM, as well as its low cost, show that it can be used as an alternative part of the diet forage in the ruminant's diet. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Agaricus/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ovinos/metabolismo , Resíduos/análise , Agaricales/química , Agaricales/metabolismo , Agaricus/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Medicago sativa/química , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Nutrientes/química , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/microbiologia
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(7): 3099-3110, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The in vitro gas production (GP) technique has been useful for evaluating the potential degradability of feedstuffs in ruminal environments; GP is related to the components of feedstuff ingredients. RESULTS: Linear models were generated and validated as alternatives of quantifying neutral detergent-soluble fiber, starch (St)/hemicellulose (Hem) and cellulose (Cel) through GP. Residuals of models obtained from the peaks of GP [0-8 h (GP-8), > 8-24 h (GP-24), > 24-48 h (GP-48) and > 24-81 h (GP-81)] of 0.02, 0.04, 0.08, 0.12 and 0.20 g of glucose (Glu), St and Cel respectively. The incubations were analyzed in mixtures of Glu, St and Cel. The best fitting models (r2 from 0.709 to 0.935) were tested on corn stover (CS) to quantify rapid fermentation fractions (RF; equivalent to Glu), medium fermentation fractions (MF; equivalent to St) and low fermentation fractions (LF48; equivalent to Cel); in CS, RF, MF and LF models had standardized residuals < 0.09. The analysis with Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala Lam. de Wit) and star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst) consider high-protein ingredients. CONCLUSION: The in vitro GP of RF, MF and LF48 fractions equivalent to Glu, St and Cel are affected by maturity and harvest time even when the chemical composition remains similar, and so RF, MF and LF48 should be considered during the design of ruminant diets. In vitro GP could be used to quantify the components of some forages, although further studies are necessary. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Detergentes/química , Gases/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ácidos/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Celulose/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Fermentação , Gases/análise , Modelos Biológicos , Ruminantes/metabolismo , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/metabolismo
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(9): 4211-4217, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of the inclusion of sunflower oil (SF) and quebracho tannin (QT) in a sheep diet was evaluated. Nutrient digestibility and nitrogen (N) utilization, as well as in vitro ruminal degradation kinetics, were evaluated at three levels [0, 20 and 40 g kg-1 of diet dry matter] of SF and QT in a 32 arrangement. The treatments were 0 (control); 20 and 40 g of QT and/or SF kg-1 of the diet. Four intact male sheep (45 ± 1.3 kg) for each treatment were used in the digestibility trial and kept individually in metabolic cages. RESULTS: Nutrient digestibility and N balance were not affected by SF. However, QT at 40 g kg-1 of dry matter decreased (P < 0.05) nutrient digestibility and also increased the proportion of absorbed N. Both SF and QT reduced (P < 0.05) the slowly degraded fraction and rate for organic matter and N. Even though the QT had a negative (P < 0.05) effect on nutrient digestibility, this effect was mild (P > 0.05) when SF was included in the QT-added diets. Moreover, an interaction (P < 0.05) of SF × QT was observed on the synchronization index as an indicator of the efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis. CONCLUSION: Supplementation of either SF or QT to sheep diets reduced ruminal organic matter and N degradability, reflecting the compensatory digestion in the post-ruminal track for organic matter feed utilization. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Rúmen/química , Ovinos/metabolismo , Óleo de Girassol/metabolismo , Taninos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Digestão , Cinética , Nitrogênio/química , Nutrientes/química , Rúmen/metabolismo , Óleo de Girassol/química , Taninos/química
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(8): 3803-3810, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary fats, fed to ruminant animals, have been observed to improve reproductive function. Sunflower oil is one of the richest sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), over 60% of which is linoleic acid (C18:2). With regard to recommendations for increased consumption of PUFAs, special emphasis has been given to the importance of consuming more antioxidants to prevent lipid peroxide formation. This study evaluated the effects of dietary n-6 PUFAs and vitamin C (VC) in rams - in particular, on semen quality, blood metabolites, sperm lipids and overall fertility. RESULTS: Diets supplemented with SFO and VC increased the proportion of motile sperms and their progressive motility improved (P < 0.01). Rams fed a diet containing SFO had an increased proportion of sperms with normal acrosomes in their semen samples (P < 0.01). The highest levels of lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH) enzyme were found in control rams (2.60 U mL-1 ). Feeding SFO significantly affected blood triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.05). Diets containing SFO increased the proportion of C18:2c, C20:4, C20:3 and C22 in the sperm lipid composition (P < 0.05). Semen of SFO and VC-fed rams was more fertile than that of control rams when it was artificially inseminated to ewes. CONCLUSION: Feeding rams with supplemental SFO and VC increased semen quality and improved fertility rates. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Sêmen/química , Ovinos/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/citologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Óleo de Girassol/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/química , Masculino , Sêmen/metabolismo , Análise do Sêmen
6.
J Sci Food Agric ; 98(14): 5313-5321, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29663400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study explored the effect of garlic and/or eucalypt oils on biogas production during in vitro ruminal fermentation of four agro industry byproducts. For this, 0-180 mg oil L-1 incubation medium was added and gas volumes were recorded from 2 to 48 h of incubation. Dry matter substrate degradability and neutral as well as acid detergent fibre were determined after 72 h. RESULTS: Gas production and nutrient degradability was oil type dependent. The oils enhanced (P < 0.05) biogas and asymptotic biogas production for corn stalks and oat straw, although no effect was observed on asymptotic biogas production for sorghum straw and sugarcane bagasse. Addition of both oils decreased (P < 0.05) fermentation pH for corn stalks, sorghum straw and oat straw and also increased (P < 0.05) dry matter degradability for all four byproducts. Neutral detergent fibre degradability for all byproducts was higher (P < 0.05) with garlic oil. Eucalypt oil, however, decreased (P < 0.05) neutral detergent fibre degradability for sugarcane bagasse and corn stalks, although only weak effects were observed for sorghum and oat straws. CONCLUSION: With respect to ruminal biogas production, the addition of garlic oil showed better environmental effects than the addition of eucalypt oil and increasing oil concentrations resulted in enhanced fermentation characteristics. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/metabolismo , Eucalyptus/química , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Alho/química , Gases/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Animais , Digestão , Eucalyptus/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Alho/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Sorghum/química , Sorghum/metabolismo , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/metabolismo
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 98(13): 5089-5094, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29604090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of phytase supplementation with respect to a high sorghum grain diet on sheep voluntary feed intake, apparent nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, phosphorus (P) excretion and blood serum P concentration was evaluated. RESULTS: Phytase supplementation significantly decreased fecal P excretion (P = 0.003), resulting in a 26% decrease in relation to the phytase free diet. Dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal butyrate and serum P were not (P > 0.10) affected by the phytase level. Neutral detergent digestibility showed a tendency to increase linearly (P = 0.10) with increasing phytase levels. Ruminal pH was lower for phytase supplemented sheep, with a significant decrease (P = 0.007) at 9 h post feeding, whereas ruminal ammonia-N at 3 h post feeding was lower (P = 0.004) for the phytase treatment groups, resulting in a decreasing linear response (P = 0.001) with an increasing phytase dose. Duodenal pH was significantly reduced at 6 h post feeding. Propionate tended (P = 0.051) to be increased linearly as the phytase supplementation level increased. CONCLUSION: Exogenous phytase supplementation of high sorghum grain diets significantly decreased fecal P excretion in Rambouillet rams. Phytase supplementation appears to affect neutral detergent fiber digestibility, duodenal and ruminal pH, ammonia and propionate. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Fósforo/sangue , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ovinos/metabolismo , 6-Fitase/metabolismo , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fezes/química , Fermentação , Sorghum/metabolismo
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