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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(10)2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422916

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder. The neurodegeneration leading to incapacitating motor abnormalities mainly occurs in the nigrostriatal pathway due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Several animal models have been developed not only to better understand the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration but also to test the potential of emerging disease-modifying therapies. However, despite aging being the main risk factor for developing idiopathic PD, most of the studies do not use aged animals. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the effect of aging in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced animal model of PD. For this, female young adult and aged rats received a unilateral injection of 6-OHDA into the medial forebrain bundle. Subsequently, the impact of aging on 6-OHDA-induced effects on animal welfare, motor performance, and nigrostriatal integrity were assessed. The results showed that aging had a negative impact on animal welfare after surgery. Furthermore, 6-OHDA-induced impairments on skilled motor function were significantly higher in aged rats when compared with their younger counterparts. Nigrostriatal histological analysis further revealed an increased 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic cell loss in the SNpc of aged animals when compared to young animals. Overall, our results demonstrate a higher susceptibility of aged animals to 6-OHDA toxic insult.

2.
Biomed Mater ; 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396889

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition of the central nervous system (CNS), in which traditional treatments are largely ineffective due to the complex nature of the injured tissue. Therefore, biomaterial-based systems have been developed as possible alternative strategies to repair the damaged tissue. In the present study, we aimed to design bioactive agents loaded scaffolds composed of two layers with distinct physical properties to improve tissue regeneration. An electrospun layer with aligned nanofibers was made of collagen Type-I, poly(lactide-co-glycolide) and laminin to promote cell attachment of mesenchymal-like stem cells toward the direction of the fibers while collagen-based second layer fabricated by a plastic compression to acts as a releasing system for NT-3 and ChABC, so axonal growth could be stimulated. Results showed that a source of MSC-like cells, Adipose Tissue derived Stem Cells (ASCs) cultured on the fibrous layer of the matrices were able to adhere and proliferate, where the aligned fibers promoted the cell growth in an organized way. Furthermore, the bilayered matrices also promoted DRGs neurite outgrowth. The bilayered matrice with Col/PLGA+laminin top layer appears to promote higher neurite growth. Collectively, the designed constructs show promising the structural properties and biological performance for being employed as a scaffold for engineering the spinal cord tissue.

3.
Environ Microbiol ; 2020 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337764

RESUMO

Trebouxia sp. TR9 and Coccomyxa simplex are desiccation-tolerant microalgae with flexible cell walls, which undergo species-specific remodelling during dehydration-rehydration (D/R) due to their distinct ultrastructure and biochemical composition. Here, we tested the hypothesis that extracellular polysaccharides excreted by each microalga could be quantitatively and/or qualitatively modified by D/R. Extracellular polysaccharides were analysed by size exclusion and anion exchange chromatography, specific stains after gel electrophoresis and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of trimethylsilyl derivatives (to determine their monosaccharide composition). The structure of a TR9-sulfated polymer was deduced from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. In addition, sugar-sulfotransferase encoding genes were identified in both microalgae, and their expression was measured by RT-qPCR. D/R did not alter the polydispersed profile of extracellular polysaccharides in either microalga but did induce quantitative changes in several peaks. Furthermore, medium-low-sized uronic acid-containing polysaccharides were almost completely substituted by higher molecular mass carbohydrates after D/R. Sulfated polysaccharide(s) were detected, for the first time, in the extracellular polymeric substances of both microalgae, but only increased significantly in TR9 after cyclic D/R, which induced a sugar-sulfotransferase gene and accumulated sulfated ß-D-galactofuranan(s). Biochemical remodelling of extracellular polysaccharides in aeroterrestrial desiccation-tolerant microalgae is species-specific and seems to play a role in the response to changes in environmental water availability.

4.
Electrophoresis ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147828

RESUMO

The major goal of this study was to determine the affinity pattern of the terbutaline (TB) enantiomers toward α-, ß-, γ-, and heptakis(2,3-di-O-acetyl)-ß-cyclodextrins and using NMR spectroscopy for the understanding of the fine mechanisms of interaction between the cyclodextrins (CD) and TB enantiomers. It was shown once again that CE in combination with NMR spectroscopy represents a sensitive tool to study the affinity patterns and structure of CD complexes with chiral guests. Opposite affinity patterns of TB enantiomers toward native α- and ß-CDs were associated with significant differences between the structure of the related complexes in solution. In particular, the complex between TB enantiomers and α-CD was of the external type, whereas an inclusion complex was formed between TB enantiomers and ß-CD. One of the possible structures of the complex between TB and heptakis(2,3-di-O-acetyl)-ß-CD (HDA-ß-CD) was quite similar to that of TB and ß-CD, although the chiral recognition pattern and enantioselectivity of TB complexation with these two CDs were very different.

5.
Brain Res ; 1732: 146700, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032613

RESUMO

The central nervous system (CNS) has a limited auto-regeneration capacity, which makes it challenging for the development of new therapies. Previous studies from our lab have demonstrated the applicability of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) secretome as a possible therapeutic tool for CNS. Astrocytes, glial cells present in all brain regions, are important players in brain function through their vast influence in extracellular homeostasis, neuro-vascular regulation, synaptic modulation and neurogenesis. Thus, in the present work, we aimed to evaluate the specific impact of MSCs secretome on hippocampal proliferation and astrocyte morphology, in both WT and dnSNARE mice, a transgenic model that presents impaired astrocytic exocytosis and consequently impaired astrocytic function. Results demonstrated increased levels of proliferation for WT when treated with secretome. Additionally, it was possible to observe that dnSNARE animals injected with hBM-MSCs secretome disclosed increased levels of proliferating GFAP stained cells at the SGZ. Morphometrical evaluation found increased process hypertrophy and branching of dnSNARE astrocytes when treated with secretome. These results are closely related with the trophic factors present in the secretome, namely FGF-2, BDNF, GDNF, IGF-1, VEGF, CADH2, PEDF and miR-16. Moreover, the impaired exocytosis of astrocytes may also have implications for the response to the proliferative stimulus, given the established autocrine signaling through this mechanism.

6.
Cells ; 9(2)2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012897

RESUMO

Parkinson's Disease (PD) is characterized by the massive loss of dopaminergic neurons, leading to the appearance of several motor impairments. Current pharmacological treatments, such as the use of levodopa, are yet unable to cure the disease. Therefore, there is a need for novel strategies, particularly those that can combine in an integrated manner neuroprotection and neuroregeneration properties. In vitro and in vivo models have recently revealed that the secretome of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) holds a promising potential for treating PD, given its effects on neural survival, proliferation, differentiation. In the present study, we aimed to access the impact of human bone marrow MSCs (hBM-MSCs) secretome in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) PD model when compared to levodopa administration, by addressing animals' motor performance, and substantia nigra (SN), and striatum (STR) histological parameters by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression. Results revealed that hBM-MSCs secretome per se appears to be a modulator of the dopaminergic system, enhancing TH-positive cells expression (e.g., dopaminergic neurons) and terminals both in the SN and STR when compared to the untreated group 6-OHDA. Such finding was positively correlated with a significant amelioration of the motor outcomes of 6-OHDA PD animals (assessed by the staircase test). Thus, the present findings support hBM-MSCs secretome administration as a potential therapeutic tool in treating PD, and although we suggest candidate molecules (Trx1, SEMA7A, UCHL1, PEDF, BDNF, Clusterin, SDF-1, CypA, CypB, Cys C, VEGF, DJ-1, Gal-1, GDNF, CDH2, IL-6, HSP27, PRDX1, UBE3A, MMP-2, and GDN) and possible mechanisms of hBM-MSCs secretome-mediated effects, further detailed studies are needed to carefully and clearly define which players may be responsible for its therapeutic actions. By doing so, it will be reasonable to presume that potential treatments that can, per se, or in combination modulate or slow PD may lead to a rational design of new therapeutic or adjuvant strategies for its functional modeling and repair.

7.
Eur J Neurosci ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958881

RESUMO

Animal models of human diseases are crucial experimental tools to investigate the mechanisms involved in disease pathogenesis and to develop new therapies. In spite of the numerous animal models currently available that reproduce several neuropathological features of Parkinson disease (PD), it is challenging to have one that consistently recapitulates human PD conditions in both motor behaviors and biochemical pathological outcomes. Given that, we have implemented a new paradigm to expose rats to a chronic low dose of paraquat (PQ), using osmotic minipumps and characterized the developed pathologic features over time. The PQ exposure paradigm used lead to a rodent model of PD depicting progressive nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration, characterized by a 41% significant loss of dopaminergic neuron in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), a significant decrease of 18% and 40% of dopamine levels in striatum at week 5 and 8, respectively, and a significant 1.5-fold decrease in motor performance. We observed a significant increase of microglia activation state, sustained levels of α-synucleinopathy and increased oxidative stress markers in the SNpc. In summary, this is an explorative study that allowed to characterize an improved PQ-based rat model that recapitulates cardinal features of PD and may represent an attractive tool to investigate several mechanisms underlying the various aspects of PD pathogenesis as well as for the validation of the efficacy of new therapeutic approaches that targets different mechanisms involved in PD neurodegeneration.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737616

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a selective loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the human midbrain causing motor dysfunctions. The exact mechanism behind dopaminergic cell death is still not completely understood and, so far, no cure or neuroprotective treatment for PD is available. Recent studies have brought attention to the variety of bioactive molecules produced by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), generally referred to as the secretome. Herein, we evaluated whether human MSCs-bone marrow derived (hBMSCs) secretome would be beneficial in a PD pre-clinical model, when compared directly with cell transplantation of hBMSCs alone. We used a 6-hydroxydpomanie (6-OHDA) rat PD model, and motor behavior was evaluated at different time points after treatments (1, 4, and 7 weeks). The impact of the treatments in the recovery of DA neurons was estimated by determining TH-positive neuronal densities in the substantia nigra and fibers in the striatum, respectively, at the end of the behavioral characterization. Furthermore, we determined the effect of the hBMSCs secretome on the neuronal survival of human neural progenitors in vitro, and characterized the secretome through proteomic-based approaches. This work demonstrates that the injection of hBMSCs secretome led to the rescue of DA neurons, when compared to transplantation of hBMSCs themselves, which can explain the recovery of secretome-injected animals' behavioral performance in the staircase test. Moreover, we observed that hBMSCs secretome induces higher levels of in vitro neuronal differentiation. Finally, the proteomic analysis revealed that hBMSCs secrete important exosome-related molecules, such as those related with the ubiquitin-proteasome and histone systems. Overall, this work provided important insights on the potential use of hBMSCs secretome as a therapeutic tool for PD, and further confirms the importance of the secreted molecules rather than the transplantation of hBMSCs for the observed positive effects. These could be likely through normalization of defective processes in PD, namely proteostasis or altered gene transcription, which lately can lead to neuroprotective effects.

9.
J Chromatogr A ; 1608: 460407, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383356

RESUMO

A chiral methodology was developed for the first time to ensure the quality control of ivabradine, a novel anti-ischemic and heart rate lowering drug commercialized as a pure enantiomer. With this aim, electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) was employed and the enantiomeric separation of ivabradine was investigated using different anionic and neutral cyclodextrins (CDs) and amino acid-based chiral ionic liquids (CILs) as sole chiral selectors. Baseline separation was only achieved with sulfated CDs, and the best enantiomeric resolution was obtained with sulfated-γ-CD. Under the optimized conditions, ivabradine enantiomers were separated in 6 min with a resolution of 2.7. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments showed a 1:1 stoichiometry for the enantiomer-CD complexes and apparent and averaged equilibrium constants were determined. The combined use of sulfated-γ-CD and different CILs as dual separation systems was investigated, resulting in a significant increase in the resolution. The use of 5 mM tetrabutylammonium-aspartic acid ([TBA][L-Asp]) in 50 mM formate buffer (pH 2.0) containing 4 mM sulfated-γ-CD were considered the best conditions in terms of resolution and migration times for ivabradine enantiomers. Nevertheless, as no inversion of the enantiomer migration order was observed when combining CILs and sulfated-γ-CD and a good enantiomeric resolution and efficiency were obtained using just sulfated-γ-CD as the sole chiral selector, the analytical characteristics of this method were evaluated, showing good recovery (98% and 103% for S- and R-ivabradine, respectively) and precision values (RSD < 5% for instrumental repeatability, < 6% for method repeatability and < 7% for intermediate precision). The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.22 and 0.28 µg mL-1 for S- and R-ivabradine, respectively, and the method enabled to detect a 0.1% of the enantiomeric impurity, allowing to accomplish the requirements of the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of a pharmaceutical formulation of ivabradine. The content of R-ivabradine was below the LOD and the amount of S-ivabradine was in agreement to the labeled content.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/química , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Cromatografia Capilar Eletrocinética Micelar , Ciclodextrinas/química , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Ivabradina/isolamento & purificação , Tampões (Química) , Ivabradina/química , Limite de Detecção , Estereoisomerismo , Sulfatos/química
10.
Mol Clin Oncol ; 11(2): 201-207, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316774

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the prominent causes of cancer related deaths because, in part, there is not an early, non-invasive, effective detection strategy. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been proposed as potential non-invasive biomarkers for CRC. In this study, we evaluated the miRNA profile in sixteen CRC tissues by Next-Generation-Sequencing and compared the circulating expression levels of 22 miRNAs among 45 CRC, 14 hyperplastic polyps, 11 advanced adenoma patients and 45 control subjects, by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, to search for miRNAs which could be potential biomarkers. In total, nine of them represented 70% of total read counts (miR-10a-5p, miR-192-5p, miR-10b-5p, miR-22-3p, miR-26a-5p, miR-148a-3p, miR-181a-5p, miR-92a-3p and miR-143-5p). In silico analysis found eight candidates to mature miRNAs. With respect to circulating miRNA, we found higher serum expression levels of miR-143-3p, miR-141-3p and miR-200c-3p in the CRC and adenoma groups compared with controls (P<0.002), and we also found significant higher levels of miR-141-3p and miR-200c-3p in serum of adenoma patients compared with the CRC group. In conclusion, the measurement of miRNAs in the blood could complement current screening methods for CRC and might provide new insights into mechanisms of tumorigenesis. miR-143-3p, miR-141-3p and miR-200c-3p could be interesting miRNAs to study as potential biomarkers for CRC.

11.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 126(10): 1281-1290, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317262

RESUMO

Magnetic fields with different frequency and intensity parameters exhibit a wide range of effects on different biological models. Extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF MF) exposure is known to augment or even initiate neuronal differentiation in several in vitro and in vivo models. This effect holds potential for clinical translation into treatment of neurodegenerative conditions such as autism, Parkinson's disease and dementia by promoting neurogenesis, non-invasively. However, the lack of information on underlying mechanisms hinders further investigation into this phenomenon. Here, we examine involvement of glutamatergic Ca2+ channel, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the process of human neuronal differentiation under ELF MF exposure. We show that human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) differentiate more efficiently under ELF MF exposure in vitro, as demonstrated by the abundance of neuronal markers. Furthermore, they exhibit higher intracellular Ca2+ levels as evidenced by c-fos expression and more elongated mature neurites. We were able to neutralize these effects by blocking NMDA receptors with memantine. As a result, we hypothesize that the effects of ELF MF exposure on neuronal differentiation originate from the effects on NMDA receptors, which sequentially triggers Ca2+-dependent cascades that lead to differentiation. Our findings identify NMDA receptors as a new key player in this field that will aid further research in the pursuit of effect mechanisms of ELF MFs.

12.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 12(2)2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035689

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI) can lead to severe motor, sensory and social impairments having a huge impact on patients' lives. The complex and time-dependent SCI pathophysiology has been hampering the development of novel and effective therapies. Current treatment options include surgical interventions, to stabilize and decompress the spinal cord, and rehabilitative care, without providing a cure for these patients. Novel therapies have been developed targeting different stages during trauma. Among them, cell-based therapies hold great potential for tissue regeneration after injury. Neural stem cells (NSCs), which are multipotent cells with inherent differentiation capabilities committed to the neuronal lineage, are especially relevant to promote and reestablish the damaged neuronal spinal tracts. Several studies demonstrate the regenerative effects of NSCs in SCI after transplantation by providing neurotrophic support and restoring synaptic connectivity. Therefore, human clinical trials have already been launched to assess safety in SCI patients. Here, we review NSC-based experimental studies in a SCI context and how are they currently being translated into human clinical trials.

13.
Electrophoresis ; 40(15): 1904-1912, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900263

RESUMO

The major goal of this study was to determine the affinity pattern of brombuterol (BB) enantiomers toward various cyclodextrins (CD) and to evaluate the potential of NMR spectroscopy for understanding fine mechanisms of interactions between CDs and BB enantiomers. Separation of BB enantiomers was performed in a fused-silica capillary using a phosphate buffer, pH 2.5, at the room temperature in the normal polarity mode. It was shown once again that CE in combination with NMR spectroscopy represents a very sensitive tool for studies of affinity patterns and structure of CD complexes with chiral guests. Although opposite affinity patterns of BB enantiomers were observed toward native ß- and γ-CDs, no significant differences between the structures of the complexes of these two CDs with BB were detected by NMR spectroscopy. In contrary to this, the opposite affinity pattern of BB enantiomers toward ß-CD and its two sulfated derivatives, heptakis (2,3-O-diacetyl-6-sulfo)-ß-CD (HDAS-ß-CD) and heptakis (2-O-methyl-3,6-di-O-sulfo)-ß-CD (HMDS-ß-CD) was associated with major differences in the structure of the complexes. In addition, it was shown again that HMDS-ß-CD provides separation of enantiomers without formation of inclusion-type complex with the chiral analyte.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/química , Compostos de Anilina/isolamento & purificação , Ciclodextrinas/química , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Etanolaminas/química , Etanolaminas/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Compostos de Anilina/análise , Etanolaminas/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Estereoisomerismo
14.
Electrophoresis ; 40(15): 1913-1920, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892703

RESUMO

The enantiomeric separation of 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride (FMOC)-homocysteine (Hcy) by CE was investigated using γ-CD and the chiral ionic liquid (R)-(1-hydroxybutan-2-yl)(trimethyl)azanium-bis(trifluoromethanesulfon)imidate (also called (R)-N,N,N-trimethyl-2-aminobutanol-bis(trifluoromethane-sulfon)imidate) (EtCholNTf2 ) as chiral selectors. Using 2 mM γ-CD and 5 mM EtCholNTf2 in 50 mM borate buffer (pH 9), FMOC-Hcy enantiomers were separated with a resolution value of 3.8. A reversal in the enantiomer migration order in comparison with the single use of γ-CD in the separation buffer was obtained. Then, NMR experiments were carried out to elucidate the interactions taking place in the enantiomeric separation of FMOC-Hcy. NMR analyses highlighted the formation of an inclusion complex since the hydrophobic group of FMOC-Hcy was inserted into the γ-CD cavity. Moreover, interactions between EtCholNTf2 and γ-CD were also observed, suggesting that the chiral ionic liquid would also enter the cavity of the γ-CD.


Assuntos
Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Homocisteína/isolamento & purificação , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , gama-Ciclodextrinas/química , Homocisteína/análise , Homocisteína/química , Imidazóis/química , Estereoisomerismo
15.
Cells ; 8(2)2019 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717429

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder worldwide. Clinically, it is characterized by severe motor complications caused by a progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons (DAn) and dopamine loss. Current treatment is focused on mitigating the symptoms through administration of levodopa, rather than on preventing DAn damage. Therefore, the use and development of neuroprotective/disease-modifying strategies is an absolute need, which can lead to promising gains on PD translational research. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)⁻derived exosomes have been proposed as a promising therapeutic tool, since it has been demonstrated that they can act as biological nanoparticles with beneficial effects in different pathological conditions, including PD. Thus, considering their potential protective action in lesioned sites, MSCs-derived exosomes might also be active modulators of the neuroregeneration processes, opening a door for their future use as therapeutical strategies in human clinical trials. Therefore, in this review, we analyze the current understanding of MSCs-derived exosomes as a new possible therapeutic strategy for PD, by providing an overview about the potential role of miRNAs in the cellular and molecular basis of PD.


Assuntos
Exossomos/metabolismo , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Animais , Exossomos/genética , Humanos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Doença de Parkinson/patologia
16.
Stem Cell Res ; 34: 101373, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640063

RESUMO

Mutations in the glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene have been associated with the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). An induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line was generated from a 60-year old patient diagnosed with PD and carrying a new mutation variant p.R301C in GBA. Using non-integrating Sendai virus-based technology, we utilized OCT3/4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4 transcription factors to reprogram skin fibroblasts into iPSCs. The generated iPSC line retained the mutation, displayed expression of common pluripotency markers, differentiated into the three germ layers, and exhibited normal karyotype. The iPSC line can be further used for studying PD pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Glucosilceramidase/genética , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Mutação/genética , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17666, 2018 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518850

RESUMO

Impulsivity is a naturally occurring behavior that, when accentuated, can be found in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. The expression of trait impulsivity has been shown to change with a variety of factors, such as age and sex, but the existing literature does not reflect widespread consensus regarding the influence of modulating effects. We designed the present study to investigate, in a cohort of significant size (188 rats), the impact of four specific parameters, namely sex, age, strain and phase of estrous cycle, using the variable delay-to-signal (VDS) task. This cohort included (i) control animals from previous experiments; (ii) animals specifically raised for this study; and (iii) animals previously used for breeding purposes. Aging was associated with a general decrease in action impulsivity and an increase in delay tolerance. Females generally performed more impulsive actions than males but no differences were observed regarding delay intolerance. In terms of estrous cycle, no differences in impulsive behavior were observed and regarding strain, Wistar Han animals were, in general, more impulsive than Sprague-Dawley. In addition to further confirming, in a substantial study cohort, the decrease in impulsivity with age, we have demonstrated that both the strain and sex influences modulate different aspects of impulsive behavior manifestations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Comportamento Impulsivo , Ratos/fisiologia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Comportamento de Escolha , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley/fisiologia , Ratos Wistar/fisiologia
20.
Expert Opin Biol Ther ; 18(12): 1235-1245, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30422014

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The available therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease (PD) rely only on the amelioration of the symptomatology of the disease, lacking neuroprotection or neuroregeneration capacities. Therefore, the development of disease modifying strategies is extremely important for the management of PD in the long term. AREAS COVERED: In this review, the authors provide an overview of the current therapeutic approaches for PD and the emerging use of stem cell transplantation as an alternative. Particularly, the use of the secretome from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), as well as some methodologies used for the modulation of their paracrine signaling, will be discussed. Indeed, there is a growing body of literature highlighting the use of paracrine factors and vesicles secreted from different cell populations, for this purpose. EXPERT OPINION: Secretome from MSCs has shown its potential as a therapy for PD. Nevertheless, in the coming years, research should focus in several key aspects to enable the translation of this strategy from the bench to the bedside.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos , Via Secretória/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Comunicação Parácrina/fisiologia
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