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1.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592759

RESUMO

Graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) is one of the leading causes of non-relapse mortality (NRM) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). Post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has shown promise in managing GVHD. However, cyclophosphamide has known cardiac toxicities and few studies have evaluated the cardiac toxicities that arise following PTCy. Here, we completed a retrospective analysis of matched alloHCT patients at our institution who received PTCy or non-PTCy-based GVHD prophylaxis, with the goal of determining the incidence of cardiac toxicities up to 100 days after alloHCT. We included 585 patients in our analysis and found that 38 patients (6.5%) experienced cardiac toxicities after alloHCT. The toxicities observed included arrhythmias (n=21), heart failure (n=14), pericardial effusions (n=10), and myocardial infarction or ischemia (n=7). Patients who received PTCy had a 7.4% incidence of cardiac toxicities, while non-PTCy patients had an incidence of 5.8% (p=0.4). We found that age > 55 years (p=0.02), history of hypertension (p=0.01), arrhythmia (p=0.003), diabetes (p=0.04), and cardiac comorbidities (p<0.001) were significant predictors of cardiac toxicity, while none of the preparative and GVHD prophylaxis regimens used were predictive of cardiac toxicity. From these findings, we proposed the use of a Cardiac Risk Stratification Score to quantify the risk of cardiac toxicity following alloHCT and found that a higher score correlated with cardiac toxicity incidence. Furthermore, the development of cardiac toxicity was associated with worse 1-yr overall survival (OS) and NRM while the use of PTCy was associated with improvements in 1-year OS and NRM rates.

2.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537419

RESUMO

In the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic era, the number of haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantations (HCTs) with peripheral blood (PB) grafts increased significantly compared with HCTs with bone marrow (BM) grafts, which may be associated with adverse outcomes. We compared outcomes of HCT in BM graft and PB graft recipients age ≥18 years with hematologic malignancies who underwent T cell- replete haploidentical HCT and received graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil. Among the 264 patients, 180 (68%) received a BM graft and 84 (32%) received a PB graft. The median patient age was 50 years in both groups. The majority (n = 199; 75%) received reduced-intensity conditioning. The rate of acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome was higher in the BM graft recipients compared with the PB graft recipients (85% [n = 152] versus 55% [n = 46]; P < .01). The median times to neutrophil and platelet engraftment and the incidence of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) were comparable in the 2 groups. Among the patients with grade II-IV aGVHD, the rate of steroid-refractory aGVHD was 9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5% to 18%) in the BM group versus 32% (95% CI, 19% to 54%) in the PB group (hazard ratio [HR], 3.7, 95% CI, 1.5 to 9.3; P = .006). At 1 year post-HCT, the rate of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was 8% (95% CI, 4% to 13%) in the BM group versus 22% (95% CI, 14% to 36%) in the PB group (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.4-6.6; P = .005), and the rate of systemic therapy-requiring cGVHD was 2.5% (95% CI, 1% to 7%) versus 14% (95% CI, 7% to 27%), respectively (HR, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.7 to 18; P = .004). The PB group had a significantly higher risk of bacterial and viral infections, with no appreciable advantage in the duration of hospitalization, immune reconstitution, relapse, nonrelapse mortality, or survival. Our data suggest a benefit of the use of BM grafts over PB grafts for haplo-HCT.

3.
Blood Adv ; 5(17): 3407-3417, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495313

RESUMO

Recent compelling evidence showed that innate immune effector cells could recognize allogeneic grafts and prime an adaptive immune response. Signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) is an immunoglobulin superfamily receptor that is expressed on myeloid cells; the interaction between SIRPα and its ubiquitously expressed ligand CD47 elicits an inhibitory signal that suppresses macrophage phagocytic function. Additional studies showed that donor-recipient mismatch in SIRPα variants might activate monocytic allorecognition, possibly as the result of non-self SIRPα-CD47 interaction. However, the frequency of SIRPα variation and its role in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains unexplored. We studied 350 patients with acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome who underwent HLA-matched related HSCT and found that SIRPα allelic mismatches were present in 39% of transplantation pairs. SIRPα variant mismatch was associated with a significantly higher rate of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD; hazard ratio [HR], 1.5; P = .03), especially de novo chronic GVHD (HR, 2.0; P = .01), after adjusting for other predictors. Those with mismatched SIRPα had a lower relapse rate (HR, 0.6; P = .05) and significantly longer relapse-free survival (RFS; HR, 0.6; P = .04). Notably, the effect of SIRPα variant mismatch on relapse protection was most pronounced early after HSCT and in patients who were not in remission at HSCT (cumulative incidence, 73% vs 54%; HR, 0.5; P = .01). These findings show that SIRPα variant mismatch is associated with HSCT outcomes, possibly owing to innate allorecognition. SIRPα variant matching could provide valuable information for donor selection and risk stratification in HSCT.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunidade Inata
4.
Blood Adv ; 5(14): 2799-2806, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264268

RESUMO

The Endothelial Activation and Stress Index (EASIX) score, defined as [(creatinine × lactate dehydrogenase [LDH])/platelets], is a marker of endothelial activation that has been validated in the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant setting. Endothelial activation is one of the mechanisms driving immune-mediated toxicities in patients treated with chimeric antigen receptor-T (CAR-T)-cell therapy. This study's objective was to evaluate the association between EASIX and other laboratory parameters collected before lymphodepletion and the subsequent onset of cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS) those patients. Toxicity data were collected prospectively on 171 patients treated with axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) for large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL). CRS grades 2 to 4 were diagnosed in 81 (47%) patients and ICANS grades 2 to 4 in 84 (49%). EASIX combined with ferritin (EASIX-F) identified 3 risk groups with CRS grades 2 to 4 cumulative incidence of 74% (hazards ratio [HR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-11; P < .001), 49% (HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.02-5; P = .04), and 23% (reference), respectively. EASIX combined with CRP and ferritin (EASIX-FC) identified 3 risk groups with an ICANS grade 2 to 4 cumulative incidence of 74% (HR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.9-6.9; P < .001), 51% (HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-3.9; P = .025), and 29% (reference). Our results indicate that common laboratory parameters before lymphodepletion correlate with CAR-T-related toxicities and can help support clinical decisions, such as preemptive toxicity management, hospitalization length, and proper setting for CAR-T administration.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Ferritinas , Humanos
6.
Leukemia ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135465

RESUMO

Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) is associated with older age and an increased risk of myeloid malignancies and cardiovascular complications. We analyzed donor DNA samples in patients with AML/MDS who underwent first allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) to investigate the association between donor CH and transplant outcomes. We performed targeted deep sequencing of 300 genes on donor blood samples and identified CH with the minimum variant allele frequency of 2%. Among 363 donors, 65 (18%) had CH. The most frequently mutated genes were DNMT3A (31 of 65; 48%), TET2 (16 of 65; 25%), PPM1D (5 of 65, 8%), and ASXL1 (7 of 65; 11%). Transplant outcomes: time to neutrophil and platelet recovery, relapse incidence, transplant-related mortality and progression-free survival, were comparable by donor CH. However, risk of grade II-IV and III-IV acute graft versus host disease (aGvHD) at 6 months after transplant was higher with donor CH vs. without donor CH (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.4, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.6-3.6, p < 0.001 and HR = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.6-8.9, p = 0.003). In this homogenous population of AML/MDS patients, donor CH was associated with increased risk of grade II-IV and III-IV aGvHD. Further studies to investigate the mechanisms of increased aGvHD and therapeutic interventions to improve aGvHD in the context of donor CH are warranted.

7.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(8): 689-695, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023569

RESUMO

Relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) leads to poor survival in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A second HCT (HCT2) may achieve durable remission. To determine the outcomes of patients who received an HCT2 for relapsed AML and to evaluate the predictors of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). We retrospectively reviewed medical records of adult patients who underwent an HCT2 for relapsed AML at our institution during 2000 to 2019. Ninety-one patients were identified with a median age of 44 years (range 18-73) at HCT2. Donor types were HLA-identical sibling (n = 37 [41%]), HLA-matched-unrelated (n = 34 [37%]), haploidentical (n = 19 [21%]), and cord blood (n=1 [1%]). Donors were different at HCT2 in 53% of patients. The majority of patients received reduced intensity conditioning (n = 71 [78%]) and were in remission (n = 56 [61%]) at HCT2. The median remission duration after HCT1 was 8.4 months (range 1-70) and the median time between transplants was 14 months (range 3-73). The median follow-up of surviving patients after HCT2 was 66 months (range 2-171), with 32% alive at time of analysis. The most common cause of death was disease recurrence (n = 45 [73%]). At 2 years, the rates of OS, PFS, progression, and nonrelapse mortality were 36%, 27%, 42%, and 18%, respectively. The development of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after first HCT and HCT comorbidity index (HCT-CI) ≥2 at HCT2 were associated with inferior PFS and OS after HCT2. A second HCT is feasible in selected patients with AML who have relapsed after HCT1. Long-term survival benefit is possible in patients without chronic GVHD after HCT1 and HCT-CI <2 at HCT2.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Adulto Jovem
8.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 56(8): 2005-2012, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846563

RESUMO

Despite low nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at day 100 after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), NRM at 1 year remains substantial. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed 199 patients who were treated on a phase II clinical trial assessing safety and efficacy of myeloablative fractionated busulfan and fludarabine conditioning regimen for hematologic malignancies. The goal of the study was to identify factors associated with NRM occurring between days 101 and 365 post-HCT and generate a hypothesis for future studies to reduce the risk of NRM at 1 year. We found that a vast majority (83%) of patients who experienced NRM between days 101 and 365 had prior grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), which was the leading cause of death either by itself (33.3%) or complicated by infections (37.5%). In multivariate analysis, grade II-IV acute GVHD (hazard ratio (HR) 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-6.6, p = 0.01) was the only significant predictor of NRM between days 101 and 365. Measures to reduce the risk of acute GVHD could lower the risk of NRM at 1 year and improve overall survival.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Bussulfano , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/efeitos adversos , Transplante Homólogo
11.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(3): 243.e1-243.e6, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781521

RESUMO

Numerous genetic abnormalities affect treatment outcomes in multiple myeloma. The role of coexistent trisomy or hyperdiploidy and high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities (CGAs) is not well defined. We assessed the influence of overlapping genetic abnormalities in patients who received frontline autologous stem cell transplantation. A total of 491 consecutive patients between January 2009 and January 2016 were identified. High-risk CGAs included del(17p), t(4;14), t(14;16), and gain 1q21 by fluorescence in situ hybridization and del(13) by conventional cytogenetics. Thirty-two percent had a trisomy, 27% had a high-risk CGA, and 11% had both. Among patients with any trisomy, 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 60% and 90%, respectively, compared to 25% and 65%, respectively, for patients with any high-risk CGA. Patients with co-existent trisomy and high-risk CGAs had 3-year PFS and OS of 43% and 89%, respectively, whereas those with isolated high-risk CGAs without trisomy had 3-year PFS and OS of 13% and 49%, respectively. The PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 3.3; P = .02) and OS (HR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.5 to 13; P = .006) were worse for high-risk CGAs without versus those with concurrent trisomies. Our findings suggest a protective impact of trisomies in patients with high-risk CGAs and a potential need for revised risk stratification assessments to account for overlapping genetic abnormalities.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Mieloma Múltiplo , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(3): 272.e1-272.e5, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781539

RESUMO

Steroid-refractory (SR) lower gastrointestinal (LGI) acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) has poor prognosis, and novel drugs are needed. We describe outcomes of patients with SR-LGI aGVHD treated with vedolizumab. The primary objective was to determine overall response rate (ORR) at days 14, 28, and 56. Secondary outcomes included overall survival (OS), non-relapse mortality and toxicities. Twenty patients, median age 46 years (range, 23-71), were included. All but 2 patients (90%) had grade 3 to 4 aGVHD (45% stage 4, 40% stage 3 LGI). Median time to vedolizumab was 21 days (range, 5-1031) and 13 days (range, 0-533) after diagnosis of LGI aGVHD and SR-LGI aGVHD, respectively. It was given as ≥3rd line (median 3; range 2-6) in 75% after failure of steroids, and additional treatments including ruxolitinib (n = 12) and others. Median follow-up was 17 months (range, 10-34). The days 14, 28 and 56 ORRs were 45% (9/20; complete response [CR] 25%), 35% (7/20; CR 20%), and 25% (5/20; CR 20%), respectively. Among ruxolitinib failures, it was 50% (6/12; CR 25%), 50% (6/12; CR 25%) and 25% (3/12; CR 16.7%), respectively. Fifteen patients died (14 GVHD, 1 leukemia relapse). The actuarial 6-month OS was 35% (95% confidence interval 16-55). No progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy or infusion reaction occurred. Forty-four infection events (22 viral, 18 bacterial, and 4 fungal) were noted in 16 patients. Vedolizumab was well tolerated and demonstrated potential efficacy even after ruxolitinib failure for SR-LGI aGVHD. Yet the responses were suboptimal, and its use requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Trato Gastrointestinal Inferior , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esteroides/uso terapêutico
13.
Cancer ; 127(10): 1598-1605, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A myeloablative conditioning regimen can be safely given to older patients and those with comorbidities without increasing nonrelapse mortality (NRM) by fractionating the dose of intravenous busulfan. How this approach compares in efficacy with traditional, nonfractionated, lower dose regimens is unknown. METHODS: Outcomes were compared in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome who received either myeloablative, fractionated busulfan (f-Bu) dosed to achieve an area under the curve of 20,000 µmol per minute (f-Bu20K) over 2 weeks (n = 84) or a standard, nonfractionated, lower busulfan dose regimen of 16,000 µmol per minute (Bu16K) over 4 days (n = 78). Both groups also received fludarabine 40 mg/m2 intravenously for 4 days. Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis was tacrolimus and methotrexate. Patients in the Bu16K group who had unrelated donors also received antithymocyte globulin. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. RESULTS: Roughly one-half of the patients were aged >65 years, approximately 40% had poor-risk cytogenetics, approximately 40% of those with AML were not in complete remission, and approximately 40% had a comorbidity index >3. At 2 years, progression-free survival was significantly improved in the f-Bu20K group compared with the Bu16K group (45% vs 24%, respectively; hazard ratio [HR], 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8; P = .004). This was because of a significant reduction in progression (34% vs 59%, respectively; HR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.8; P = .003) without any increase in NRM (21% vs 15%, respectively; HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.7-3; P = .3), which resulted in improved overall survival (51% vs 31%, respectively; HR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3-0.9; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: A myeloablative, fractionated busulfan regimen reduces relapse and improves survival without increasing NRM in older patients with AML and myelodysplastic syndrome.

15.
Acta Haematol ; 144(1): 74-81, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604096

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients not in remission and beyond first or second complete remission are considered allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) candidates. We present 361 patients who underwent SCT from matched related or unrelated donors between 2005 and 2013. The purpose was to identify a subgroup of patients with active disease at the time of transplant that benefit. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used for univariate and multivariate analyses to predict overall survival (OS). Variables considered were age, sex, SWOG cytogenetic risk group, bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) blast percentage, regimen intensity, and type of AML. At a median of 26 months after transplantation, OS, progression-free survival (PFS), non-relapse mortality, and relapse rates were 26, 24, 23, and 48%, respectively. In a univariate analysis, risk cytogenetics (p < 0.001) and BM blasts >4% (p = 0.006) or any blasts in PB (p < 0.001) indicated worse OS. In a multivariate analysis, patients with <5% BM blasts or absence of circulating blasts and good or intermediate risk cytogenetics had significantly superior OS (46%), PFS (44%), and disease progression at 3 years. Based on these findings, patients not in remission with good or intermediate risk cytogenetics and low blast counts should be considered for SCT.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/patologia , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Biópsia , Análise Citogenética , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/diagnóstico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cancer ; 126(10): 2193-2205, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been concerns regarding increased peritransplantation complications, especially severe acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), in patients with prior use of checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS: The authors performed a retrospective study of 43 patients with acute myeloid leukemia and/or myelodysplastic syndromes who were treated with an antiprogrammed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) (32 patients) or anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) (9 patients) blockade or both (2 patients) prior to HSCT with the primary outcome of aGVHD by day 100 after HSCT. Outcome analyses were stratified by GVHD prophylaxis as use of post-HSCT cyclophosphamide (PTCy) (22 patients) or not (non-PTCy) (21 patients). RESULTS: The PTCy group demonstrated a trend toward lower grade 3 to 4 aGVHD when compared with the non-PTCy group (5% vs 22%), although the rates of grade 2 to 4 aGVHD were comparable (49% vs 56%). The interval between CPI and HSCT did not appear to impact the incidence of aGVHD. However, a higher incidence of grade 3 to 4 aGVHD was observed in patients who received >4 treatments of CPI prior to HSCT if they were not given PTCy as GVHD prophylaxis (43% vs 12%). Matched control analyses using patients with no prior use of CPI confirmed the increase in grade 3 to 4 aGVHD with those agents. However, that increased risk was limited to patients who did not receive PTCy and was not observed in patients who received PTCy as GVHD prophylaxis. Despite persistent improvement in GVHD with the use of PTCy, disease control was not compromised and progression-free survival at 1 year was found to be superior for patients treated with PTCy compared with those not receiving PTCy among patients with prior use of CPI (55% vs 22%). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study indicated that HSCT with prior use of CPI appears feasible in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and/or myelodysplastic syndromes and the use of PTCy as GVHD prophylaxis improves outcomes.


Assuntos
Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Combinada , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(5): 1013-1020, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045652

RESUMO

Fluid overload (FO) grade ≥2 (more than 10% weight gain from baseline) has recently been recognized as an important toxicity associated with a high rate of nonrelapse mortality in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT). The causes for FO remain unclear. We hypothesized that endothelial damage, possibly due to treatments received prior to AHCT, may be associated with this toxicity and sought to determine whether the Endothelial Activation and Stress Index (EASIX) (defined as lactate dehydrogenase [U/L]â€ˆ× creatinine [mg/dL]/platelets [109 cells/L]) correlates with grade ≥2 FO in 2 cohorts of recipients of AHCT at our institution. We tested our hypothesis in a cohort of 145 consecutive recipients (study cohort) of AHCT transplant from HLA-haploidentical donors and validated the findings in a cohort of 449 (validation cohort) recipients of AHCT from HLA-matched donors who underwent transplantation between 2010 and 2015. Predictors of grade ≥2 FO were evaluated using competing risks regression in univariate analysis and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis in multivariate analysis. The cumulative incidence of grade ≥2 FO was estimated considering death as a competing risk. EASIX scores were evaluated based on log2-transformed values. Optimal predictive EASIX cutoff values were determined based on receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. Grade ≥2 FO occurred in 21% and 6% of the study and validation cohorts, respectively, with the majority of these cases being diagnosed before the day of AHCT. Median log2 EASIX score at admission was 2.4 (interquartile range [IQR], 1.3, 3.7) and 2.5 (IQR, 1.4, 3.9) in the 2 respective cohorts. In univariate analysis, high EASIX at admission was a significant predictor of grade ≥2 FO in the study (cutoff: 4.4, hazard ratio [HR] = 4.8, P < .001) and in the validation (cutoff: 4.3, HR = 4.8, P < .001) cohorts. The significant effect of EASIX persisted in multivariate CART analysis in the study (HR = 6.3, P < .001) and the validation (HR = 28, P = .002) cohorts. Additional predictors in multivariate analysis included body weight below 80 kg in recipients older than 55 years (HR = 4.5, P < .001) in the study cohort and diabetes (HR = 34, P = .001) and age >60 years (HR = 9.6, P = .04) in the validation cohort. At admission, the prevalence of EASIX score of >4.3 (18% versus 17%, P = .9) was not different between the diabetics and nondiabetics. EASIX score at admission is a significant predictor of grade ≥2 FO in recipients of AHCT from HLA-haploidentical or HLA-matched donors. Independently of EASIX, older patients with low weight were associated with increased risk of grade ≥2 FO for recipients of HLA-haploidentical transplants. For the HLA-matched cohort, diabetes and older age were associated with increased FO risk. These findings require validation in external cohorts.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Doadores de Tecidos , Transplante Homólogo
18.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(6): 1077-1083, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786242

RESUMO

In this retrospective analysis, we evaluated the impact of age on the outcome of patients with multiple myeloma who received an autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT) at our institution. A total of 1128 patients were divided into the older (>70 years; 182 [16%]) and the younger (≤70 years; 946 [84%]) groups. Compared with the younger cohort, older patients had a higher International Staging System (ISS) stage (ISS-II, 57 [31%] versus 215 [23%]; ISS-III, 52 [28%] versus 211 [22%]; P = .01), higher use of reduced-dose melphalan as a conditioning regimen (140 mg/m², 59 [32%] versus 29 [3%]; P < .001), and a higher comorbidity index (median, 3 versus 2; P = .01). Nonrelapse mortality at 1 year after auto-HCT was significantly higher in older patients (7 [4%] versus 9 [1%]; hazard ratio [HR], 4.1; P = .005). Complete remission rates after auto-HCT for the older and the younger groups were 41% and 46%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 52 months, the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 24% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17% to 32%) and 37% (95% CI, 33% to 40%) in the older and younger groups, respectively (HR, 1.3; P = .02). Five-year OS for the older and younger groups was 56% (95% CI, 47% to 64%) and 73% (95% CI, 70% to 76%; P < .001), respectively. Older age emerged as one of the predictors of shorter OS but not PFS in the multivariate classification and regression tree analysis. In conclusion, age ≥70 years was associated with shorter PFS and OS in patients with multiple myeloma who underwent an auto-HCT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Mieloma Múltiplo , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Am J Hematol ; 94(12): 1382-1387, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595538

RESUMO

There have been conflicting results regarding the impact of minimal/measurable disease at transplant on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) outcomes after haploidentical transplantation (haplo-SCT). We assessed the impact of pre-transplant disease status on post-transplant outcomes of 143 patients treated with haplo-SCT using fludarabine-melphalan (FM) conditioning and post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy). With a median follow-up of 29 months, the two-year PFS for all patients was 41%. Compared to patients in complete remission (CR) at transplant, those with active disease (n = 29) and CR with incomplete count recovery (CRi) (n = 39) had worse PFS. They had hazard ratios (HR) of 3.5 (95% CI: 2.05-6.1; P < .001) and 2.3 (95% CI: 1.3-3.9; P = .002), respectively. Among patients who were in CR at transplant, there were no differences in PFS between those who had minimal residual disease (MRD) positive (n = 24), and MRD negative (n = 41) (HR 1.85, 95%CI: 0.9-4.0; P = .1). In multivariable analysis for patients in CR, only age was predictive for outcomes, while MRD status at transplant did not influence the treatment outcomes. Our findings suggest that haplo-SCT with FM conditioning regimen and PTCy-based GVHD prophylaxis has a protective effect, and may potentially abrogate the inferior outcomes of MRD positivity for patients with AML. Patients with positive MRD may benefit from proceeding urgently to a haplo-SCT, as this does not appear to negatively impact transplant outcomes.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Transplante Haploidêntico , Adulto , Idoso , Medula Óssea/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Melfalan/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasia Residual , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Resultado do Tratamento , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Vidarabina/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
20.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(7): 1340-1346, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763728

RESUMO

We analyzed 186 patients with lymphoma who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) with fludarabine-melphalan (FM) conditioning and different types of donors (25 haploidentical [HD], 98 matched unrelated [MUD], and 63 matched related [MRD]) at our institution between September 2009 and January 2018. Patients received fludarabine 160 mg/m2 (40 mg/m2/day for 4 days) in combination with 1 dose of melphalan 140 mg/m2 (FM140) or 100 mg/m2 (FM100). Engraftment was similar among the 3 groups (92%, 89%, and 98%, respectively; P = .7). The 6-month cumulative incidence of grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 4% in the HD group, 14% in the MUD group, and 8% in the MRD group (P not significant), and the respective 3-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 5%, 16%, and 26% (P not significant). The respective 3-year nonrelapse mortality and relapse rates were 31%, 32%, and 10% (HD versus MUD, P = .9; HD versus MRD, P = .02) and 15%, 21%, and 39% (HD versus MUD, P = .4; HD versus MRD, P = .04). At 3 years, progression-free survival (PFS) was 59%, 44%, and 46% (P not significant); overall survival (OS) was 52%, 54%, and 67% (P not significant); and GVHD-free, relapse-free survival was 39%, 31%, and 24% (P not significant). No differences in the 3-year PFS (57% versus 43%; P = .3) and OS (64% versus 58%; P = .7) were seen between patients receiving FM100 and those receiving FM140. Our data demonstrate that in patients with lymphoma, ASCT with HD transplants have similar outcomes as ASCT with HLA-matched transplants, and the FM100 conditioning regimen appears to be at least as effective as the FM140 regimen.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Linfoma , Melfalan/administração & dosagem , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Doadores de Tecidos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/terapia , Humanos , Incidência , Linfoma/mortalidade , Linfoma/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Vidarabina/administração & dosagem , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados
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