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1.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abiraterone and enzalutamide are recently-approved androgen deprivation therapies (ADTs) for metastatic prostate cancer, with unknown cardiac safety profiles. Abiraterone has a propensity to hypermineralocorticism on top of androgen deprivation, so might carry an additional risk for atrial tachyarrhythmia (AT) and heart failure (HF) compared with other ADTs. AIM: To determine if abiraterone was associated with an increased proportion of AT and HF reports among all suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported in several pharmacovigilance databases compared with enzalutamide, other ADTs and all other drugs. METHODS: In this observational retrospective pharmacovigilance study, we performed a disproportionality analysis of reports of suspected ADRs in men in the French pharmacovigilance database, the European pharmacovigilance database and the international pharmacovigilance database VigiBase, to evaluate the reporting odds ratios (RORs) of AT and HF for abiraterone compared with enzalutamide, other ADTs and all other drugs. RESULTS: In the 5,759,781 ADR reports in men in VigiBase, 55,070 pertained to ADTs. The RORs for AT for abiraterone versus enzalutamide, other ADTs and all other drugs were 4.1 (95% confidence interval 3.1-5.3), 3.7 (3-4.5) and 3.2 (2.7-3.7), respectively (P<0.0001 for all). The corresponding RORs for HF were 2.5 (2-3), 1.5 (1.3-1.7) and 2 (1.7-2.3), respectively (P<0.0001 for all). These results were concordant with the French and European pharmacovigilance databases. Mean times to AT and HF onset were shorter with abiraterone (5.2±0.8 and 4.5±0.6 months, respectively) versus other ADTs (13.3±3.2 and 9.2±1.1 months, respectively) (both P<0.05). Cases on abiraterone versus other ADTs were more frequently associated with at least two ADR terms, including AT, HF, hypokalaemia, hypertension and oedema (13.6% vs 6%; P<0.0001). For abiraterone, age, but not dose, was associated with reporting of AT and HF versus any other ADR. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with other ADTs, abiraterone was associated with higher reporting of AT and HF, associated with hypokalaemia, hypertension and oedema. These findings are consistent with the hypermineralocorticism induced by abiraterone, but not by other ADTs.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(13): 1667-1678, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ibrutinib has revolutionized treatment for several B-cell malignancies. However, a recent clinical trial where ibrutinib was used in a front-line setting showed increased mortality during treatment compared with conventional chemotherapy. Cardiovascular toxicities were suspected as the culprit but not directly assessed in the study. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize cardiovascular adverse drug reactions (CV-ADR) associated with ibrutinib. METHODS: This study utilized VigiBase (International pharmacovigilance database) and performed a disproportionality analysis using reporting odds ratios (ROR) and information component (IC) to determine whether CV-ADR and CV-ADR deaths were associated with ibrutinib. IC compares observed and expected values to find associations between drugs and adverse drug reactions using disproportionate Bayesian-reporting; IC025 (lower end of the IC 95% credibility interval) >0 is significant. RESULTS: This study identified 303 ibrutinib-associated cardiovascular deaths. Ibrutinib was associated with higher reporting of supraventricular arrhythmias (SVAs) (ROR: 23.1; 95% confidence interval: 21.6 to 24.7; p < 0.0001; IC025: 3.97), central nervous system (CNS) hemorrhagic events (ROR: 3.7; 95% confidence interval: 3.4 to 4.1; p < 0.0001; IC025: 1.63), heart failure (ROR: 3.5; 95% confidence interval: 3.1 to 3.8; p < 0.0001; IC025: 1.46), ventricular arrhythmias (ROR: 4.7; 95% confidence interval: 3.7 to 5.9; p < 0.0001; IC025: 0.96), conduction disorders (ROR: 3.5; 95% confidence interval: 2.7 to 4.6; p < 0.0001; IC025: 0.76), CNS ischemic events (ROR: 2.2; 95% confidence interval: 2.0 to 2.5; p < 0.0001; IC025: 0.73), and hypertension (ROR: 1.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.5 to 1.9; p < 0.0001; IC025: 0.4). CV-ADR often occurred early after ibrutinib administration. Importantly, CV-ADR were associated with fatalities that ranged from ∼10% (SVAs and ventricular arrhythmias) to ∼20% (CNS events, heart failure, and conduction disorders). Ibrutinib-associated SVA portends poor prognosis when CNS events occur concomitantly, with 28.8% deaths (15 of 52 cases). CONCLUSIONS: Severe and occasionally fatal cardiac events occur in patients exposed to ibrutinib. These events should be considered in patient care and in clinical trial designs. (Evaluation of Reporting of Cardio-vascular Adverse Events With Antineoplastic and Immunomodulating Agents [EROCA]; NCT03530215).

4.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long QT syndrome (LQTS) can cause the potentially fatal ventricular tachycardia torsades de pointes (TdP). QT interval corrected for heart rate (QTc) is shorter in men than in women, with testosterone contributing to shorten QTc. We recently described male hypogonadism as a reversible risk factor for acquired LQTS and TdP, but the clinical characteristics of such patients have not been characterized. AIMS: To describe the clinical characteristics of men with acquired LQTS or TdP associated with hypogonadism caused by endocrine conditions or androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), and to evaluate the relationship between testosterone concentrations and electrocardiographic changes. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (to 04 January 2019) and the French pharmacovigilance database (to 09 August 2018) to identify male cases of acquired LQTS and TdP associated with endocrine hypogonadism or ADT; their narratives were gathered from reporting collaborators. RESULTS: We identified seven cases of TdP (one fatal) with endocrine hypogonadism, abnormally long QTc and morphologically abnormal T-wave notches. After reversion of low testosterone concentrations in the surviving patients (N=6), QTc shortened, T-wave morphology normalized and there was no TdP recurrence. Among these cases, none had mutation in the LQTS genes, three men required testosterone and three had reversible hypogonadism after resolution of a concurrent acute severe illness. We found an additional 27 reports of men with LQTS (N=6), TdP (N=9; 2/9 fatal) or sudden death (N=12; 10/12 fatal) suspected to be induced or favoured by ADT (24/27 for prostate cancer). Generally, after ADT withdrawal, QTc shortened and no TdP recurred. CONCLUSION: We propose seeking for hypogonadism caused by endocrine conditions or ADT in men presenting with TdP. Caution is warranted when ADT is used in situations at risk of TdP. Testosterone may be useful to treat or prevent TdP.

5.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 181(5): 481-488, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505456

RESUMO

Background: HLA-G is an immune checkpoint molecule, naturally expressed during pregnancy, playing a critical role in the tolerance of the fetal semi-allograft from the maternal immune system. While HLA-G expression levels are associated with progesterone, the influence of other hormones is still unclear. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) represents an adequate model to study the hormonal influence on biomarkers as it leads to impaired cortisol biosynthesis and increased progesterone and androgens production due to 21-hydroxylase enzyme deficiency. Methods: In a cross-sectional study of CAH patients matched on sex and age with healthy control, the association between circulating levels of soluble HLA-G and hormones was assessed by use of non-parametric analyses tests. Multivariable linear regressions were performed on normalized data. Results: Overall, 83 CAH patients and 69 healthy controls were included. Among CAH patients, all were under glucocorticoid and 52 (62.6%) were under mineralocorticoid supplementation. Compared to controls, CAH patients had increased HLA-G levels (15 vs 8 ng/mL, P = 0.02). In controls, HLA-G level was independently associated with progesterone and estradiol (ß = 0.44 (0.35-1.27) and -0.44 (-0.94, -0.26) respectively, both P values = 0.001). In CAH patients, HLA-G level was independently associated with mineralocorticoid supplementation dosage (ß = 0.25 (0.04-0.41), P = 0.001) and estradiol (ß = -0.22 (-0.57, -0.02), P < 0.001). Conclusion: CAH patients had higher HLA-G levels than healthy controls. HLA-G level was positively associated with progesterone and corticosteroid supplementation, and negatively with estradiol. The association between mineralocorticoid, renin and HLA-G levels may suggest a role of the renin-angiotensin system in the expression of soluble HLA-G.

6.
Circulation ; 140(13): 1070-1080, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Male hypogonadism, arising from a range of etiologies including androgen-deprivation therapies (ADTs), has been reported as a risk factor for acquired long-QT syndrome (aLQTS) and torsades de pointes (TdP). A full description of the clinical features of aLQTS associated with ADT and of underlying mechanisms is lacking. METHODS: We searched the international pharmacovigilance database VigiBase for men (n=6 560 565 individual case safety reports) presenting with aLQTS, TdP, or sudden death associated with ADT. In cardiomyocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells from men, we studied electrophysiological effects of ADT and dihydrotestosterone. RESULTS: Among subjects receiving ADT in VigiBase, we identified 184 cases of aLQTS (n=168) and/or TdP (n=68; 11% fatal), and 99 with sudden death. Of the 10 ADT drugs examined, 7 had a disproportional association (reporting odds ratio=1.4-4.7; P<0.05) with aLQTS, TdP, or sudden death. The minimum and median times to sudden death were 0.25 and 92 days, respectively. The androgen receptor antagonist enzalutamide was associated with more deaths (5430/31 896 [17%]; P<0.0001) than other ADT used for prostate cancer (4208/52 089 [8.1%]). In induced pluripotent stem cells, acute and chronic enzalutamide (25 µM) significantly prolonged action potential durations (action potential duration at 90% when paced at 0.5 Hz; 429.7±27.1 (control) versus 982.4±33.2 (acute, P<0.001) and 1062.3±28.9 ms (chronic; P<0.001), and generated afterdepolarizations and/or triggered activity in drug-treated cells (11/20 acutely and 8/15 chronically). Enzalutamide acutely and chronically inhibited delayed rectifier potassium current, and chronically enhanced late sodium current. Dihydrotestosterone (30 nM) reversed enzalutamide electrophysiological effects on induced pluripotent stem cells. CONCLUSIONS: QT prolongation and TdP are a risk in men receiving enzalutamide and other ADTs. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03193138.

7.
Circulation ; 140(2): 80-91, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390169

RESUMO

Recent developments in cancer therapeutics have improved outcomes but have also been associated with cardiovascular complications. Therapies harnessing the immune system have been associated with an immune-mediated myocardial injury described as myocarditis. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are one such therapy with an increasing number of case and cohort reports describing a clinical syndrome of immune checkpoint inhibitor­associated myocarditis. Although the full spectrum of immune checkpoint inhibitor­associated cardiovascular disease still needs to be fully defined, described cases of myocarditis range from syndromes with mild signs and symptoms to fatal events. These observations in the clinical setting stand in contrast to outcomes from randomized clinical trials in which myocarditis is a rare event that is investigator reported and lacking in a specific case definition. The complexities associated with diagnosis, as well as the heterogeneous clinical presentation of immune checkpoint inhibitor­associated myocarditis, have made ascertainment and identification of myocarditis with high specificity challenging in clinical trials and other data sets, limiting the ability to better understand the incidence, outcomes, and predictors of these rare events. Therefore, establishing a uniform definition of myocarditis for application in clinical trials of cancer immunotherapies will enable greater understanding of these events. We propose an operational definition of cancer therapy-associated myocarditis that may facilitate case ascertainment and report and therefore may enhance the understanding of the incidence, outcomes, and risk factors of this novel clinical syndrome.

8.
Nat Med ; 25(8): 1243-1250, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332390

RESUMO

Checkpoint inhibitors produce durable responses in numerous metastatic cancers, but immune-related adverse events (irAEs) complicate and limit their benefit. IrAEs can affect organ systems idiosyncratically; presentations range from mild and self-limited to fulminant and fatal. The molecular mechanisms underlying irAEs are poorly understood. Here, we report a fatal case of encephalitis arising during anti-programmed cell death receptor 1 therapy in a patient with metastatic melanoma. Histologic analyses revealed robust T cell infiltration and prominent programmed death ligand 1 expression. We identified 209 reported cases in global pharmacovigilance databases (across multiple cancer types) of encephalitis associated with checkpoint inhibitor regimens, with a 19% fatality rate. We performed further analyses from the index case and two additional cases to shed light on this recurrent and fulminant irAE. Spatial and multi-omic analyses pinpointed activated memory CD4+ T cells as highly enriched in the inflamed, affected region. We identified a highly oligoclonal T cell receptor repertoire, which we localized to activated memory cytotoxic (CD45RO+GZMB+Ki67+) CD4 cells. We also identified Epstein-Barr virus-specific T cell receptors and EBV+ lymphocytes in the affected region, which we speculate contributed to neural inflammation in the index case. Collectively, the three cases studied here identify CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as culprits of checkpoint inhibitor-associated immune encephalitis.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Encefalite/induzido quimicamente , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Ativação Linfocitária , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Encefalite/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Hypertens ; 37(11): 2225-2231, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the product of the ABCB1 gene, is involved in the transport of aldosterone and cortisol in adrenal cells in vitro but its physiological role in humans remains controversial. Our objective was to test the influence of P-gp polymorphisms on aldosterone. METHODS: We evaluated plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC), urinary aldosterone, and blood pressure in a cohort of white normotensive men at baseline on diets unrestricted for sodium and potassium and after a 5-day treatment with 500 mg b.i.d. clarithromycin, a P-gp inhibitor. Included were 20 homozygous wild-type (P-gp0), 20 heterozygous (P-gp1), and 20 individuals with combined 2677G>T/A-3435C>T loss-of-function polymorphism of the ABCB1 gene (P-gp2). RESULTS: At baseline, PAC, urinary aldosterone, urinary free cortisol to urine creatinine ratios, and blood pressure did not differ in the three genotypes. After clarithromycin administration, the urinary aldosterone to creatinine ratio increased by an average of 30% in the entire cohort (P < 0.001, n = 60). Increases were pronounced in P-gp1 (+40%; P = 0.014) and P-gp2 individuals (+50%; P = 0.020) but lesser and were NS in P-gp0 individuals (+10%; P = 0.259). PAC also increased from baseline after clarithromycin treatment in all individuals (+19%, P = 0.050); however, the increase in PAC was NS when the three genotypes were analyzed separately. CONCLUSION: In our experimental conditions, the interaction between P-gp inhibition and the ABCB1 genotype, suggests that aldosterone is indeed a physiological endogenous substrate of P-gp in humans and that P-gp interferes with the net equilibrium between aldosterone secretion and elimination processes in humans.Clinical Trial Registration - URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01627665.

10.
J Thromb Haemost ; 17(10): 1670-1682, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rivaroxaban is a direct factor Xa inhibitor with substantial inter-individual pharmacokinetic (PK) variability. Pharmacodynamic (PD) variability, especially assessed with thrombin generation (TG), has been less documented. OBJECTIVES: (i) To assess TG parameter time profiles in healthy volunteers, with TG being studied under different conditions and (ii) to model the relationship between rivaroxaban concentrations and TG parameters and subsequently estimate interindividual variability. METHODS: Sixty healthy male volunteers (DRIVING-NCT01627665) received a single 40-mg rivaroxaban dose. Blood sampling was performed at baseline and 10 predefined time points over 24 h. The TG was investigated with the fully automated ST-Genesia system (Stago), using two tissue-factor (TF) concentrations, in the absence (-), or presence (+) of thrombomodulin (TM) for the lowest one. The PD models were built to characterize the relationships between plasma rivaroxaban concentrations and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) or peak height induced by the lowest TF concentration. RESULTS: Thrombin generation parameter time profiles with the lowest TF concentration showed a good sensitivity to rivaroxaban, especially +TM (active protein C negative feedback). The relationship between rivaroxaban concentrations and TG parameters was modeled with a sigmoidal relation. Mean rivaroxaban concentrations halving the baseline value of ETP and peak height (-TM) (C50 ) were of 284 and 33.2 ng/mL, respectively: +TM, C50 declined to 19.4 and 13.8 ng/mL, reflecting a powerful inhibitory effect. The estimated C50 population coefficients of variation were of 12.2% (-TM) and 31.3% (+TM) with the peak height models, 34.8% (+TM) with the ETP model. CONCLUSIONS: This low-rivaroxaban to moderate-rivaroxaban PD variability in healthy volunteers contrasts with the substantial PK variability and deserves to be studied in different patient settings.

12.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 8(8): 822-832, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037857

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated that intracardiac delivery of autologous peripheral blood-derived CD34+ stem cells (SCs), mobilized by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and collected by leukapheresis after myocardial infarction, structurally and functionally repaired the damaged myocardial area. When used for cardiac indication, CD34+ cells are now considered as Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMPs). We have industrialized their production by developing an automated device for ex vivo CD34+ -SC expansion, starting from a whole blood (WB) sample. Blood samples were collected from healthy donors after G-CSF mobilization. Manufacturing procedures included: (a) isolation of total nuclear cells, (b) CD34+ immunoselection, (c) expansion and cell culture recovery in the device, and (d) expanded CD34+ cell immunoselection and formulation. The assessment of CD34+ cell counts, viability, and immunophenotype and sterility tests were performed as quality tests. We established graft acceptance criteria and performed validation processes in three cell therapy centers. 59.4 × 106 ± 36.8 × 106 viable CD34+ cells were reproducibly generated as the final product from 220 ml WB containing 17.1 × 106 ± 8.1 × 106 viable CD34+ cells. CD34+ identity, genetic stability, and telomere length were consistent with those of basal CD34+ cells. Gram staining and mycoplasma and endotoxin analyses were negative in all cases. We confirmed the therapeutic efficacy of both CD34+ -cell categories in experimental acute myocardial infarct (AMI) in immunodeficient rats during preclinical studies. This reproducible, automated, and standardized expansion process produces high numbers of CD34+ cells corresponding to the approved ATMP and paves the way for a phase I/IIb study in AMI, which is currently recruiting patients. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2019;8:822&832.

13.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 134, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) produce durable antitumor responses but provoke autoimmune toxicities, including uncommon but potentially devastating neurologic toxicities. The clinical features, including the spectrum, timing, and outcomes, of ICI-induced neurologic toxicities are not well characterized. METHODS: We performed disproportionality analysis using Vigibase, the World Health Organization pharmacovigilance database, comparing neurologic adverse event (AE) reporting in patients receiving ICIs vs. the full database. Neurologic AEs were classified by group queries using Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities, between database inception to September 28, 2018. Associations between ICIs and neurologic AEs were assessed using reporting odds ratios (ROR) and information component (IC). IC compares observed and expected values to find associations between drugs and AEs using disproportionate Bayesian reporting; IC025 (lower end of the IC 95% credibility interval) > 0 is considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Among the full database, 18,518,994 AEs were reported, including 48,653 with ICIs. ICIs were associated with higher incidence of myasthenia gravis (0.47% of ICI reports vs. 0.04% of the full database, ROR 16.5 [95% CI 14.5-18.9]; IC025 3.31), encephalitis (0.51% vs. 0.05%, ROR 10.4 [95% CI 9.2-11.8]; IC025 3.15), peripheral neuropathy (1.16% vs. 0.67%, IC025 0.68), and meningitis (0.15% vs. 0.06%, ROR 3.1 [95% CI 2.5-3.9]; IC025 1.01). Myasthenia gravis and encephalitis were associated with anti-PD-1 whereas other neurologic AEs were associated with anti-CTLA-4. Myasthenia gravis was characterized by high fatality rates (~ 20%), early onset (median 29 days), and frequent concurrent myocarditis and myositis; whereas other neurologic AEs had lower fatality rates (6-12%), later onset (median 61-80 days), and were non-overlapping. CONCLUSIONS: ICIs produce a spectrum of distinct classes of neurologic AEs that can cause significant morbidity and mortality and tend to occur early and with class-specific associations.

15.
Drug Saf ; 42(7): 813-825, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868436

RESUMO

Inhibitors of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors) are used as antiproliferative immunosuppressive drugs and have many clinical applications in various drug combinations. Experience in transplantation studies has been gained regarding the side effect profile of these drugs and the potential benefits and limitations compared with other immunosuppressive agents. This article reviews the adverse effects of mTOR inhibitors in solid organ transplantation, with special attention given to mechanisms hypothesized to cause adverse events and their management strategies.

16.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 38(5): 493-497, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831307

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Optimisation of antibiotic therapy for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) patients remains a pharmacological challenge. The objective of this study was to observe the plasma concentrations of commonly used antibiotics in intensive care for patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The PHARMECMO study was a pilot, prospective study, conducted in a cardiac surgery intensive care unit. Every adult patient under ECMO support, with known or suspected sepsis and receiving antibiotic therapy, was eligible for inclusion. Plasma concentrations of antibiotics were determined by a combination of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Forty-four eligible patients were enrolled for 68 inclusions on a twelve-month period. For the association piperacillin-tazobactam (n=19), 68.7% of CT50 and 93.7% of Cmin reached the pharmacokinetic goals defined (64 mg.L-1 for CT50 and 16 mg.L-1 for Cmin). For cefotaxime (n=12), the pharmacokinetic goals (4 mg.L-1 for CT50 and 1 mg.L-1 for Cmin) were achieved in 100% of the cases for CT50 and in 81.8% of the cases for Cmin. Regarding imipenem (n=10), the pharmacokinetic goals were 16 mg.L-1 for CT50 and 4 mg.L-1 for Cmin. Only one CT50 was above 16 mg.L-1. For Cmin, 60% of the doses did not reach the target concentration. In our 10 patients, only one patient was considered as reaching the pharmacokinetic goals. Finally, for amikacin (n=6), four Cmax (66.7%) were infra-therapeutics for a target between 60 and 80 mg.L-1. CONCLUSION: These preliminary results suggest that therapeutic drug monitoring could optimise the achievement of pharmacokinetic objectives associated with an effective antibiotic therapy. For most patients, the recommended doses of imipenem and amikacin did not achieve the pK targets.

17.
Oncologist ; 24(5): 584-588, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819785

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors have improved outcomes for patients with numerous hematological and solid cancers. Hematologic toxicities have been described, but the spectrum, timing, and clinical presentation of these complications are not well understood. We used the World Health Organization's pharmacovigilance database of individual-case-safety-reports (ICSRs) of adverse drug reactions, VigiBase, to identify cases of hematologic toxicities complicating immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. We identified 168 ICSRs of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), hemolytic anemia (HA), hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, aplastic anemia, and pure red cell aplasia in 164 ICSRs. ITP (n = 68) and HA (n = 57) were the most common of these toxicities and occurred concomitantly in four patients. These events occurred early on treatment (median 40 days) and were associated with fatal outcome in 12% of cases. Ipilimumab-based therapy (monotherapy or combination with anti-programmed death-1 [PD-1]) was associated with earlier onset (median 23 vs. 47.5 days, p = .006) than anti-PD-1/programmed death ligand-1 monotherapy. Reporting of hematologic toxicities has increased over the past 2 years (98 cases between January 2017 and March 2018 vs. 70 cases before 2017), possibly because of increased use of checkpoint inhibitors and improved recognition of toxicities. Future studies should evaluate incidence of hematologic toxicities, elucidate risk factors, and determine the most effective treatment algorithms. KEY POINTS: Immune-mediated hematologic toxicities are a potential side effect of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs).Providers should monitor complete blood counts during treatment with ICIs.Corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment for immune-mediated hematologic toxicities.Further research is needed to define patient-specific risk factors and optimal management strategies for hematologic toxicities.

18.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(4): 504-508, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793701

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Drug-induced lupus (DIL) is an idiosyncratic side effect of treatments in which symptoms overlap with those of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The spectrum of DIL constantly evolves with that of the pharmacopoeia. Here, we used VigiBase, the WHO global individual case safety reports (ICSRs) database, to identify the main drugs associated with DIL. METHODS: We analysed all ICSRs classified as 'systemic lupus erythematosus' according to the Medical Dictionary for Drug Regulatory Activities term (preferred term level) in VigiBase. The drugs considered in the analysis were those not used to treat SLE, with a positive lower end of the 95% credibility interval for the information component (IC025) ≥0, an indicator value for disproportionate Bayesian reporting. RESULTS: A total of 12 166 DIL ICSRs were identified using VigiBase. From those, 8163 ICSRs reporting on 118 suspected drugs with IC025 ≥0 were extracted. The median age at DIL onset was 49 years and the female to male sex ratio was 4.3. The median delay between start of suspected treatment and DIL occurrence was 172 days. DIL was reported as serious adverse event in 55.4%. Among the 118 suspected drugs, 42 had not been previously reported in association with DIL. The drugs associated with the highest number of DIL cases were infliximab, adalimumab, etanercept, procainamide and hydralazine. CONCLUSION: This study enables the identification of 118 drugs associated with DIL. The list of suspected drugs may prove useful to physicians when confronted with potential DIL cases. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03480529.

19.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(2): 136-143, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673079

RESUMO

Importance: Thyroid hormone levels are tightly regulated through feedback inhibition by thyrotropin, produced by the pituitary gland. Hyperthyroidism is overwhelmingly due to thyroid disorders and is well recognized to contribute to a wide spectrum of cardiovascular morbidity, particularly the increasingly common arrhythmia atrial fibrillation (AF). Objective: To determine the association between genetically determined thyrotropin levels and AF. Design, Setting, and Participants: This phenome-wide association study scanned 1318 phenotypes associated with a polygenic predictor of thyrotropin levels identified by a previously published genome-wide association study that included participants of European ancestry. North American individuals of European ancestry with longitudinal electronic health records were analyzed from May 2008 to November 2016. Analysis began March 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical diagnoses associated with a polygenic predictor of thyrotropin levels. Exposures: Genetically determined thyrotropin levels. Results: Of 37 154 individuals, 19 330 (52%) were men. The thyrotropin polygenic predictor was positively associated with hypothyroidism (odds ratio [OR], 1.10; 95% CI, 1.07-1.14; P = 5 × 10-11) and inversely associated with diagnoses related to hyperthyroidism (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.54-0.74; P = 2 × 10-8 for toxic multinodular goiter). Among nonthyroid associations, the top association was AF/flutter (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.9-0.95; P = 9 × 10-7). When the analyses were repeated excluding 9801 individuals with any diagnoses of a thyroid-related disease, the AF association persisted (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.88-0.95; P = 2.9 × 10-6). To replicate this association, we conducted an inverse-variance weighted average meta-analysis using AF single-nucleotide variant weights from a genome-wide association study of 17 931 AF cases and 115 142 controls. As in the discovery analyses, each SD increase in predicted thyrotropin was associated with a decreased risk of AF (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.79-0.93; P = 4.7 × 10-4). In a set of AF cases (n = 745) and controls (n = 1680) older than 55 years, directly measured thyrotropin levels that fell within the normal range were inversely associated with AF risk (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests a role for genetically determined variation in thyroid function within a physiologically accepted normal range as a risk factor for AF. The clinical decision to treat subclinical thyroid disease should incorporate the risk for AF as antithyroid medications to treat hyperthyroidism may reduce AF risk and thyroid hormone replacement for hypothyroidism may increase AF risk.

20.
Int J Cardiol ; 286: 159-161, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients at increased cardiovascular (CV) risk, noticeably hypertensive patients, have multiple CV risk factors which may be treatment targets. LDL-cholesterol is one of such targets. Using the SPRINT cohort, studying the cardiovascular outcomes of hypertensive patients at increased CV risk, this post-hoc study aimed to assess the association of LDL-C with CV outcomes. METHODS: Clinical outcomes were those defined in SPRINT: a composite of various CV outcomes, all-cause mortality, and CV mortality. Association between LDL-C and the primary outcome was analyzed using survival regression adjusted on confounding factors (age, sex, body-mass index, active smoking status, eGFR-estimated kidney function, history of CV disease, Framingham risk score, SPRINT treatment arm (intensive or control), baseline high-density-lipoprotein-bound cholesterol, and co-treatments by aspirin and statins). RESULTS: LDL-C was not associated with the primary outcome in the overall cohort (n = 9631). Among patients in secondary prevention (i.e. with a previous history of CV disease) (n = 1562), LDL-C was marginally associated with the incidence of the primary outcome (adjusted hazard-ratio 1.005 (95% CI = 1.002-1.009), p = 0.005 (per 1 mg/dl increase)) however, discrimination was poor with a ROC AUC of 0.54, p = 0.087. There was no association between LDL-C and the primary outcome in other subgroup analyses (those under statin or not, and those in primary prevention). CONCLUSION: This post-hoc analysis of SPRINT indicates that LDL-C levels do not influence cardiovascular events over a period of 3 years in a large cohort of hypertensive patients at increased risk of cardiovascular events but without previous history of clinical cardiovascular disease other than stroke.

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