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1.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649514

RESUMO

Reduced clopidogrel effectiveness in preventing recurrent myocardial ischemia following percutaneous coronary intervention has been demonstrated in CYP2C19 loss-of-function carriers. Less is known about the effect of CYP2C19 genotype on the effectiveness of clopidogrel for stroke prevention, particularly in Caucasians. This is a retrospective cohort study, in which we used the Clalit clinical database to follow genotyped clopidogrel initiators, for up to 3 years. Endpoint was a new primary discharge diagnosis of ischemic stroke; secondary endpoints were new primary discharge diagnoses of coronary angioplasty, myocardial infarction (MI), or a composite endpoint of: stroke, MI, or coronary angioplasty. After 3 years of follow up over 628 clopidogrel initiators, 2 out of 12 (16.7%) poor metabolizers, 9 out of 144 intermediate metabolizers (6.3%), and 29 out of 472 (6.1%) normal/rapid/ultrarapid metabolizers have been newly diagnosed with ischemic stroke. Poor metabolizer status was associated with higher risk for ischemic stroke, marginally significant in univariate analysis and in multivariable models; and higher risk for the composite outcome of stroke, myocardial infarction and coronary angioplasty, HR = 3.32 (1.35-8.17) p = 0.009, 2.86 (1.16-7.06) p = 0.02 (univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively). Poor metabolizer status was associated with higher risk for stroke HR = 5.80 (1.33-25.24) p = 0.019, HR = 4.13 (0.94-18.13) p = 0.06 (univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively) in patients who "survived" the first year, and were in the cohort 1-3 years. Caucasian treated with clopidogrel who are homozygote for the CYP2C19 loss-of function allele might be at increased risk for ischemic stroke, and for the composite outcome of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction and coronary angioplasty.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576688

RESUMO

Background - We hypothesized that computerized morphologic analysis of the LA and pulmonary veins (PVs) via fractal measurements of shape and texture features of the LA myocardial wall could predict AF recurrence after ablation. Methods - Pre-ablation contrast CT scans were collected for 203 patients who underwent AF ablation. The LA body, PVs, and myocardial wall were segmented using a semi-automated region growing method. Twenty-eight fractal-based shape and texture-based features were extracted from resulting segments. The top features most associated with post-ablation recurrence were identified using feature selection and subsequently evaluated with a Random Forest classifier. Feature selection and classifier construction were performed on a discovery cohort (D1) of 137 patients; classifiers were subsequently validated on an independent set (D2) of 66 patients. Dedicated classifiers to capture the fractal and morphologic properties of LA body (CLA), PVs (CPV), and LA myocardial (CLAM) tissue were constructed, as well as a model (CAll) capturing properties of all segmented compartments. Fractal-based models were also compared against a model employing machine estimation of LA volume. To assess the effect of clinical parameters, such as AF type and catheter technique, a clinical model (Cclin) was also compared against CAll. Results - Statistically significant differences were observed for fractal features of CLA, CLAM and CAll in distinguishing AF recurrence (p<0.001) on D1. Using the five top features, CAll had the best prediction performance (AUC=0.81 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.78-0.85]), followed by CPV (AUC=0.78 [95% CI: 0.74-0.80]) and CLA (AUC=0.70 [95% CI: 0.63-0.78]) on D2. The clinical parameter model Cclin yielded an AUC=0.70 [95% CI: 0.65-0.77], while the atrial volume model yielded an AUC=0.59. Combining CAll and Cclin on D2 improved the AUC to 0.87 [95% CI: 0.82-0.93]. Conclusions - Fractal measurements of the LA, PVs, and atrial myocardium on CT scans were associated with likelihood of post-ablation AF recurrence.

3.
Europace ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33585883

RESUMO

AIMS: CHA2DS2-VASc score is widely utilized for risk stratification and guiding anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Cardiac computed tomography (CCT) routinely performed for pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) can also identify coronary artery calcifications (CAC). We evaluated the frequency and outcomes of incorporating CAC into the CHA2DS2-VASc score in AF patients undergoing PVI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive patients in a prospective PVI registry during 2014-18 having CCT within 1 year of PVI were studied. Reclassification of CHA2DS2-VASc score and associations between CAC as a binary variable detected on CCT with clinical characteristics, stroke as primary endpoint, death, myocardial infarction, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were analysed. Amongst 3604 AF patients, 2238 (62.1%) had CAC detected on CCT and was associated with most traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Coronary artery calcification was independently associated with all pre-specified endpoints adjusting for clinical parameters in multivariable analysis. Adjusting for CHA2DS2-VASc score, CAC was associated with stroke (hazards ratio 3.64, 95% confidence interval 1.25-10.6, P = 0.018), death (2.26, 1.29-3.98, P = 0.006), and MACE (2.08, 1.36-3.16, P = 0.001) during 2.8 ± 1.6-year follow-up. Incorporating CAC as a vascular disease parameter of CHA2DS2-VASc score, anticoagulation decision-making would be revised in 723 (20.1%) patients, including an additional 488 (13.5%) patients where anticoagulation would be now indicated. CONCLUSION: Coronary artery calcification is prevalent in AF patients undergoing PVI and independently associated stroke, death and MACE even when adjusted for traditional CHA2DS2-VASc score. Adding CAC as vascular component to the CHA2DS2-VASc score requires further research as it potentially modified the anticoagulation management in 20% of our AF cohort.

4.
Europace ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33463688

RESUMO

AIMS: Heart rate recovery (HRR), the decrease in heart rate occurring immediately after exercise, is caused by the increase in vagal activity and sympathetic withdrawal occurring after exercise and is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality. The extent to which it impacts outcomes of atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation has not previously been studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between attenuated HRR and outcomes following AF ablation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 475 patients who underwent EST within 12 months of AF ablation. Patients were categorized into normal (>12 b.p.m.) and attenuated (≤12 b.p.m.) HRR groups. Our main outcomes of interest included arrhythmia recurrence and all-cause mortality. During a mean follow-up of 33 months, 43% of our study population experienced arrhythmia recurrence, 74% of those with an attenuated HRR, and 30% of those with a normal HRR (P < 0.0001). Death occurred in 9% of patients in the attenuated HRR group compared to 4% in the normal HRR cohort (P = 0.001). On multivariable models adjusting for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), medication use, left atrial size, ejection fraction, and renal function, attenuated HRR was predictive of increased arrhythmia recurrence (hazard ratio 2.54, 95% confidence interval 1.86-3.47, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Heart rate recovery provides additional valuable prognostic information beyond CRF. An impaired HRR is associated with significantly higher rates of arrhythmia recurrence and death following AF ablation.

5.
Support Care Cancer ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404816

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Integrative oncology (IO) is increasingly becoming part of palliative cancer care. This study examined the correlation between an IO treatment program and rates of survival among patients with advanced gynecological cancer. METHODS: Patients were referred by their oncology healthcare professionals to an integrative physician (IP) for consultation and IO treatments. Those undergoing at least 4 treatments during the 6 weeks following the consultation were considered adherence to the integrative care program (AIC), versus non-adherent (non-AIC). Survival was monitored for a period of 3 years, comparing the AIC vs. non-AIC groups, as well as controls who did not attend the IP consultation. RESULTS: A total of 189 patients were included: 71 in the AIC group, 44 non-AIC, and 74 controls. Overall 3-year survival was greater in the AIC group (vs. non-AIC, p = 0.012; vs. controls, p = 0.003), with no difference found between non-AIC and controls (p = 0.954). Multimodal IO programs (≥ 3 modalities) were correlated in the AIC group with greater overall 3-year survival (p = 0.027). Greater rates of survival were also found in the AIC group at 12 (p = 0.004) and 18 months (p = 0.001). When compared with the AIC group, a multivariate analysis found higher crude and adjusted hazard ratios for 3-year mortality in the non-AIC group (HR 95% CI 2.18 (1.2-3.9), p = 0.010) and controls (2.23 (1.35-3.7), p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Adherence to an IO treatment program was associated with higher survival rates among patients with advanced gynecological cancer. Larger prospective trials are needed to explore whether the IO setting enhances patients' resilience, coping, and adherence to oncology treatment.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20802, 2020 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257739

RESUMO

Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is one of the leading causes for hospitalization and mortality. Identifying high risk patients is essential to ensure proper management. Sequential Organ Function Assessment Score (SOFA) is considered an excellent score to predict short-term mortality in sepsis and other life-threatening conditions. To assess the capability of SOFA score in predicting short-term mortality in ADHF. We retrospectively identified patients with first hospitalization with primary diagnosis of ADHF between the years (2008-2018). The SOFA score was calculated for all patients. A total 3232 patients were included in the study. The SOFA score was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality and 30-day mortality. The odds ratios for 1-point increase in the SOFA score were 1.86 (95% CI 1.68-1.96) and 1.627 (95% CI 1.523-1.737) respectively. The SOFA Score demonstrated a good predictive accuracy. The areas under the curve of receiver operating characteristic curves for in-hospital mortality and 30-day mortality were 0.765 (95% CI 0.733-0.798) and 0.706 (95% CI 0.676-0.736) respectively. SOFA score is associated with increased risk of short-term mortality in ADHF. SOFA can be used as a complementary risk score to screen high risk patients who need strict monitoring.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk factors control and secondary prevention measures are often reported to be suboptimal in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and may lead to worse clinical outcomes. We aimed to examine potentially modifiable risk factors in patients undergoing CABG and investigate their association with long-term coronary events. METHODS: Cardiovascular risk factors were recorded preoperatively in the setting of a cardiac catheterization laboratory and were analyzed in relation to long-term coronary events, defined as acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or revascularization after CABG. RESULTS: Study population included 1,125 patients undergoing CABG without previous revascularization. Modifiable risk factors included hypertension (71%), hyperlipidemia (67%), diabetes (42%), obesity (28%), and smoking (21%). Only 8% did not have any of the five risk factors. During the mean follow-up of 93 ± 52 months after CABG, 179 patients (16%) experienced a coronary event. Incidence rates were higher in patients with than without the presence of each of the modifiable risk factors, except obesity. Active smoking (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI]: (1.07-2.13); p = 0.020), presence of diabetes (HR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.18-2.18; p = 0.002), and hyperlipidemia (HR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.45-3.14; p < 0.001) were independent predictors of future coronary events after CABG; they also displayed a progressive stepwise increment in the risk of long-term coronary events when cumulatively present. CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing CABG, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and smoking, as documented preoperatively, were potentially modifiable risk factors that were independently and cumulatively associated with long-term risk of ACS or coronary revascularization, highlighting the importance of early identification and risk factors control for improving cardiovascular health after CABG.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226544

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recent guidelines recommend further reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in high-risk populations. The use of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) enables many patients to achieve profound reduction in LDL-C. However, in patients with low cholesterol, the commonly used Friedewald equation tends to underestimate LDL-C, which may result in undertreatment. We aimed to compare Friedewald LDL-C estimation with the more novel Martin/Hopkins method in PCSK9i-treated patients achieving low LDL-C. METHODS: We investigated high-risk patients treated by PCSK9i in whom Friedewald LDL-C levels were < 70 mg/dL and triglycerides ≤ 300 mg/dL. LDL-C was additionally assessed by the Martin/Hopkins method. The compatibility between estimations was evaluated using methods of concordance and reclassification between LDL-C categories (< 25, 25-40, 40-55, 55-70 mg/dL) and according to triglyceride strata. RESULTS: Mean age was 65 ± 10 years. The correlation coefficient between LDL-C estimations was r = 0.898. Martin/Hopkins reclassified 269 of the 608 patients (44%) to a higher LDL-C category, with 14% of the patients reaching LDL-C > 70 mg/dL. Of the 390 patients achieving Friedewald LDL-C < 55 mg/dL, 113 (29%) were estimated to have LDL-C ≥ 55 mg/dL by the Martin/Hopkins equation. The magnitude of discordance between LDL-C estimates was more pronounced in hypertriglyceridemic patients in whom LDL-C reclassification from < 55 to ≥ 55 mg/dL was observed in 48%. CONCLUSIONS: In real-world practice of high-risk patients achieving low LDL-C under PCSK9i, Martin/Hopkins algorithm displayed significant proportion of LDL-C upward discordance compared to the Friedewald equation, particularly observed in patients with elevated triglycerides, identifying patients that may need treatment intensification.

9.
Cardiol J ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphopenia is associated with adverse prognosis in chronic disease states that are related to immune dysregulation. We aimed to determine the association between lymphopenia and mortality in patients presenting to coronary angiography and investigate whether elevated red blood cell distribution width (RDW), an established cardiovascular prognostic marker, further refines risk stratification. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients undergoing coronary angiography for evaluation or treatment of coronary artery disease between 2003 and 2018. Mortality risk associated with relative (1000-1500/µL) or severe (< 1000/µL) lymphopenia was analyzed using adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: Overall, 15,179 patients aged 65 ± 12 years underwent coronary angiography. During a median follow-up of 8 years, 4253 patients died. Compared to normal lymphocyte count, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was 1.31 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-1.41) and 1.97 (95% CI 1.75-2.22) for relative and severe lymphopenia, respectively. The increase in mortality associated with severe lymphopenia was significant in patients presenting in the non-acute setting (HR 2.18, 95% CI 1.74-2.73), ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.15-2.21), or unstable angina/non-STEMI (HR 2.00, 95% CI 1.70-2.34); p-value for interaction 0.626. The association of lymphopenia with mortality remained significant after additional adjustment to RDW. High RDW (> 14.5%) was associated with reduced survival, and it improved the predictive accuracy of lymphocytes count with an increase in Harrell's Concordance statistic from 0.634 (SE = 0.005) to 0.672 (SE = 0.005), p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: lymphopenia is associated with increased risk of mortality during long-term follow-up in patients undergoing coronary angiography, regardless of the coronary presentation. High RDW may enhance the predictive ability of lymphopenia.

10.
J Clin Lipidol ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) effectively reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), improving cardiovascular outcomes in clinical trials when added to statin therapy. OBJECTIVES: As real-world evidence is lacking, we aimed to evaluate treatment and adherence patterns using PCSK9i in clinical practice. METHODS: We investigated 1600 patients initiating PCSK9i between January 2016 and December 2019 in a large health maintenance organization. Treatment discontinuation was defined as a gap ≥60 days between last days' supply of one prescription and the start of the next. Re-initiation rates as well as proportion of days covered (PDC) over 1-year period and attainment of lipid goals under PCSK9i, were analyzed. RESULTS: Evolocumab 140 mg was initiated by 50.7%, alirocumab 75 mg by 29.5% and 150 mg by 19.8%. Cumulative discontinuation rates were 28.1% after 6-months and 49.9% after 3-years. Overall, 58% of the patients that discontinued therapy have re-initiated PCSK9i (31% after 3-months from discontinuation). Mean PDC over 1-year of therapy was 56% ± 29, with PDC ≥80% evident in 29%. Of those with established cardiovascular disease (n = 991), 55% achieved LDL-C<70 mg/dL and 38% LDL-C<55 mg/dL. Attainment rates were lower in patients with PDC<80%, baseline LDL-C>190 mg/dL and in those not treated with concurrent statin therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In real-world practice of patients treated by PCSK9i, high proportion of early treatment discontinuation was evident, with non-negligible re-initiation rates but overall low medication coverage over time. This have contributed to sub-optimal attainment of LDL-C treatment goals, particularly observed in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia, inadequate drug adherence, and those using PCSK9i as monotherapy.

11.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(10): 1265-1274, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092753

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to assess outcomes of pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) performed on athletes at a tertiary care center and to characterize its efficacy and physiological effects. BACKGROUND: The incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is increased in highly trained athletes and poses unique management challenges. METHODS: Athletes were identified through a database of patients undergoing PVI from January 2000 through October 2015. Outcomes of AF ablation were defined in accordance with published guidelines. Available electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, and exercise treadmill testing data were also analyzed. RESULTS: The study population included 144 athletes (93% men; mean age 50.4 ± 8.6 years; 97 paroxysmal, 38 persistent, and 9 long-standing persistent) with median follow-up of 3 years. Single-procedure freedom from arrhythmia was 75%, 68%, and 33% at 1 year for paroxysmal, persistent, and long-standing persistent AF, respectively. Multiple-procedure freedom from arrhythmia off antiarrhythmic drugs was 86%, 76%, and 56% in respective groups at the end of follow-up (mean 1.4 ± 0.7 ablations per athlete). Compared with a matched cohort of nonathletes who underwent PVI, there was no difference in arrhythmia recurrence (log-rank p = 0.23). Excluding long-standing persistent AF, longer diagnosis-to-ablation time was the only variable in Cox proportional hazards analyses associated with arrhythmia recurrence (adjusted heart rate per log increase: 1.92; 95% confidence interval: 1.40 to 2.73; p < 0.0001), and PVI within 2 years of diagnosis was notably associated with successful outcomes (log-rank p = 0.002). Sinus rate increased following the index ablation (mean 54 beats/min vs. 64 beats/min at >1 year; p < 0.0001), but maximum metabolic equivalents on exercise treadmill testing were unchanged (13.1 ± 1.2 vs. 12.7 ± 1.4; p = 0.44). CONCLUSIONS: PVI is an effective therapy in athletes with paroxysmal and persistent AF, and arrhythmia recurrence was no different from that among matched nonathletes. Early ablation was associated with improved success rates. Sustained cardioautonomic effects were observed following ablation, but exercise capacity was preserved.

12.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(10): 1278-1287, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092755

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and arrhythmia recurrence following atrial fibrillation ablation; and to examine the impact of NAFLD stage on outcomes. BACKGROUND: Metabolic derangements, including obesity and diabetes, are associated with incident and recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF), in addition to the development of NAFLD. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 267 consecutive patients undergoing AF ablation, 89 of whom were diagnosed with NAFLD prior to ablation and matched in a 2:1 manner based on age, sex, body mass index, ejection fraction, and AF type with 178 patients without NAFLD. Patients were monitored for arrhythmia recurrence during a mean follow-up of 29 months. RESULTS: Recurrent arrhythmia was observed in 50 (56%) patients with NAFLD compared with 37 (21%) without NAFLD. Epicardial fat volume was measured on computed tomography and was significantly higher among those with NAFLD (248 ± 125 ml vs. 223 ± 97 ml; p = 0.01). On multivariable models adjusting for sleep apnea, body mass index, heart failure, AF type, and left atrial size, NAFLD was independently associated with increased rates of arrhythmia recurrence (hazard ratio: 3.010; 95% confidence interval: 1.980 to 4.680; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: NAFLD is associated with significantly increased arrhythmia recurrence rates following AF ablation. Identification and reversal, where possible, may result in improved arrhythmia-free survival.

13.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901302

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is very limited evidence to support the common practice of preparative fasting prior to contrast-enhanced computerized tomography (CT). This study examined the effect of withholding fasting orders, prior to contrast-enhanced CT, on the incidence of aspiration pneumonitis and adverse gastrointestinal symptoms. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial enrolled hospitalized patients referred for non-emergency, contrast-enhanced CT scan to either at least 4 h of fasting or to an unrestricted consumption of liquids and solids up to the time of CT. The primary outcome was incidence of aspiration pneumonitis and the secondary outcomes were rates of adverse gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea and/or vomiting). RESULTS: After excluding participants with incomplete follow-up, a total of 1080 participants were assigned to the fasting group and 1011 were assigned to the non-fasting group. Aspiration pneumonitis was not identified in either group. The mean time of fasting in the fasting group was 8.4 ± 1.6 h. Rates of nausea and vomiting were not statistically different between the fasting group compared with the non-fasting group, 6.6% vs. 7.6% (p = 0.37) and 2.6% vs. 3.0% (p = 0.58), respectively. A subgroup analysis of patients who were required to drink oral contrast agent (n = 1257) showed that rates of nausea and vomiting were not statistically different between the fasting and non-fasting groups, 6.8% vs. 8.0% (p = 0.42) and 2.6% vs. 3.6% (p = 0.3), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Withholding fasting orders prior to contrast-enhanced CT was not associated with a greater risk of aspiration pneumonitis or a significant increase in rates of adverse gastrointestinal symptoms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT03533348 KEY POINTS: • Is fasting necessary prior to contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT)? • In this randomized clinical study including 2091 participants referred to non-emergency contrast-enhanced CT scan, withholding preparative fasting was not associated with a greater risk of aspiration pneumonitis or clinically significant increase in rates of adverse gastrointestinal symptoms. • Eating and drinking prior to contrast-enhanced CT can be allowed and are not associated with an increased risk of aspiration pneumonitis.

14.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 21(10): 48-55, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918386

RESUMO

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE(S): To study the heart motion using cardiac gated computed tomographies (CGCT) to provide guidance on treatment planning margins during cardiac stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). MATERIALS/METHODS: Ten patients were selected for this study, who received CGCT scans that were acquired with intravenous contrast under a voluntary breath-hold using a dual source CT scanner. For each patient, CGCT images were reconstructed in multiple phases (10%-90%) of the cardiac cycle and the left ventricle (LV), right ventricle (RV), ascending aorta (AAo), ostia of the right coronary artery (O-RCA), left coronary artery (O-LCA), and left anterior descending artery (LAD) were contoured at each phase. For these contours, the centroid displacements from their corresponding average positions were measured at each phase in the superior-inferior (SI), medial-lateral (ML), and anterior-posterior (AP). The average volumes as well as the maximum to minimum ratios were analyzed for the LV and RV. RESULTS: For the six contoured substructures, more than 90% of the measured displacements were <5 mm. For these patients, the average volumes ranged from 191.25 to 429.51 cc for LV and from 91.76 to 286.88 cc for RV. For each patient, the ratios of maximum to minimum volumes within a cardiac cycle ranged from 1.15 to 1.54 for LV and from 1.34 to 1.84 for RV. CONCLUSION: Based on this study, cardiac motion is variable depending on the specific substructure of the heart but is mostly within 5 mm. Depending on the location (central or peripheral) of the treatment target and treatment purposes, the treatment planning margins for targets and risk volumes should be adjusted accordingly. In the future, we will further assess heart motion and its dosimetric impact.

15.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(9): 1118-1127, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the incidence and prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTR-CA); to study the factors associated with the development of AF in this population; to study the prognostic implications of AF and maintenance of normal sinus rhythm (NSR) in patients with ATTR-CA; and to determine the impact of ATTR-CA stage on AF prevalence, outcomes, and efficacy of rhythm control strategies. BACKGROUND: AF is common in patients with ATTR-CA. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors, prevalence, and outcomes of AF in patients with ATTR-CA in addition to the efficacy of rhythm control strategies. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 382 patients with ATTR-CA diagnosed at our institution between January 2004 and January 2018. Means testing, and univariable and multivariable models were used. RESULTS: AF occurred in 265 (69%) patients. Factors associated with the development of AF included older age, advanced ATTR-CA stage, and higher left atrial volume index. Antiarrhythmic therapy (AAT) was used in 35% of patients with AF; cardioversion was performed in 45%, and 5% underwent AF ablation. Rhythm control strategies were substantially more effective when performed earlier in the disease course. During a mean follow-up of 35 months, no difference in mortality between patients with AF and those without AF was observed (65% vs. 49%; p = 0.76). On Cox proportional hazards analyses, maintenance of normal sinus rhythm and tafamidis use were associated with improved survival, whereas advanced ATTR-CA stage and higher New York Heart Association functional class were associated with increased mortality. CONCLUSIONS: With advancing ATTR-CA stage, AF became more prevalent, occurring in 69% of our entire study cohort. Rhythm control strategies including AAT, direct-current cardioversion, and AF ablation were substantially more effective when performed earlier during the disease course.

16.
Heart Rhythm ; 17(10): 1687-1693, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been shown to correlate with incident atrial fibrillation (AF) and AF burden. In recent years there has been increasing recognition of the pivotal role of modifying risk factors before AF ablation. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether higher baseline CRF measured using exercise stress testing (EST) was associated with improved outcomes after AF ablation. METHODS: We studied 591 patients who underwent EST within 12 months before AF ablation. Patients were categorized into low (<85% predicted), adequate (85%-100% predicted), and high (>100% predicted) CRF groups. Outcomes of interest included arrhythmia recurrence, cessation of antiarrhythmic therapy, repeat hospitalization for arrhythmia, repeat rhythm control procedures, and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: During mean follow-up of 32 months after ablation, arrhythmia recurrence was observed in 79% of patients in the low CRF group compared to 54% in the adequate CRF group and 27.5% in the high CRF group (P <.0001). Similarly, rates of repeat arrhythmia-related hospitalization, repeat rhythm control procedures, and need for ongoing antiarrhythmic therapy were significantly lower in the high CRF group (P <.0001). Death occurred in 2.5% of patients in the high CRF group compared to 4% in the adequate CRF group and 11% in the low CRF group (P <.0001). In Cox proportional hazards analyses, high CRF was significantly associated with lower arrhythmia recurrence. CONCLUSION: Higher CRF is associated with reduced arrhythmia recurrence rates and death among patients undergoing AF ablation. Efforts should be made to enhance CRF before AF ablation.

17.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 43(11): 1401-1403, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the poor long-term prognosis of patients with transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTR-CA), the role of primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) in this patient population remains controversial. We aimed to study the impact of primary prevention ICDs on survival in patients with ATTR-CA. METHODS: Among 382 patients diagnosed with ATTR-CA at our institution between 2004 and 2018, 19 had primary prevention ICDs implanted. This cohort was matched in a 1:3 manner on the basis of age, gender, ejection fraction (EF) and ATTR-CA stage with 57 patients without cardiac devices. Patients were followed up for a mean of 23 ± 19 months. Our primary outcome of interest was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Mean EF at the time of ICD implantation was 28 ± 8%. No patients had a history of sustained ventricular arrhythmia (VA) at the time of implant. Only a minority of patients were tolerant of optimal medical therapy due to renal impairment, hypotension, or a combination of the two. Death occurred in 43 (75%) patients without primary prevention ICDs and 16 (84%) patients with primary prevention ICDs, P = .26. Of the 19 patients with ICDs, three had inappropriate shocks delivered for atrial fibrillation, and none had therapies for sustained VAs. On Cox proportional hazards analyses, the presence of a primary prevention ICD was not associated with improved survival (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.4-1.3, P = .27). CONCLUSION: Primary prevention ICDs do not prolong survival in patients with ATTR-CA and a reduced EF. Our findings are observational and will need to be validated in future prospective studies.

19.
Am J Cardiol ; 128: 140-146, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650908

RESUMO

Transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTR-CA) is an increasingly recognized infiltrative cardiomyopathy in which conduction system disease is common. The aim of our study was to define the incidence and prevalence of high-grade atrioventricular (AV) block requiring pacemaker implantation in our quaternary referral center. This was a single-center retrospective cohort study of 369 consecutive patients with ATTR-CA who underwent 12-lead electrocardiogram at the time of ATTR-CA diagnosis. During a mean follow-up of 28 months, serial ECGs and the electronic medical record were examined for the development of high-grade AV block and pacemaker implantation. Wild-type ATTR-CA (wtATTR-CA) was diagnosed in 261 patients and 108 had hereditary ATTR-CA (hATTR-CA). A total of 35 (9.5%) had high-grade AV block requiring pacemaker implantation at the time of diagnosis of ATTR-CA. The most common conduction abnormalities evident on the baseline ECG were a wide QRS complex, present in 51% with wtATTR-CA and 48% with hATTR-CA (p = 0.62), followed by first-degree AV block, which was present in 49% with wtATTR-CA and 43% with hATTR-CA (p = 0.31). During follow-up, high-grade AV block developed in 10% of those with hATTR-CA and 12% of patients with wtATTR-CA (p = 0.64). On multivariable models, high-grade AV block was not significantly associated with increased mortality. More advanced ATTR-CA stage and a history of obstructive coronary artery disease were associated with increased mortality on multivariable models. In conclusion, the incidence and prevalence of high-grade AV block is high in patients with ATTR-CA. Patients with ATTR-CA require close monitoring during follow-up for the development of conduction system disease.


Assuntos
Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/fisiopatologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/complicações , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/genética , Amiloidose/complicações , Amiloidose/fisiopatologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/etiologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Bloqueio de Ramo/epidemiologia , Bloqueio de Ramo/etiologia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial , Cardiomiopatias/complicações , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Marca-Passo Artificial , Pré-Albumina/genética , Prevalência , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Síndrome do Nó Sinusal/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Nó Sinusal/etiologia
20.
Am J Cardiol ; 128: 28-34, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650921

RESUMO

Involvement of atherosclerosis in extracardiac vascular territories may identify coronary artery disease (CAD) patients at higher risk for adverse events. We investigated the long-term prognostic implications of polyvascular disease in patients with CAD, and further analyzed lipid goal attainment and its relation to patient outcomes. The study was a retrospective analysis of 10,297 patients who underwent coronary revascularization, categorized as having CAD alone (83.1%) or with multisite artery disease (MSAD) (16.9%) including cerebrovascular disease (CBVD) and/or peripheral artery disease (PAD). Incidence rates and hazard ratios (HR) for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or all-cause death) according to vascular territories involved, and in relation to most-recent lipid levels attained, were analyzed. Patients with MSAD were older with higher burden of co-morbidities. The rate of MACE (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or all-cause death) and its individual components increased with the number of affected vascular beds. Adjusted HR (95% confidence interval) for MACE was 1.41 (1.24 to 1.59) in patients with CAD and CBVD, 1.46 (1.33 to 1.62) in CAD and PAD, and 1.69 (1.49 to 1.92) in those with CAD and CBVD and PAD, compared with CAD alone. Most-recent low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels <55 mg/dl and <70 mg/dl were attained by 21.8% and 44.6% of patients with CAD alone, in comparison to 22.7% and 43.3% in MSAD. Compared with patients with most-recent LDL-C > 100 mg/dl, attaining LDL-C < 70 mg/dl had an adjusted HR for MACE of 0.52 (0.47 to 0.57) in CAD only patients and 0.66 (0.57 to 0.78) in MSAD patients. In conclusion, the presence of CBVD and/or PAD in patients with CAD is associated with higher burden of co-morbidities and progressive increase in long-term MACE. More than half of CAD patients with or without MSAD do not achieve lipid goals, which are associated with a significantly lower risk for adverse events.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Hipercolesterolemia/terapia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Revascularização Miocárdica , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angina Instável/epidemiologia , Angina Instável/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Comorbidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Israel/epidemiologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia
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