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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2581, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197173

RESUMO

Despite existing reports on differential DNA methylation in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity, our understanding of its functional relevance remains limited. Here we show the effect of differential methylation in the early phases of T2D pathology by a blood-based epigenome-wide association study of 4808 non-diabetic Europeans in the discovery phase and 11,750 individuals in the replication. We identify CpGs in LETM1, RBM20, IRS2, MAN2A2 and the 1q25.3 region associated with fasting insulin, and in FCRL6, SLAMF1, APOBEC3H and the 15q26.1 region with fasting glucose. In silico cross-omics analyses highlight the role of differential methylation in the crosstalk between the adaptive immune system and glucose homeostasis. The differential methylation explains at least 16.9% of the association between obesity and insulin. Our study sheds light on the biological interactions between genetic variants driving differential methylation and gene expression in the early pathogenesis of T2D.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Simulação por Computador , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 387, 2018 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29374233

RESUMO

DNA methylation age is an accurate biomarker of chronological age and predicts lifespan, but its underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. In this genome-wide association study of 9907 individuals, we find gene variants mapping to five loci associated with intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration (IEAA) and gene variants in three loci associated with extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration (EEAA). Mendelian randomization analysis suggests causal influences of menarche and menopause on IEAA and lipoproteins on IEAA and EEAA. Variants associated with longer leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT) paradoxically confer higher IEAA (P < 2.7 × 10-11). Causal modeling indicates TERT-specific and independent effects on LTL and IEAA. Experimental hTERT-expression in primary human fibroblasts engenders a linear increase in DNA methylation age with cell population doubling number. Together, these findings indicate a critical role for hTERT in regulating the epigenetic clock, in addition to its established role of compensating for cell replication-dependent telomere shortening.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(6): 888-902, 2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198723

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of genetic variants associated with blood pressure (BP), but sequence variation accounts for a small fraction of the phenotypic variance. Epigenetic changes may alter the expression of genes involved in BP regulation and explain part of the missing heritability. We therefore conducted a two-stage meta-analysis of the cross-sectional associations of systolic and diastolic BP with blood-derived genome-wide DNA methylation measured on the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip in 17,010 individuals of European, African American, and Hispanic ancestry. Of 31 discovery-stage cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides, 13 replicated after Bonferroni correction (discovery: N = 9,828, p < 1.0 × 10-7; replication: N = 7,182, p < 1.6 × 10-3). The replicated methylation sites are heritable (h2 > 30%) and independent of known BP genetic variants, explaining an additional 1.4% and 2.0% of the interindividual variation in systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. Bidirectional Mendelian randomization among up to 4,513 individuals of European ancestry from 4 cohorts suggested that methylation at cg08035323 (TAF1B-YWHAQ) influences BP, while BP influences methylation at cg00533891 (ZMIZ1), cg00574958 (CPT1A), and cg02711608 (SLC1A5). Gene expression analyses further identified six genes (TSPAN2, SLC7A11, UNC93B1, CPT1A, PTMS, and LPCAT3) with evidence of triangular associations between methylation, gene expression, and BP. Additional integrative Mendelian randomization analyses of gene expression and DNA methylation suggested that the expression of TSPAN2 is a putative mediator of association between DNA methylation at cg23999170 and BP. These findings suggest that heritable DNA methylation plays a role in regulating BP independently of previously known genetic variants.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Tetraspaninas/genética , Idoso , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Estudos Transversais , Epigênese Genética/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
4.
Nat Genet ; 49(7): 1113-1119, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28530674

RESUMO

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although 58 genomic regions have been associated with CAD thus far, most of the heritability is unexplained, indicating that additional susceptibility loci await identification. An efficient discovery strategy may be larger-scale evaluation of promising associations suggested by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Hence, we genotyped 56,309 participants using a targeted gene array derived from earlier GWAS results and performed meta-analysis of results with 194,427 participants previously genotyped, totaling 88,192 CAD cases and 162,544 controls. We identified 25 new SNP-CAD associations (P < 5 × 10-8, in fixed-effects meta-analysis) from 15 genomic regions, including SNPs in or near genes involved in cellular adhesion, leukocyte migration and atherosclerosis (PECAM1, rs1867624), coagulation and inflammation (PROCR, rs867186 (p.Ser219Gly)) and vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation (LMOD1, rs2820315). Correlation of these regions with cell-type-specific gene expression and plasma protein levels sheds light on potential disease mechanisms.


Assuntos
Artérias/patologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Aterosclerose/genética , Adesão Celular/genética , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Código das Histonas , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores de Risco
5.
Curr Opin Lipidol ; 28(2): 104-112, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28207434

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified ∼60 loci for coronary artery disease (CAD). Through genetic risk scores (GRSs), investigators are leveraging this genomic information to gain insights on both the fundamental mechanisms driving these associations as well as their utility in improving risk prediction. RECENT FINDINGS: GRSs of CAD track with the earliest atherosclerosis lesions in the coronary including fatty streaks and uncomplicated raised lesions. In multiple cohort studies, they predict incident CAD events independent of all traditional and lifestyle risk factors. The incorporation of SNPs with suggestive but not genome-wide association in GWAS into GRSs often increases the strength of these associations. GRS may also predict recurrent events and identify patients most likely to respond to statins. The effect of the GRS on discrimination metrics remains modest but the minimal degree of improvement needed for clinical utility is unknown. SUMMARY: Most novel loci for CAD identified through GWAS facilitate the formation of coronary atherosclerosis and stratify individuals based on their underlying burden of coronary atherosclerosis. GRSs may one day be routinely used in clinical practice to not only assess the risk of incident events but also to predict who will respond best to established prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Genome Biol ; 17(1): 255, 2016 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27955697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic low-grade inflammation reflects a subclinical immune response implicated in the pathogenesis of complex diseases. Identifying genetic loci where DNA methylation is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation may reveal novel pathways or therapeutic targets for inflammation. RESULTS: We performed a meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), which is a sensitive marker of low-grade inflammation, in a large European population (n = 8863) and trans-ethnic replication in African Americans (n = 4111). We found differential methylation at 218 CpG sites to be associated with CRP (P < 1.15 × 10-7) in the discovery panel of European ancestry and replicated (P < 2.29 × 10-4) 58 CpG sites (45 unique loci) among African Americans. To further characterize the molecular and clinical relevance of the findings, we examined the association with gene expression, genetic sequence variants, and clinical outcomes. DNA methylation at nine (16%) CpG sites was associated with whole blood gene expression in cis (P < 8.47 × 10-5), ten (17%) CpG sites were associated with a nearby genetic variant (P < 2.50 × 10-3), and 51 (88%) were also associated with at least one related cardiometabolic entity (P < 9.58 × 10-5). An additive weighted score of replicated CpG sites accounted for up to 6% inter-individual variation (R2) of age-adjusted and sex-adjusted CRP, independent of known CRP-related genetic variants. CONCLUSION: We have completed an EWAS of chronic low-grade inflammation and identified many novel genetic loci underlying inflammation that may serve as targets for the development of novel therapeutic interventions for inflammation.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Epigênese Genética , Inflamação/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Afro-Americanos , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Motivos de Nucleotídeos/genética
7.
PLoS One ; 11(11): e0166994, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27861582

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The correlation between the extent of fatty streaks, more advanced atherosclerotic lesions, and community rates of coronary artery disease (CAD) is substantially higher for the coronary artery compared to the aorta. We sought to determine whether a genetic basis contributes to these differences. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We conducted a cluster analysis of 6 subclinical atherosclerosis phenotypes documented in 564 white participants of the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth study including the extent of fatty streaks and raised lesions in the coronary artery (CF and CR), thoracic aorta (TF and TR), and abdominal aorta (AF and AR) followed by a genetic association analysis of the same phenotypes. Our cluster analysis grouped all raised lesions and fatty streaks in the coronary into one cluster (CF, CR, TR, and AR) and the fatty streaks in the aorta into a second cluster (TF and AF). We found a genetic risk score of high-risk alleles at 57 susceptibility loci for CAD to be variably associated with the phenotypes in the first cluster (OR: 1.30 p = 0.009 for being in top quartile of degree of involvement of CF, 1.34 p = 0.005 for CR, 1.25: p = 0.11 for TR, and 1.19 p = 0.08 for AR) but not at all with the phenotypes in the second cluster (OR: 1.01, p = 0.95 for TF and 0.98, p = 0.82 for AF). CONCLUSIONS: The genetic determinants of fatty streaks in the aorta do not appear to overlap substantially with the genetic determinants of fatty streaks in the coronary as well as raised lesions in both the coronary and the aorta. These findings may explain why a larger fraction of fatty streaks in the aorta are less likely to progress to raised lesions compared to the coronary artery.


Assuntos
Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Vasos Coronários/metabolismo , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nat Genet ; 48(10): 1171-1184, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27618452

RESUMO

To dissect the genetic architecture of blood pressure and assess effects on target organ damage, we analyzed 128,272 SNPs from targeted and genome-wide arrays in 201,529 individuals of European ancestry, and genotypes from an additional 140,886 individuals were used for validation. We identified 66 blood pressure-associated loci, of which 17 were new; 15 harbored multiple distinct association signals. The 66 index SNPs were enriched for cis-regulatory elements, particularly in vascular endothelial cells, consistent with a primary role in blood pressure control through modulation of vascular tone across multiple tissues. The 66 index SNPs combined in a risk score showed comparable effects in 64,421 individuals of non-European descent. The 66-SNP blood pressure risk score was significantly associated with target organ damage in multiple tissues but with minor effects in the kidney. Our findings expand current knowledge of blood pressure-related pathways and highlight tissues beyond the classical renal system in blood pressure regulation.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Células Cultivadas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/patologia , Análise em Microsséries , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
9.
PLoS Genet ; 11(5): e1005202, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26020271

RESUMO

To functionally link coronary artery disease (CAD) causal genes identified by genome wide association studies (GWAS), and to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis, we have used chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) with the CAD associated transcription factor TCF21 in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC). Analysis of identified TCF21 target genes for enrichment of molecular and cellular annotation terms identified processes relevant to CAD pathophysiology, including "growth factor binding," "matrix interaction," and "smooth muscle contraction." We characterized the canonical binding sequence for TCF21 as CAGCTG, identified AP-1 binding sites in TCF21 peaks, and by conducting ChIP-Seq for JUN and JUND in HCASMC confirmed that there is significant overlap between TCF21 and AP-1 binding loci in this cell type. Expression quantitative trait variation mapped to target genes of TCF21 was significantly enriched among variants with low P-values in the GWAS analyses, suggesting a possible functional interaction between TCF21 binding and causal variants in other CAD disease loci. Separate enrichment analyses found over-representation of TCF21 target genes among CAD associated genes, and linkage disequilibrium between TCF21 peak variation and that found in GWAS loci, consistent with the hypothesis that TCF21 may affect disease risk through interaction with other disease associated loci. Interestingly, enrichment for TCF21 target genes was also found among other genome wide association phenotypes, including height and inflammatory bowel disease, suggesting a functional profile important for basic cellular processes in non-vascular tissues. Thus, data and analyses presented here suggest that study of GWAS transcription factors may be a highly useful approach to identifying disease gene interactions and thus pathways that may be relevant to complex disease etiology.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Aterosclerose/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/biossíntese , Sítios de Ligação , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Vasos Coronários/citologia , Vasos Coronários/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/genética , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo
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