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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31976579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite increased research using large administrative databases to identify determinants of maternal morbidity and mortality, the extent to which these databases capture obstetric co-morbidities is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact that the time window used to assess obstetric co-morbidities has on the completeness of ascertainment of those co-morbidities. METHODS: We conducted a five-year analysis of inpatient hospitalisations of pregnant women from 2010-2014 using the Nationwide Readmissions Database. For each woman, using discharge diagnoses, we identified 24 conditions used to create the Obstetric Comorbidity Index. Using various assessment windows for capturing obstetric co-morbidities, including the delivery hospitalisation only and all weekly windows from 7 to 280 days, we calculated the frequency and rate of each co-morbidity and the degree of underascertainment of the co-morbidity. Under each scenario, and for each co-morbidity, we also calculated the all-cause, 30-day readmission rate. RESULTS: There were over 3 million delivery hospitalisations from 2010 to 2014 included in this analysis. Compared with a full 280-day window, assessment of obstetric co-morbidities using only diagnoses made during the delivery hospitalisation would result in failing to identify over 35% of cases of chronic renal disease, 28.5% cases in which alcohol abuse was documented during pregnancy, and 23.1% of women with pulmonary hypertension. For seven other co-morbidities, at least 1 in 20 women with that condition would have been missed with exclusive reliance on the delivery hospitalisation for co-morbidity diagnoses. Not only would reliance on delivery hospitalisations have resulted in missed cases of co-morbidities, but for many conditions, estimates of readmission rates for women with obstetric co-morbidities would have been underestimated. CONCLUSIONS: An increasing proportion of maternal and child health research is based on large administrative databases. This study provides data that facilitate the assessment of the degree to which important obstetric co-morbidities may be underascertained when using these databases.

2.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31993948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the frequency, patterns, and determinants of readmissions among patients initially hospitalized for an ambulatory care-sensitive condition (ACSC). The degree to which hospitalizations in close temporal proximity cluster has also not been studied. Readmission patterns involving clustering likely reflect different underlying determinants than the same number of readmissions more evenly spaced. OBJECTIVE: To characterize readmission rates, patterns, and predictors among patients initially hospitalized with an ACSC. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of the 2010-2014 Nationwide Readmissions Database. PARTICIPANTS: Non-pregnant patients aged 18-64 years old during initial ACSC hospitalization and who were discharged alive (N = 5,007,820). MAIN MEASURES: Frequency and pattern of 30-day all-cause readmissions, grouped as 0, 1, 2+ non-clustered, and 2+ clustered readmissions. KEY RESULTS: Approximately 14% of patients had 1 readmission, 2.4% had 2+ non-clustered readmissions, and 3.3% patients had 2+ clustered readmissions during the 270-day follow-up. A higher Elixhauser Comorbidity Index was associated with increased risk for all readmission groups, namely with adjusted odds ratios (AORs) ranging from 1.12 to 3.34. Compared to patients aged 80 years and older, those in younger age groups had increased risk of 2+ non-clustered and 2+ clustered readmissions (AOR range 1.27-2.49). Patients with chronic versus acute ACSCs had an increased odds ratio of all readmission groups compared to those with 0 readmissions (AOR range 1.37-2.69). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with 2+ 30-day readmissions, factors were differentially distributed between clustered and non-clustered readmissions. Identifying factors that could predict future readmission patterns can inform primary care in the prevention of readmissions following ACSC-related hospitalizations.

3.
Birth Defects Res ; 111(18): 1436-1447, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In this report, the National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN) examines and compares gastroschisis and omphalocele for a recent 5-year birth cohort using data from 30 population-based birth defect surveillance programs in the United States. METHODS: As a special call for data for the 2019 NBDPN Annual Report, state programs reported expanded data on gastroschisis and omphalocele for birth years 2012-2016. We estimated the overall prevalence (per 10,000 live births) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each defect as well as by maternal race/ethnicity, maternal age, infant sex, and case ascertainment methodology utilized by the program (active vs. passive). We also compared distribution of cases by maternal and infant factors and presence/absence of other birth defects. RESULTS: The overall prevalence estimates (per 10,000 live births) were 4.3 (95% CI: 4.1-4.4) for gastroschisis and 2.1 (95% CI: 2.0-2.2) for omphalocele. Gastroschisis was more frequent among young mothers (<25 years) and omphalocele more common among older mothers (>40 years). Mothers of infants with gastroschisis were more likely to be underweight/normal weight prior to pregnancy and mothers of infants with omphalocele more likely to be overweight/obese. Omphalocele was twice as likely as gastroschisis to co-occur with other birth defects. CONCLUSIONS: This report highlights important differences between gastroschisis and omphalocele. These differences indicate the importance of distinguishing between these defects in epidemiologic assessments. The report also provides additional data on co-occurrence of gastroschisis and omphalocele with other birth defects. This information can provide a basis for future research to better understand these defects.

4.
Int Urogynecol J ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529326

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cost-effectiveness of preoperative pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in identifying women at high risk of surgical failure following apical repair for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). METHODS: A decision tree (TreeAgePro Healthcare software) was designed to compare outcomes and costs of screening with a pelvic MRI versus no screening. For the strategy with MRI, expected surgical outcomes were based on a calculated value of the estimated levator ani subtended volume (eLASV) from previously published work. For the alternative strategy of no MRI, estimates for surgical outcomes were obtained from the published literature. Costs for surgical procedures were estimated using the 2008-2014 National Inpatient Sample (NIS). A cost-effectiveness analysis from a third-party payer perspective was performed with the primary measure of effectiveness defined as avoidance of surgical failure. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to assess how robust the calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was to uncertainty in decision tree estimates and across a range of willingness-to-pay values. RESULTS: A preoperative MRI resulted in a 17% increased chance of successful initial surgery (87% vs. 70%) and a decreased risk of repeat surgery with an ICER of $2298 per avoided cost of surgical failure. When applied to annual expected women undergoing POP surgery, routine screening with preoperative pelvic MRI costs $90 million more, but could avoid 39,150 surgical failures. CONCLUSION: The use of routine preoperative pelvic MRI appears to be cost-effective when employed to identify women at high risk of surgical failure following apical repair for pelvic organ prolapse.

5.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 61(12): 1432-1438, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378936

RESUMO

AIM: This cross-sectional study characterized the prevalence, trends, sociodemographic factors, and clinical factors that are associated with a coded diagnosis of malnutrition (CDM) among hospitalized children with cerebral palsy (CP) in the USA. METHOD: We used data from the 2002 to 2015 National Inpatient Sample database and restricted the analysis to hospitalized children with CP between 2 and 17 years of age. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes for CP, malnutrition, and comorbidities associated with CP were used to characterize hospitalizations for this population. Logistic regression models were conducted to identify the sociodemographic factors and comorbidities associated with a diagnosis of malnutrition. RESULTS: The average documented rate of CDM among hospitalized children with CP was 7.9% and nearly doubled during the study period. The model suggests that younger age, non-white ethnicity, lower income, and non-private insurance/payer status were associated with increased odds of documented malnutrition. Concomitant inpatient diagnoses of epilepsy, dysphagia, scoliosis, reflux, and constipation were associated with higher rates of CDM. INTERPRETATION: The rate of CDM in hospitalized patients with CP is well under the estimated clinical prevalence of 30% to 40%. Multiple sociodemographic, hospital, and clinical factors are associated with higher rates of CDM. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: The documented rate of malnutrition in hospitalized children with cerebral palsy (CP) averaged 7.9% yearly. For hospitalized children with CP, documentation of malnutrition nearly doubled between 2002 and 2015. Economically disadvantaged and minority ethnic groups had a greater likelihood of malnutrition documentation. Inpatient malnutrition documentation was more likely with some comorbidities indicative of greater impairments. Gastrointestinal disorders increased the likelihood of an inpatient-documented diagnosis of malnutrition.

6.
Birth Defects Res ; 111(18): 1365-1379, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many public health surveillance programs utilize hospital discharge data in their estimation of disease prevalence. These databases commonly use the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding scheme, which transitioned from the ICD-9 clinical modification (ICD-9-CM) to ICD-10-CM on October 1, 2015. This study examined this transition's impact on the prevalence of major birth defects among infant hospitalizations. METHODS: Using data from the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality-sponsored National Inpatient Sample, hospitalizations during the first year of life with a discharge date between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2016 were used to estimate the monthly national hospital prevalence of 46 birth defects for the ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM timeframes separately. Survey-weighted Poisson regression was used to estimate 95% confidence intervals for each hospital prevalence. Interrupted time series framework and corresponding segmented regression was used to estimate the immediate change in monthly hospital prevalence following the ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM transition. RESULTS: Between 2012 and 2016, over 21 million inpatient hospitalizations occurred during the first year of life. Among the 46 defects studied, statistically significant decreases in the immediate hospital prevalence of five defects and significant increases in the immediate hospital prevalence of eight defects were observed after the ICD-10-CM transition. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in prevalence were expected based on changes to ICD-10-CM. Observed changes for some conditions may result from variation in monthly hospital prevalence or initial unfamiliarity of coders with ICD-10-CM. These findings may help birth defects surveillance programs evaluate and interpret changes in their data related to the ICD-10-CM transition.

7.
Subst Abus ; : 1-10, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295052

RESUMO

Background: Patients with substance use disorders (SUDs) are more likely to experience serious health problems, high healthcare utilization, and premature death. However, little is known about the contribution of SUDs to medical 30-day readmission risk. We examined the association between SUDs and 30-day all cause readmission among non-pregnant adult in-patients in the US. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study using 2010-2014 data from the Nationwide Readmissions Database. Our primary focus was on opioid use compared to stimulant use (cocaine and amphetamine) identified by ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes in index hospitalizations. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% CI representing the association between substance use and 30-day readmission, overall and stratified by the principal reason for the index hospitalization. Results: Nearly 118 million index hospitalizations were included in the study, 4% were associated with opioid or stimulant use disorder. Readmission rates for users (19.5%) were higher than for nonusers (15.7%), with slight variation by the type of substance used: cocaine (21.8%), opioid (19.0%), and amphetamine (17.5%). After adjusting for key demographic, socioeconomic, clinical, and health system characteristics, SUDs and stimulant use disorders increased the odds of 30-day all-cause readmission by 20%. Conclusions: Reducing the frequency of inpatient readmission is an important goal for improving the quality of care and ensuring proper transition to residential/outpatient care among patients with SUDs. Differences between groups may suggest directions for further investigation into the distinct needs and challenges of hospitalized opioid- and other drug-exposed patients.

8.
Birth Defects Res ; 111(18): 1399-1407, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a rare musculoskeletal birth defect with a prevalence of 2.61 per 10,000 in the United States. There is limited evidence for ambient air pollutants in the etiology of CDH in humans. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the role of maternal exposure to ambient cadmium as a risk factor for CDH (overall and stratified by isolated and non-isolated subtypes) in Florida and whether maternal smoking during pregnancy was an effect modifier of this association. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study using data from the 1999-2012 Florida Birth Defects Registry linked to the National Air Toxic Assessment database. Analyses included chi-square tests; multilevel Poisson regression models to calculate measures of association between cadmium and CDH; and stratified analyses to examine effect modification by maternal smoking status. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 2,591,395 live births including 840 CDH cases. We did not find evidence for an association between maternal exposure to ambient cadmium concentration and CDH. We observed a 24% increased risk of CDH among isolated cases in the highest quartile of cadmium exposure (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00, 1.55). Although we were limited by small sample size for CDH cases, we found that among mothers who smoked during pregnancy, exposure to the highest quartile of cadmium was associated with more than two times higher risk for CDH among overall (95%CI: 1.04, 4.39) and isolated (95%CI: 1.07, 5.57) cases. CONCLUSIONS: Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanism by which maternal ambient cadmium exposure may increase the risk of CDH in offspring, and the extent to which maternal smoking during pregnancy modifies this association.

9.
Birth Defects Res ; 111(18): 1343-1355, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222957

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the extent to which the severity of birth defects could be differentiated using severity of illness (SOI) and risk of mortality (ROM) measures available in national discharge databases. METHODS: Data from the 2012-14 National Inpatient Sample (NIS) was used to identify hospitalizations with one or more major birth defects reported annually to the National Birth Defects Prevention Network using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis codes. Each hospitalization also contained a 4-level SOI and 4-level ROM classification measure. For each birth defect and for each individual birth defect-related ICD-9-CM code, we calculated mean and median SOI and ROM, the proportion of hospitalizations in each level of SOI and ROM, the inpatient mortality rate, and level of agreement between various existing or derived severity proxies in the NIS and the Texas Birth Defects Registry (TBDR). RESULTS: Mean SOI ranged from 1.5 (cleft lip alone) to 3.7 (single ventricle), and mean ROM ranged from 1.1 (cleft lip alone) to 3.9 (anencephaly). As a group, critical congenital heart defects had the highest average number of co-occurring defects, mean SOI, and ROM, whereas orofacial and genitourinary defects had the lowest SOI and ROM. We found strong levels of agreement between TBDR severity classifications and NIS severity classifications defined using Level 3 or 4 SOI or ROM Level 3 or 4. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary investigation demonstrated how severity indices of birth defects could be differentiated and compared to a severity algorithm of an existing surveillance program.

10.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 6(6): ofz216, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249844

RESUMO

Background: The optimal approach for treating outpatient male urinary tract infections (UTIs) is unclear. We studied the current management of male UTI in private outpatient clinics, and we evaluated antibiotic choice, treatment duration, and the outcome of recurrence of UTI. Methods: Visits for all male patients 18 years of age and older during 2011-2015 with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes for UTI or associated symptoms were extracted from the EPIC Clarity Database of 2 family medicine, 2 urology, and 1 internal medicine clinics. For eligible visits in which an antibiotic was prescribed, we extracted data on the antibiotic used, treatment duration, recurrent UTI episodes, and patient medical and surgical history. Results: A total of 637 visits were included for 573 unique patients (mean age 53.7 [±16.7 years]). Fluoroquinolones were the most commonly prescribed antibiotics (69.7%), followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (21.2%), nitrofurantoin (5.3%), and beta-lactams (3.8%). Antibiotic choice was not associated with UTI recurrence. In the overall cohort, longer treatment duration was not significantly associated with UTI recurrence (odds ratio [OR] = 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91-4.21). Longer treatment was associated with increased recurrence after excluding men with urologic abnormalities, immunocompromising conditions, prostatitis, pyelonephritis, nephrolithiasis, and benign prostatic hyperplasia (OR = 2.62; 95% CI, 1.04-6.61). Conclusions: Our study adds evidence that men with UTI without evidence of complicating conditions do not need to be treated for longer than 7 days. Shorter duration of treatment was not associated with increased risk of recurrence. Shorter treatment durations for many infections, including UTI, are becoming more attractive to reduce the risk of resistance, adverse events, and costs.

11.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 54(4): 386-395, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206165

RESUMO

AIMS: The aims of this study were to: examine differences in alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) prevalence, temporal trends and the distribution of socio-demographic factors and comorbidities by sex; and investigate differences in selected inpatient outcomes between women and men with ACM. METHODS: We used the 2002-2014 Nationwide Inpatient Sample databases. Overall and sex-specific rates of ACM were estimated across sociodemographic, clinical, and hospital characteristics. Joinpoint regression was used to estimate temporal trends (annual percent change [APC]) of ACM-related hospitalization by sex and race/ethnicity. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) representing associations between sex and selected ACM outcomes were calculated using survey logistic regression. RESULTS: The rate of ACM among all inpatient men and women was 128 per 100,000 and 17 per 100,000 hospitalizations, respectively. Among women, the rate of ACM remained unchanged during the study period, while for men, there was 1.2% annual reduction from 2002-2010 (APC -1.3, 95% CI: -1.7, -0.8). Women with ACM were more likely than men with ACM to experience depression (AOR=2.24, 95% CI: 2.06-2.43) and anxiety (AOR=1.94, 95% CI: 1.75-2.15), while men with ACM were 21% and 24% more likely than women with ACM to experience 'any heart failure (HF)' and HF with reduced ejection fraction respectively. One in 1,471 hospitalizations were related to ACM with a male-to-female ratio of 8:1. CONCLUSION: Individuals with ACM are at increased likelihood of adverse outcomes. Women with ACM are at increased risk of depression and anxiety, while men are at increased risk of HF.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatia Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alcoolismo/terapia , Cardiomiopatia Alcoólica/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
JSLS ; 23(2)2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148913

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Although trocar site hernias (TSHs) occur in only 1.5% to 1.8% of all laparoscopic procedures, TSHs can present serious postoperative complications. The purpose of this study was to survey surgeons who are active members of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons (SLS) to elicit their experiences with TSHs, including fascial closure preferences. Methods: After reviewing the clinical and epidemiological literature to compile relevant questions, an anonymous survey was designed using Qualtrics web-based software. The survey link was emailed to all SLS members. Descriptive analyses included frequencies, percentages, and χ2 or Fisher's exact tests to assess statistical associations. Results: There were 659 SLS members who completed the survey: 323 general surgeons, 242 gynecologists, 45 colorectal surgeons, 25 bariatric surgeons, and 24 urologists. Nearly 7 in 10 respondents (68.4%) reported at least 1 patient developing a TSH within the previous decade. Compared with other specialties, bariatric surgeons had the smallest proportion of respondents reporting fascial closure for 10- to 12-mm trocars (68%) and the largest proportion indicating no fascial closure for trocars of any size (28%) (P < .01). Among all respondents, 86.6%, 15.3%, and 2.4% close 10- to 12-mm, 8-mm, and 5-mm ports, respectively, without differences according to surgical volume or practice setting. Approximately 6% reported no fascial closure for any size. Conclusion: Port size remains one of the main risk factors for TSH development, with most respondents closing only 10- to 12-mm ports regardless of surgical volume or practice setting. The general trend for port closure for bariatric surgeons is significantly different from that of other surgeons.


Assuntos
Hérnia Ventral/prevenção & controle , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cirurgiões , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Feminino , Hérnia Ventral/epidemiologia , Hérnia Ventral/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(12): 1670-1678, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243626

RESUMO

Objectives (a) Update previous descriptions of trends in ASSB; (b) determine if factors previously associated with ASSB are replicated by updated data; and (c) generate new hypotheses about the occurrence of ASSB and racial inequalities in ASSB mortality. Methods National Center for Health Statistics files (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition) Code W75 to describe race-ethnicity-specific ASSB occurrence. Results (a) ASSB mortality continues to increase significantly; for 1999-2016, 4.4-fold for NHB girls (45.8 per 100,000 in 2016), 3.5-fold for NHB boys (53.8), 2.7-fold for NHW girls (15.8) and 4.0-fold for NHW boys (25.9); (b) F actors previously associated with ASSB (unmarried mothers and mothers with low educational attainment, low infant birth weight, low gestational age, lack of prenatal care, male infant, multiple birth, high birth order) continue to be associated with both overall ASSB and inequalities adversely affecting NHB; (c) (1) geographic differences and similarities in ASSB occurrence support hypotheses related to positive deviance; (2) lower ASSB mortality for births attended by midwives as contrasted to physicians generate hypotheses related to both medical infrastructure and maternal engagement; (3) high rates of ASSB among infants born to teenage mothers generate hypotheses related to the possibility that poor maternal health may be a barrier to ASSB prevention based on education, culture and tradition. Conclusions for Practice These descriptive data may generate new hypotheses and targets for interventions for reducing both ASSB mortality and racial inequalities. Analytic epidemiologic studies designed a priori to do so are required to address these hypotheses.


Assuntos
Asfixia/mortalidade , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Infantil/etnologia , Morte Súbita do Lactente/etnologia , Acidentes Domésticos/mortalidade , Acidentes Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Idade Materna , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 8(4): e12166, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes distress (DD), a type of psychological distress specific to people with diabetes, is strongly associated with difficulties in performing self-care and inability to meet glycemic targets. Despite increased recognition of the need to manage DD, interventions that are both feasible and effective for reducing DD in routine care settings are not yet known. A pilot study showed that health coaching (HC) has some efficacy in addressing DD, but no adequately powered study has implemented a pragmatic research design capable of assessing the real-world effectiveness of HC in reducing DD. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe the rationale and design of an ongoing clinical trial, Coaching and Education for Diabetes Distress trial, that seeks to assess whether HC effectively reduces DD among primary care patients with diabetes and whether HC is more effective than an educational program targeting DD. METHODS: The 2-arm randomized controlled trial is taking place at an academic family medicine practice in Houston, Texas. Both arms will receive usual care, which includes education about DD. In addition, the intervention arm will receive 8 HC sessions over a 5-month period. The primary outcome measure is reduction in DD over a 6-month period. Additional outcome measures include changes in hemoglobin A1c and self-care practices (medication-taking, dietary, and physical activity behaviors). RESULTS: As of March 2019, screening and recruitment are ongoing, and the results are expected by July 2020. CONCLUSIONS: HC is feasible in primary care and has been successfully applied to improving chronic disease self-management and outcomes. This study will provide evidence as to whether it has significant value in addressing important unmet psychological and behavioral needs of patients with diabetes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03617146; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03617146 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/76Va37dbO). INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/12166.

15.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(9): 1614-1621, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935942

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the rates of emergency department (ED) visits and inpatient hospitalizations for genitourinary (GU) complications after spinal cord injury (SCI) using a national sample; to examine which patient and facility factors are associated with inhospital mortality; and to estimate direct medical costs of GU complications after SCI. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional and cost analysis of the 2006 to 2015 National Inpatient Sample and National Emergency Department Sample from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. PARTICIPANTS: SCI-related encounters using various International Classification of Disease, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes. The inpatient sample included 1,796,624 hospitalizations, and the ED sample included 618,118 treat-and-release visits. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The exposure included a GU complication, identified by International Classification of Disease, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification codes 590-599. The outcomes then included an ED visit or hospitalization, death prior to discharge, and direct medical costs estimated from reported hospital charges. RESULTS: For the inpatient sample, we observed a 2.5% annual increase (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-3.2) in the proportion of SCI-related hospitalizations with any GU complication from 2006 to 2011, and a lesser rate of increase of 0.9% (95% CI, 0.4-1.4) each year from 2011 to 2015. Age, level of injury, and payer source were correlated to inhospital mortality. The costs of GU-related health care use exceeded $4 billion over the study period. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the rates and economic burden of health care use associated with GU complications in persons with SCI in the United States. The need to develop strategies to effectively deliver health care to the SCI population for these conditions remains great.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/etiologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/etiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/economia , Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/terapia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/economia , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paraplegia/etiologia , Quadriplegia/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/mortalidade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Prev Med Rep ; 14: 100848, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976486

RESUMO

The high-risk strategy in prevention has remained the preferred approach in health care. High-profile research predominantly emphasizes specific high-risk subgroups such as those who have extremely high cholesterol and super-utilizers of emergency departments. Dr. Geoffrey Rose's alternative population approach, though well established in principle, has failed to come to fruition in primary care research, aside from a few exceptions. The population approach extends intervention efforts to more moderate-risk people, attempting to shift the overall distribution in a positive direction, effecting change in more of the population. Despite requiring more initial investment due to the larger target group, the health-related gains and downstream cost savings through a population strategy may yield greater long-term cost-effectiveness than the high-risk strategy. We describe the example of extending prevention efforts from super-utilizers (e.g. those with ≥3 readmissions per year) to include those who readmit in moderate frequency (1-2 per year) in terms of potential hospital days and associated medical costs averted.

17.
J Am Coll Surg ; 229(1): 38-46.e4, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We compared the rates of stroke, death, and/or MI between men and women, stratified by symptomatic status and procedure type (carotid endarterectomy [CEA] or carotid artery stent [CAS]). STUDY DESIGN: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, crude and propensity-matched rates of the composite end point of stroke/death/MI were estimated. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of stroke/death/MI associated with sex. RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2015, there were 1,242,688 carotid interventions performed (1,083,912 CEA; 158,776 CAS; 515,789 [41.5%] were female patients). Symptomatic admissions comprised 11.3% of the cohort. In-hospital stroke/death/MI rates were more prevalent in men compared with women (4.2% vs 3.9%; p < 0.01). Subgroup analysis revealed symptomatic women vs men had higher rates of stroke after CEA (7.7% vs 6.2%; p < 0.01) and CAS (9.9% vs 7.6%; p < 0.01). Asymptomatic women experienced the same rates of stroke after either CEA (0.3% vs 0.3%; p = 0.051) or CAS (0.4% vs 0.5%; p = 0.09). Propensity-matched logistic regression revealed that symptomatic males vs females had lower odds of stroke after CEA (odds ratio [OR] 0.81; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.91) and CAS (OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.90). Asymptomatic men and women had similar odds of stroke after both CEA (OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.79 to 1.14) and CAS (OR 0.70; 95% CI 0.43 to 1.13). CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest cohort study to date that demonstrates asymptomatic women undergoing CEA or CAS do not have a higher risk of perioperative stroke, death, or MI. Symptomatic men experience lower rates of stroke after CEA or CAS.

18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(9): e14584, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817575

RESUMO

We sought to determine whether black-white gap in mortality exists among hospitalized HIV-positive patients in the United States (US). We hypothesized that in-hospital mortality (IHM) would be similar between black and white HIV-positive patients due to the nationwide availability of HIV services.Our analysis was restricted to hospitalized HIV-positive patients (15-49 years). We used the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) that covered the period from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2014. We employed joinpoint regression to construct temporal trends in IHM overall and within subgroups over the study period. We applied multivariable survey logistic regression to generate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).The total number of HIV-related hospitalizations and IHM decreased over time, with 6914 (3.9%) HIV-related in-hospital deaths in 2002 versus 2070 HIV-related in-hospital deaths (1.9%) in 2014, (relative reduction: 51.2%). HIV-related IHM among blacks declined at a slightly faster rate than in the general population (by 56.8%, from 4.4% to 1.9%). Among whites, the drop was similar to that of the general population (51.2%, from 3.9% to 1.9%). Although IHM rates did not differ between blacks and whites, being black with HIV was independently associated with a 17% elevated odds for IHM (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.11-1.25).In-hospital HIV-related deaths continue to decline among both blacks and whites in the US. Among hospitalized HIV-positive patients black-white disparity still persists, but to a lesser extent than in the general HIV population. Improved access to HIV care is a key to eliminating black-white disparity in HIV-related mortality.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 220(4): 391.e1-391.e16, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a leading cause of pregnancy-related mortality. Previous studies have reported an increased prevalence of sepsis during pregnancy. Despite national campaigns to increase sepsis awareness, there is a lack of pregnancy-specific guidelines. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to provide updated national estimates of the prevalence and trends of sepsis, sepsis-related in-hospital mortality, and factors associated with in-hospital mortality among women with sepsis at delivery. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a serial, cross-sectional analysis using data from the 2002-2015 National Inpatient Sample, the largest publicly available all-payer inpatient database in the United States. We used International Classification of Diseases, ninth edition, Clinical Modification diagnosis and procedure codes to identify the study sample of delivery-associated hospitalizations and to capture diagnoses of sepsis (defined as infection with associated end-organ dysfunction). The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Obstetric comorbidities and pregnancy-related outcomes were also analyzed. Logistic regression was used to explore factors associated with sepsis during pregnancy and, among those with sepsis, to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality. Joinpoint regression was used to estimate the temporal trends in both sepsis and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Of the more than 55 million delivery-associated hospitalizations, 13,129 women met criteria for sepsis, corresponding to a rate of 2.4 per 10,000 deliveries. This rate increased from 1.2 to 3.7 per 10,000 over the study period, representing an annual increase of 6.6% (95% confidence interval, 4.2-9.1). The highest crude rates of sepsis (per 10,000) were among deliveries paid for by Medicare (14.8), deliveries to women aged 40 years or older (8.0), and deliveries to non-Hispanic black women (4.6). Compared with women without sepsis, women with sepsis had a greater than 10-fold increased prevalence of most selected obstetric comorbidities. One in 11 women with sepsis died prior to discharge, compared with 1 death in every 15,411 deliveries without sepsis. The sepsis-related mortality rate decreased 21.8% each year from 2010 through 2015. Maternal age greater than 40 years and nonprivate insurance demonstrated the highest odds of sepsis-related in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: While rates of delivery-associated sepsis have increased, case fatality has decreased.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Sepse/epidemiologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Fatores Etários , Americanos Asiáticos , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Idade Materna , Medicaid , Medicare , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/mortalidade , Prevalência , Sepse/mortalidade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 174(1): 237-248, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30465155

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Breast cancer is the most common and second most deadly cancer for women in the US. Comorbidities like depression exacerbate the burden. This national study provides data on depression and comorbidity for both women and men with breast cancer. METHODS: We conducted a serial cross-sectional analysis of the 2002-2014 National Inpatient Sample, the largest all-payer inpatient discharge database in the United States. We identified patients with primary site breast cancer, and captured information on their concomitant depression and other major chronic comorbidities. Logistic regression was used to generate adjusted odds ratios representing associations between patient and hospital characteristics and depression. Joinpoint regression was used to estimate temporal trends in depression rates. RESULTS: Depression prevalence was higher for women than men, with little difference between cancer subtypes. Comorbidity burden was nearly twice as high for men. From 2002 to 2014, the average number of comorbidities doubled. Depression rates were highest for patients with four or more chronic comorbidities and those with unplanned hospitalizations. Significant yearly increases of 6-10% in depression were also observed. CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer patient depression rates were higher than the general inpatient population with a strong gradient effect between increasing numbers of comorbidities and the odds of depression. Comorbidities, including mental health-related, negatively impact breast cancer prognosis, increasing cancer-specific mortality as well as mortality for other conditions. Unplanned hospitalization episodes in a patient with breast cancer can be noted as an opportunity for mental health screening and intervention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Multimorbidade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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