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1.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): E96-E99, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346581

RESUMO

There are no evidence-based findings to assist professionals with advanced public health and social science degrees in choosing the appropriate academic location. A cross-sectional case study in 2019 was conducted using publicly available online data of full-time, nonclinical, doctoral-level academic faculty in schools of public health (SOPHs) and schools of medicine (SOMs), within one large university system. Analyses included descriptive statistics and generalized linear regression models comparing salaries between school types by academic rank, after gender and race/ethnicity adjustment. The study included 181 faculty members, 35.8% assistant, 34.1% associate, and 30.1% full professors. After accounting for race/ethnicity and gender, SOM assistant and associate professors had 9% (P = .03) and 14% (P = .008) higher mean salaries than SOPH counterparts. Findings suggest slight salary advantages for SOM faculty for early- to mid-career PhDs in one university system. Factors such as start-up packages, time to promotion, and grant funding need further exploration.

2.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; : e14288, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The healthcare burden of pediatric functional gastrointestinal pain disorders (FGIDs) is unclear. Our study aimed to characterize the burden of these hospitalizations in the United States (US). METHODS: We utilized the US National Inpatient Sample from 2002 to 2018 to capture pediatric hospitalizations (ages 4 to 18 years old) with a primary discharge diagnosis of abdominal pain, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, dyspepsia, abdominal migraine, cyclic vomiting syndrome, or fecal incontinence. We calculated the FGID hospitalization prevalence rate, length of stay (LOS), and inflation-adjusted costs annually and assessed for statistically significant trend changes using joinpoint analyses. KEY RESULTS: 22.3 million pediatric hospitalizations were captured, and 1 in 64 pediatric hospitalizations were attributed to a primary FGID hospitalization. The overall FGID hospitalization prevalence rate initially remained stable but decreased significantly from 2013 to 2018. Constipation and abdominal pain hospitalization rates, respectively, increased and decreased significantly over time. Constipation hospitalizations were more prevalent for younger non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics. FGID hospitalization rates stratified by sex were similar. Mean LOS was 2.3 days; average LOS increased significantly from 2002 to 2013 and then stabilized. FGID hospitalization costs averaged $6,216 per admission and increased significantly for all FGIDs except dyspepsia. Endoscopic procedures were the most common interventions. CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES: FGID hospitalization prevalence rates decreased recently, possibly due to national healthcare policy implementation. Nonetheless, constipation admissions increased. LOS was stable in recent years but associated costs-per-hospitalization were increasing over time, probably due to endoscopic procedures. More studies are needed to explain these prevalence and cost trends.

3.
Int J MCH AIDS ; 10(2): 166-173, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386298

RESUMO

Background and Objective: Leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease, is endemic in several regions globally, but commonly regarded as a disease of travelers in the United States (US). The literature on leishmaniasis among hospitalized women in the US is very limited. The aim of this study was to explore trends and risk factors for leishmaniasis among hospitalized women of reproductive age within the US. Methods: We analyzed hospital admissions data from the 2002-2017 Nationwide Inpatient Sample among women aged 15-49 years. We conducted descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses for factors associated with leishmaniasis. Utilizing logistic regression, we assessed the association between sociodemographic and hospital characteristics with leishmaniasis disease among hospitalized women of reproductive age in the US. Joinpoint regression was used to examine trends over time. Results: We analyzed 131,529,239 hospitalizations; among these, 207 cases of leishmaniasis hospitalizations were identified, equivalent to an overall prevalence of 1.57 cases per million during the study period. The prevalence of leishmaniasis was greatest among older women of reproductive age (35-49 years), Hispanics, those with Medicare, and inpatient stay in large teaching hospitals in the Northeast of the US. Hispanic women experienced a statistically significant increased odds of leishmaniasis diagnosis (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.19-4.06), compared to Non-Hispanic (NH) White women. Medicaid and Private Insurance appeared to serve as a protective factor in both unadjusted and adjusted models. We did not observe a statistically significant change in leishmaniasis rates over the study period. Conclusion and Global Health Implications: Although the prevalence of leishmaniasis among women of reproductive age appears to be low in the US, some risk remains. Thus, appropriate educational, public health and policy initiatives are needed to increase clinical awareness and timely diagnosis/treatment of the disease.

4.
Birth Defects Res ; 113(18): 1285-1298, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and congenital heart defects have been reported, however, the proportion of critical congenital heart defects (CCHDs) attributable to unhealthy prepregnancy BMI has not been determined. Our objective was to investigate the association between maternal prepregnancy BMI and CCHDs. METHODS: The Florida Birth Defects Registry was used to identify infants with CCHDs born between 2005-2016. Birth certificate data were used to define the source population and identify perinatal and socio-demographic characteristics. BMI values were categorized as underweight (<18.5), normal weight (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), obese I (30.0-34.9), obese II (35.0-39.9), and obese III (≥40.0). Multi-predictor logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 99% confidence intervals representing the association between maternal prepregnancy BMI and CCHDs. Adjusted population attributable fractions (PAFs) for the aORs were calculated. RESULTS: We observed a significantly increased risk of "any CCHD" in infants born to women at any level of obesity. Among the 12 CCHDs examined, 5 showed a significantly increased risk among mothers in the two highest obesity levels (II & III). Approximately 8% of all CCHDs may be attributed to suboptimal maternal prepregnancy BMI, with the highest total individual CCHD PAFs for pulmonary valve atresia (21.7%) and total anomalous pulmonary venous return (12.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Women with suboptimal prepregnancy BMI are at increased odds of having a child born with a CCHD. We found evidence of a direct dose-response relationship between prepregnancy BMI and odds for CCHD; with variation by CCHD subtype.

5.
Am J Public Health ; 111(S2): S101-S106, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314208

RESUMO

Objectives. To examine age and temporal trends in the proportion of COVID-19 deaths occurring out of hospital or in the emergency department and the proportion of all noninjury deaths assigned ill-defined causes in 2020. Methods. We analyzed newly released (March 2021) provisional COVID-19 death tabulations for the entire United States. Results. Children (younger than 18 years) were most likely (30.5%) and elders aged 64 to 74 years were least likely (10.4%) to die out of hospital or in the emergency department. In parallel, among all noninjury deaths, younger people had the highest proportions coded to symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions, and percentage symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions increased from 2019 to 2020 in all age-race/ethnicity groups. The majority of young COVID-19 decedents were racial/ethnic minorities. Conclusions. The high proportions of all noninjury deaths among children, adolescents, and young adults that were coded to ill-defined causes in 2020 suggest that some COVID-19 deaths were missed because of systemic failures in timely access to medical care for vulnerable young people. Public Health Implications. Increasing both availability of and access to the best hospital care for young people severely ill with COVID-19 will save lives and improve case fatality rates.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Codificação Clínica/normas , Controle de Formulários e Registros/normas , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Adolescente , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Qualidade , Distribuição por Sexo , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 82(2): 257-268, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aims of the study were to (a) determine rates of early, late, and overall 30-day all-cause readmission for women and men with the diagnosis of alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM), (b) examine hospital- and patient-level characteristics associated with the risk of readmission and how these factors differed by sex, and (c) examine the association between sex and in-patient mortality during readmission. METHOD: We conducted a multi-year cross-sectional analysis of adult (≥18 years) inpatient hospitalizations in the United States. Descriptive statistics including frequencies and percentages were used to describe the study population, stratified by sex. We then used Poisson regression with robust error variance estimation to estimate risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) that represented the associations between sex and likelihood of 30-day all-cause readmission and inpatient mortality. RESULTS: Among more than 116 million hospitalizations, there were 53,207 ACM-related hospitalizations (45,573 men and 7,634 women). Thirty-day all-cause readmission rates following an ACM-related index hospitalization were similar between men (20.3%) and women (20.5%). For men and women, cancer, hepatitis, chronic renal failure, cirrhosis, asthma, and anemia were associated with a higher risk of readmission. Although crude in-hospital mortality rates were higher among women (6.6%) than men (4.3%), there were no sex differences in mortality after adjusting for confounders (RR = 1.26, 95% CI [0.88, 1.81]). CONCLUSIONS: Although men are more likely to be hospitalized for ACM, readmission risk is high (approximately 20%) and is similar in men and women following hospitalization for ACM. Hospital care transition programs that include a multidisciplinary approach are needed to help prevent these readmissions and associated morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes in pregnant women has increased in the USA over recent decades. The primary aim of this study was to assess the association between diabetes in pregnancy and maternal near-miss incident, maternal mortality and selected adverse foetal outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis among pregnancy-related hospitalizations in USA between 2002 and 2014. We examined the association between DM and GDM as exposures and maternal in-hospital mortality, maternal cardiac arrest, early onset of delivery, poor foetal growth and stillbirth as the outcome variables. RESULTS: Among the 57.3 million pregnant women in the study population, the prevalence of GDM and DM was 5.4 and 1.3%, respectively. We found that pregnant women with DM were three times more likely to experience cardiac arrest (OR = 3.21; 95% CI = 2.57-4.01) and in-hospital maternal death (OR = 3.05; 95% CI = 2.45-3.79), as compared to those without DM. Among pregnant women with GDM and DM, the risk for early onset of delivery was higher, compared to women without GDM or DM. CONCLUSION: A diagnosis of diabetes prior to pregnancy contributes significantly to the risk of maternal cardiac arrest, maternal mortality and adverse foetal outcomes.

9.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(4)2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879465

RESUMO

Considering the rising global burden of diabetes and its complications, effective interventions for addressing barriers to diabetes self-management are needed. Diabetes distress, a psychological barrier to diabetes self-management, has become increasingly recognised in the literature, but effective and feasible ways of addressing it in routine primary care settings are not known. We present the case of a middle-aged non-Hispanic white American woman with poorly controlled diabetes (haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c): 13.9%) and elevated diabetes distress (baseline Diabetes Distress Scale Score: 2.53) who participated in a health coaching intervention. After the 5-month programme, which included eight 45 minute long sessions with a trained health coach, the patient achieved and sustained a 0.8-point reduction in diabetes distress, an improvement in insulin adherence and a 3.6-point reduction in HbA1c. This case demonstrates a novel approach to managing diabetes distress that entails providing patients a safe, nonjudgemental space to express their feelings and explore challenges with diabetes self-management.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Tutoria , Autogestão , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Autocuidado
10.
Int Urogynecol J ; 32(8): 2185-2193, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660000

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The objective was to determine whether the rate of adnexal surgery varies by route of hysterectomy in women over the age of 65 undergoing hysterectomy for prolapse. We hypothesized that women undergoing vaginal hysterectomy would be less likely to undergo bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) at the time of their hysterectomy for prolapse. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. Our primary outcome was concomitant adnexal surgery performed at the time of hysterectomy, classified into five groups: BSO, unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (USO), bilateral salpingectomy (BS), other adnexal surgery, and no adnexal surgery. The study sample included women aged 65 years and older who underwent hysterectomy between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2014 and with a diagnosis of genital prolapse. RESULTS: Of the 91,292 patients over the age of 65 who underwent a hysterectomy for prolapse, the majority of hysterectomies were vaginal (69%), followed by abdominal (13%), laparoscopic (11%), and robotic (7%). The number of women having a hysterectomy and undergoing a BSO was much lower for vaginal than for other hysterectomy types; 20.3% of women undergoing vaginal hysterectomies had a BSO, compared with 79.2% in abdominal, 81.8% in laparoscopic, and 73.8% in robotic-assisted procedures. Women who received vaginal hysterectomies were five times as likely (RR: 5.02, 95% CI: 4.70-5.35) to have no concomitant adnexal procedure compared with other routes of hysterectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Women over the age of 65 undergoing hysterectomy for prolapse are significantly less likely to have adnexal surgery if undergoing hysterectomy via vaginal route compared with the other routes.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia , Histerectomia Vaginal , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/cirurgia , Salpingectomia
11.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 35(6): 627-634, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the extent to which severe maternal morbidity (SMM) at delivery impacts early and late postpartum readmission. OBJECTIVES: We examined readmission rates for women with and without SMM (and their 18 subtypes) at delivery and characterised the most common medical reasons for readmissions. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study utilising the 2016-2017 Nationwide Readmissions Database among women giving births in the United States. Deliveries were classified according to the presence or absence of 18 SMM indicators defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) diagnosis and procedure codes. The primary outcome of this study was all-cause early (≤7 day) and late (8 to 42 day) postpartum readmission. Survey-weighted Poisson regression with robust error variance was used to generate adjusted risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to investigate the association between SMM and early and late postpartum readmission. Additionally, we compared principal diagnoses codes during readmission hospitalisations among women with and without SMM at delivery. RESULTS: Of the 6 193 852 women examined, 4.9% (n = 4928) with any SMM and 1.4% (n = 83 995) with no SMM were readmitted within 42 days after delivery. After adjusting for obstetric co-morbidities and sociodemographic factors, women with any SMM were 57% (RR 1.57, 95% CI 1.47, 1.67) more likely to have an early readmission and 69% (RR 1.69, 95% CI 1.57, 1.82) more likely to have a late readmission compared to women with no SMM at delivery. However, the risk was attenuated when excluding women with blood transfusion only. Women with and without SMM were readmitted predominantly for obstetric complications and infections. CONCLUSIONS: Women with SMM at delivery were more likely to experience both early and late postpartum readmission, independent of their obstetrical co-morbidity burden and sociodemographic factors.


Assuntos
Readmissão do Paciente , Período Pós-Parto , Transfusão de Sangue , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Morbidade , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Birth Defects Res ; 113(9): 665-675, 2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The proportion of deaths attributed to various causes has not been quantified among infants with birth defects. We sought to describe the causes of neonatal and postneonatal death among infants in the Texas Birth Defects Registry. METHODS: We calculated frequencies and percentages for both underlying causes and all causes (underlying or contributing) of neonatal (0-27 days) and postneonatal (28-364 days) death listed on death certificates among infants born alive with birth defects and delivered in Texas during 1999-2013 (n = 8,389 deaths). Analyses were repeated separately for infants with isolated, multiple, and syndromic defects. RESULTS: After birth defects, the most frequently listed causes of neonatal death were preterm/low birth weight (10%), circulatory system diseases (8%), and sepsis (5%). The leading postneonatal causes of death beyond birth defects were circulatory system diseases (32%), sepsis (11%), and renal failure (7%). CONCLUSIONS: Improved understanding of the causes of mortality among infants with birth defects may help identify priorities for postnatal care. Our results suggest that potentially modifiable causes of death (e.g., circulatory system diseases, sepsis) contribute substantially to mortality in this population. Prioritizing continued improvements in prevention, diagnosis, and management of preventable conditions may reduce mortality among infants born with birth defects.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Texas/epidemiologia
13.
Birth Defects Res ; 113(8): 644-659, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data are lacking regarding the insurance status of adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD). We investigated whether the Affordable Care Act (ACA) impacted insurance status among hospitalized ACHD, identified associated sociodemographic factors, and compared coverage to adults with other chronic childhood conditions. METHODS: Serial cross-sectional analysis of National Inpatient Sample hospitalizations from 2007 to 2016 was performed for patients 18-64 years old. ACHD were identified using ICD-9/10-CM codes and compared to patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), cystic fibrosis (CF), and the general population. Age was dichotomized as 18-25 years (transition aged) or 26-64 years. Groups were compared by era (pre-ACA [January 2007-June 2010]; early-ACA [July 2010-December 2013], which eliminated pre-existing condition exclusions; and full-ACA [January 2014-December 2016]) using interrupted time series and multivariable Poisson regression analyses. RESULTS: Overall, uninsured hospitalizations decreased from pre-ACA (12.0%) to full-ACA (8.5%). After full ACA implementation, ACHD had lower uninsured rates than the general hospitalized population (6.0 vs. 8.6%, p < .01), but higher rates than those with other chronic childhood diseases (SCD [4.5%]; CF [1.6%]). Across ACA eras, transition aged ACHD had higher uninsured rates than older patients (8.9 vs. 7.6%, p < .01), and Hispanic patients remained less insured than other groups. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized ACHD were better insured than the general population but less insured than those with SCD or CF. Full ACA implementation was associated with improved insurance coverage for all groups, but disparities persisted for transition aged and Hispanic patients. Ongoing evaluation of the effects of insurance and health policy on ACHD remains critical to diminish health disparities.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/terapia , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 8(3): 670-677, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia and HIV account for a significant proportion of the global burden of disease and pose severe maternal-fetal risks. There is a dearth of literature regarding racial/ethnic disparities in preeclampsia associated with HIV/AIDS in the US. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from 2002 to 2015 on a cohort of hospitalized pregnant women with or without preeclampsia and HIV. Joinpoint regression models were used to identify trends in the rates of preeclampsia among pregnant women living with or without HIV, stratified by race/ethnicity over the study period. We also assessed the association between preeclampsia and various socio-demographic factors. RESULTS: We analyzed over 60 million pregnancy-related hospitalizations, of which 3665 had diagnoses of preeclampsia and HIV, corresponding to a rate of 0.61 per 10,000. There was an increasing trend in the diagnosis of preeclampsia among hospitalized, pregnant women without HIV across each racial/ethnic category. The highest prevalence of preeclampsia was among non-Hispanic (NH) Blacks, regardless of HIV status. CONCLUSION: The increase in rates of pre-eclampsia between 2002 and 2015 was mostly noted among pregnant women without HIV. Regardless of HIV status, NH-Blacks experienced the highest discharge prevalence of preeclampsia.

15.
Birth Defects Res ; 113(2): 189-202, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal disorder at birth and is often accompanied by structural birth defects. Current data on major structural defects in this population are limited. METHODS: States and territorial population-based surveillance programs submitted data on identified cases of Down syndrome and identified structural birth defects during 2013-2017. We estimated prevalence by program type and maternal and infant characteristics. Among programs with active case ascertainment, we estimated the prevalence of birth defects by organ system and for specific defects by maternal age (<35, ≥35) and infant sex. RESULTS: We identified 13,376 cases of Down syndrome. Prevalence among all programs was 12.7 per 10,000 live births. Among these children, 75% had at least one reported co-occurring birth defect diagnosis code. Among 6,210 cases identified by active programs, 66% had a cardiovascular defect with septal defects being the most common: atrial (32.5%), ventricular (20.6%), and atrioventricular (17.4%). Defect prevalence differed by infant sex more frequently than by maternal age. For example, atrioventricular septal defects were more common in female children (20.1% vs. 15.1%) while limb deficiencies were more prevalent in male children (0.4% vs. 0.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides updated prevalence estimates for structural defects, including rare defects, among children with Down syndrome using one of the largest and most recent cohorts to date. These data may aid clinical care and surveillance.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down , Criança , Síndrome de Down/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Nascido Vivo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Idade Materna , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Prevalência
16.
Parasite Epidemiol Control ; 11: e00167, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743081

RESUMO

Background: American trypanosomiasis, commonly referred to as Chagas disease, is caused by a single cell protozoan known as Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). Although those affected are mainly in Latin America, Chagas has been detected in the United States (US), Canada and in many European countries due to migration. Few studies have explored the epidemiology of Chagas within the US or changes in disease burden over the past decade. The objective of this study was to explore the trends and associated characteristics for Chagas disease among hospitalized women of reproductive age in the US. Methods: We analyzed admissions data including socio-demographic and hospital characteristics for inpatient hospitalization for women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in the US from 2002 through 2017. We employed Joinpoint regression analysis to determine trends in the prevalence of Chagas disease over this period. Results: A total of 487 hospitalizations of Chagas disease were identified, corresponding to 3.7 per million hospitalizations over the study period. The rate statistically increased from 1.6 per million in 2002 to 7.6 per million hospitalizations in 2017. Chagas was most prevalent among older women, Hispanics and those in the highest zip income bracket. The in-hospital mortality rate was about 10 times greater among women with Chagas compared to those without the condition (3.1% versus 0.3%), and the condition tended to be clustered in women treated at large, urban teaching hospitals in the Northeastern region of the US. Conclusion: Chagas disease diagnosis appears to be increasing among hospitalized women of reproductive age in the US with a 10-fold elevated risk of mortality.

17.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The increase in neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) has underscored the need for NAS surveillance programs, but many rely on passive surveillance using unverified diagnosis codes. Few studies have evaluated the validity of these codes, and no study has assessed the recently proposed Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) case definition. The Florida Birth Defects Registry investigated the accuracy of International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification codes related to NAS (P96.1 and P04.49) and assessed the sensitivity of the CSTE case definition. METHODS: We identified a sample of infants born during 2016 coded with P96.1 and/or P04.49. Record review was completed for 128 cases coded with P96.1, 68 with P04.49, and 7 with both codes. Lacking consensus regarding a gold standard definition of NAS, we used clinical data to classify each case using the Florida and CSTE definitions. The code-specific accuracy was measured by using the positive predictive value (PPV). The clinical characteristics indicative of NAS were compared for case classification based on both definitions. RESULTS: By using the Florida definition, the overall PPV was 68% but varied by code: 95.3% for P96.1 and 13.2% for P04.49. The overall (47.8%) and code-specific PPVs were lower by using the CSTE definition. Comparison of clinical characteristics demonstrated that 60.7% of cases classified as no NAS by using the CSTE definition had robust clinical signs of NAS. In our sample, the CSTE case definition underestimated NAS prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Only the P96.1 International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification code displayed high accuracy. Discordance in NAS case definitions and surveillance methodologies may result in erroneous comparisons and conclusions that negatively impact NAS-related surveillance and research.


Assuntos
Classificação Internacional de Doenças/normas , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/diagnóstico , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Feminino , Florida , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/classificação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações
18.
World J Surg ; 44(12): 3999-4005, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appendicitis is the most common extra-uterine surgical emergency requiring immediate intervention during pregnancy. However, risks for mortality and morbidity among pregnant women with appendicitis remain poorly understood. This study was conducted to determine the temporal trends of appendicitis in pregnant women, and to calculate the risk of maternal-fetal mortality and near-miss marker (i.e., cardiac arrest) among pregnant women in general, and by race/ethnicity. METHODS: We conducted this retrospective study using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2015. Joinpoint regression was used to estimate and describe temporal changes in the rates of all and acute appendicitis during the 14-year study period. We also estimated the risk of cardiac arrest, maternal, and fetal mortality among mothers of various racial/ethnic groups with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Within each group, patients without acute appendicitis were the referent category. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Out of the 58 million pregnancy hospitalizations during the study period, 63,145 cases (10.74 per 10,000 hospitalizations) were for acute appendicitis. There was a 5% decline (95% CI: - 5.1, - 5.0) in the rate of appendicitis hospitalizations over the period of the study. After adjusting for covariates, pregnant mothers with acute appendicitis had increased likelihood when compared to those without acute appendicitis to suffer fetal loss (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.85-2.28) and nearly fivefold increase for inpatient maternal death. In conclusion, appendicitis during pregnancy remains an important cause of in-hospital maternal-fetal mortality overall and regardless of race/ethnicity.


Assuntos
Apendicectomia/efeitos adversos , Apendicite/cirurgia , Morte Fetal/etiologia , Mortalidade Fetal , Parada Cardíaca/complicações , Mortalidade Materna , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Apendicite/mortalidade , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Medicare , Gravidez , Gestantes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Ann Epidemiol ; 52: 77-85.e2, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771457

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Annually, 1%-2% of hospitalized patients are discharged against medical advice (AMA), positioning them at an increased risk of readmission, morbidity, and mortality. Our study aim was to examine 30-day all-cause readmission rates and estimate readmission odds among AMA discharges in the United States, across clinically distinct diagnostic subgroups. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, serial cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2010-2017 Nationwide Readmissions Database. Descriptive statistics and 30-day all-cause readmission rates for hospitalizations among adults aged 18 years or older were estimated by major diagnostic subgroup, discharge disposition, and patient and hospital characteristics. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using multipredictor logistic regression. RESULTS: We found the AMA discharge to be an independent predictor of hospital readmission within 30 days, with a 25.6% readmission rate and an overall adjusted likelihood of readmission that was almost double to quadruple that of routine discharges. Furthermore, although hospitalizations experienced decreased odds of readmission after the Hospital Readmission Reduction Program implementation (October 1, 2012), our results demonstrate that the Hospital Readmission Reduction Program did not modify the impact of an AMA discharge on readmission. CONCLUSION: These findings have implications for practice, policies, and interventions aimed at improving care quality, preventing AMA discharge, and reducing hospital readmissions in inpatient settings.


Assuntos
Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Circulation ; 142(12): 1132-1147, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital heart disease (CHD) accounts for ≈40% of deaths in US children with birth defects. Previous US data from 1999 to 2006 demonstrated an overall decrease in CHD mortality. Our study aimed to assess current trends in US mortality related to CHD from infancy to adulthood over the past 19 years and determine differences by sex and race/ethnicity. METHODS: We conducted an analysis of death certificates from 1999 to 2017 to calculate annual CHD mortality by age at death, race/ethnicity, and sex. Population estimates used as denominators in mortality rate calculations for infants were based on National Center for Health Statistics live birth data. Mortality rates in individuals ≥1 year of age used US Census Bureau bridged-race population estimates as denominators. We used joinpoint regression to characterize temporal trends in all-cause mortality, mortality resulting directly attributable to and related to CHD by age, race/ethnicity, and sex. RESULTS: There were 47.7 million deaths with 1 in 814 deaths attributable to CHD (n=58 599). Although all-cause mortality decreased 16.4% across all ages, mortality resulting from CHD declined 39.4% overall. The mean annual decrease in CHD mortality was 2.6%, with the largest decrease for those >65 years of age. The age-adjusted mortality rate decreased from 1.37 to 0.83 per 100 000. Males had higher mortality attributable to CHD than females throughout the study, although both sexes declined at a similar rate (≈40% overall), with a 3% to 4% annual decrease between 1999 and 2009, followed by a slower annual decrease of 1.4% through 2017. Mortality resulting from CHD significantly declined among all races/ethnicities studied, although disparities in mortality persisted for non-Hispanic Blacks versus non-Hispanic Whites (mean annual decrease 2.3% versus 2.6%, respectively; age-adjusted mortality rate 1.67 to 1.05 versus 1.35 to 0.80 per 100 000, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Although overall US mortality attributable to CHD has decreased over the past 19 years, disparities in mortality persist for males in comparison with females and for non-Hispanic Blacks in comparison with non-Hispanic Whites. Determining factors that contribute to these disparities such as access to quality care, timely diagnosis, and maintenance of insurance will be important moving into the next decade.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Longevidade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/etnologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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