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1.
Educ Inf Technol (Dordr) ; : 1-17, 2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35789764

RESUMO

This study investigates the level of readiness for massive open online courses (MOOCs) of students in Oman. It compares the readiness of ordinary students in the Omani higher education institutions (HEIs) and those outside HEIs who took a MOOC from the larger Omani society and tests for the differences between their levels of readiness. Additionally, it tests for the best predictor for future participation in MOOCs. In this study, readiness is defined as the possession of three sets of skills: technological, metacognitive, and motivational. A sequential two-phase research approach was used by first collecting data from 428 students in different HEIs and then collecting the same data from 253 non-HEI students from the general public who were offered and took a MOOC specifically designed for this study. While high levels of the three sets of skills were found in both study samples, the MOOC students were found to have significantly higher motivational and metacognitive skills than the higher education students. In this study, binary regression results indicate that comfort with eLearning is the best predictor for future participation in MOOCs. Given the high student readiness for MOOCs in Oman in this study, some recommendations are provided for higher education institutions to benefit from the fast-moving MOOC phenomenon.

2.
Ann Surg ; 276(1): 22-29, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703455

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) as a predictor of long-term outcomes after injury. BACKGROUND: The SVI is a measure used in emergency preparedness to identify need for resources in the event of a disaster or hazardous event, ranking each census tract on 15 demographic/social factors. METHODS: Moderate-severely injured adult patients treated at 1 of 3 level-1 trauma centers were prospectively followed 6 to 14 months post-injury. These data were matched at the census tract level with overall SVI percentile rankings. Patients were stratified based on SVI quartiles, with the lowest quartile designated as low SVI, the middle 2 quartiles as average SVI, and the highest quartile as high SVI. Multivariable adjusted regression models were used to assess whether SVI was associated with long-term outcomes after injury. RESULTS: A total of 3153 patients were included [54% male, mean age 61.6 (SD = 21.6)]. The median overall SVI percentile rank was 35th (IQR: 16th-65th). compared to low SVI patients, high SVI patients were more likely to have new functional limitations [odds ratio (OR), 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19-1.92), to not have returned to work (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.40-2.89), and to screen positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.12-2.17). Similar results were obtained when comparing average with low SVI patients, with average SVI patients having significantly worse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The SVI has potential utility in predicting individuals at higher risk for adverse long-term outcomes after injury. This measure may be a useful needs assessment tool for clinicians and researchers in identifying communities that may benefit most from targeted prevention and intervention efforts.


Assuntos
Vulnerabilidade Social , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Centros de Traumatologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: By providing definitive care for many, and rapid assessment, resuscitation, stabilization, and transfer to Level I/II centers when needed, Level III trauma centers can augment capacity in high resource regions and extend the geographic reach to lower resource regions. We sought to (1) characterize populations served principally by Level III trauma centers (2) estimate differences in time to care by trauma center level, and (3) update national estimates of trauma center access. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study (United States, 2019), we estimated travel time from Census block groups to the nearest Level I/II trauma center and nearest Level III trauma center. Block groups were categorized based on the level of care accessible within 60 minutes, then distributions of population characteristics and differences in time to care were estimated. RESULTS: An estimated 22.8% of the US population (N = 76,119,228) lacked access to any level of trauma center care within 60 minutes, and 8.8% (N = 29,422,523) were principally served by Level III centers. Black and American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) populations were disproportionately represented among those principally served by Level III centers (39.1% and 12.2%, respectively). White and AIAN populations were disproportionately represented among those without access to any trauma center care (26.2% and 40.8%, respectively). Time to Level III care was shorter than Level I/II for 27.9% of the population, with a mean reduction in time to care of 28.9 minutes (SD = 31.4). CONCLUSIONS: Level III trauma centers are a potential source of trauma care for underserved populations. While Black and AIAN disproportionately rely on Level III centers for care, most with access to Level III centers also have access to Level I/II centers. The proportion of the US population with timely access to trauma care has not improved since 2010. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level VI, descriptive study.

4.
J Am Coll Surg ; 234(6): 1075-1081, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Management of patients on the kidney transplant waitlist lacks oversight, and transplant centers can delist candidates without consequence. To better understand between-center differences in waitlist management, we examined delisting rates and mortality after delisting within 3 years of removal from the kidney transplant waitlist. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective cohort study using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients of adults listed for deceased donor kidney transplant in 2015 and followed until the end of 2018. Patients of interest were those delisted for reasons other than transplant, death, or transfer. Centers were excluded if they had fewer than 20 waitlisted patients per year. We calculated probability of delisting and death after delisting using multivariable competing risk models. RESULTS: During follow-up, 14.2% of patients were delisted. The median probability of delisting within 3 years, adjusted for center-level variability, was 7.0% (interquartile range [IQR]: 3.9% to 10.6%). Median probability of death was 58.2% (IQR: 40% to 73.4%). There was no meaningful correlation between probability of delisting and death (τ = -0.05, p = 0.34). CONCLUSIONS: There is significant variability in the rate of death after delisting across kidney transplant centers. Likelihood of transplant is extremely important to candidates, and improved data collection efforts are needed to inform whether current delisting practices are successfully removing patients who could not meaningfully benefit from transplant, or whether certain populations may benefit from remaining on the list and maintaining eligibility.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Adulto , Benchmarking , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doadores de Tecidos , Listas de Espera
5.
Acad Radiol ; 2022 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597753

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health issue. This study aims to characterize IPV-related injuries in trauma patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) who required hospitalization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Trauma registries of two Level 1 trauma centers were searched for assault-related ED visits by adults reporting "abuse" over 3 and 5 years to identify IPV victims. Imaging and electronic medical records were reviewed for demographics, injury type, hospital stay, and previous or subsequent presentations for presumed IPV. RESULTS: Twenty-nine of 18,465 (0.2%) individuals seen on the trauma service had reported IPV. Majority were women (90%, mean age 37) and Caucasian (69%), over 50% had psychiatric or substance use comorbidities, and 45% reported prior IPV. Blunt trauma (22/29) was more common than penetrating trauma. Soft tissue injuries dominated when including both radiologic and non-radiologic findings. Excluding two patients who were not imaged, most frequent injuries identified on imaging were to the head/face (14/27), followed by the chest (9/27; mainly rib fractures), upper extremity and abdomen (7/27 each). All spinal fractures involved the upper lumbar spine. Synchronous injuries to multiple body regions were common, particularly craniofacial and upper extremity. Twenty-eight of 29 patients scored a grade 3-4 on the IPV severity grading scale. Eight (28%) patients required intensive care unit -level care. One patient passed. Four (14%) patients had prior IPV-related ED presentations. CONCLUSION: While craniofacial and soft tissue injuries dominate, IPV can also result in serious thoracoabdominal, extremity and spinal injuries, even death. Multisystem injuries are common with synchronous craniofacial and upper extremity injuries being the most common combination.

6.
Injury ; 2022 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437168

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite concerns about long-term dependence, opioids remain the mainstay of treatment for acute pain from traumatic injuries. Additionally, early pain management has been associated with improved long-term outcomes in injured patients. We sought to identify the patterns of prehospital pain management across the United States. METHODS: We used 2019 national emergency medical services (EMS) data to identify the use of pain management for acutely injured patients. Opioid specific dosing was calculated in morphine milligram equivalents (MME). The effects of opioids as well as adverse events were identified through objective patient data and structured provider documentation. RESULTS: We identified a total of 3,831,768 injured patients, 85% of whom were treated by an advanced life support (ALS) unit. There were 269,281 (7.0%) patients treated with opioids, including a small number of patients intubated by EMS (n = 1537; 0.6%). The median opioid dose was 10 MME [IQR 5-10] and fentanyl was the most commonly used opioid (88.2%). Patients treated with opioids had higher initial pain scores documented by EMS than those not receiving opioids (median: 9 vs 4, p<0.001), and had a median reduction in pain score of 3 points (IQR 1-5) based on the final prehospital pain score. Adverse events associated with opioid administration, including episodes of altered mental status (n = 453; 0.2%) and respiratory compromise (n = 252; 0.1%), were rare. For patients with severe pain (≥8/10), 27.3% of patients with major injuries (ISS ≥15) were treated with opioids, compared with 24.8% of those with moderate injuries (ISS 9-14), and 21.4% of those with minor (ISS 1-8) injuries (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The use of opioids in the prehospital setting significantly reduced pain among injured patients with few adverse events. Despite its efficacy and safety, the majority of patients with major injuries and severe pain do not receive opioid analgesia in the prehospital setting.

7.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(5): 821-830, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35468113

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Social determinants of health are known to impact patient-level outcomes, but they are often difficult to measure. The Social Vulnerability Index was created by the Centers for Disease Control to identify vulnerable communities using population-based measures. However, the relationship between SVI and trauma outcomes is poorly understood. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we merged SVI data with a statewide trauma registry and used three analytic models to evaluate the association between SVI quartile and inpatient trauma mortality: (1) an unadjusted model, (2) a claims-based model using only covariates available to claims datasets, and (3) a registry-based model incorporating robust clinical variables collected in accordance with the National Trauma Data Standard. RESULTS: We identified 83,607 adult trauma admissions from January 1, 2017, to September 30, 2020. Higher SVI was associated with worse mortality in the unadjusted model (odds ratio, 1.72 [95% confidence interval, 1.30-2.29] for highest vs. lowest SVI quintile). A weaker association between SVI and mortality was identified after adjusting for covariates common to claims data. Finally, there was no significant association between SVI and inpatient mortality after adjusting for covariates common to robust trauma registries (adjusted odds ratio, 1.10 [95% confidence interval, 0.80-1.53] for highest vs. lowest SVI quintile). Higher SVI was also associated with a higher likelihood of presenting with penetrating injuries, a shock index of >0.9, any Abbreviated Injury Scale score of >5, or in need of a blood transfusion (p < 0.05 for all). CONCLUSION: Patients living in communities with greater social vulnerability are more likely to die after trauma admission. However, after risk adjustment with robust clinical covariates, this association was no longer significant. Our findings suggest that the inequitable burden of trauma mortality is not driven by variation in quality of treatment, but rather in the lethality of injuries. As such, improving trauma survival among high-risk communities will require interventions and policies that target social and structural inequities upstream of trauma center admission. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic / Epidemiologic, Level IV.


Assuntos
34658 , Ferimentos Penetrantes , Escala Resumida de Ferimentos , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia
8.
J Surg Res ; 275: 115-128, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35272088

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Geographic variation is an inherent feature of the US health system. Despite efforts to account for geographic variation in trauma system strengthening, it remains unclear how trauma "regions" should be defined. The objective of this study is to evaluate the utility of a novel definition of Trauma Referral Regions (TRR) for assessing geographic variation in inpatient trauma across the age span of hospitalized trauma patients. METHODS: Using 2016-2017 State Inpatient Databases, we assessed the extent of geographic variability in three common metrics of hospital use (localization index, market share index, net patient flow) among TRRs and, as a comparison, trauma regions alternatively defined based on Hospital Referral Regions, Hospital Service Areas, and counties. RESULTS: A total of 860,593 admissions from 102 TRRs, 127 Hospital Referral Regions, 884 Hospital Service Areas, and 583 counties were included. Consistent with expectations for distinct trauma regions, TRR presented with high average localization indices (mean [standard deviation]: 83.4 [11.7%]), low market share indices (mean [standard deviation]: 11.9 [7.0%]), and net patient flows close to 1.00. Similar results were found among stratified pediatric, adult, and older adult patients. Associations between TRRs and variations in important demographic features (e.g., travel time by road to the nearest Level I or II Trauma Center) suggest that while indicative of standalone trauma regions, TRRs are also able to simultaneously capture critical variations in regional trauma care. CONCLUSIONS: TRRs offer a standalone set of geographic regions with minimal variation in common metrics of hospital use, minimal geographic clustering, and preserved associations with important demographic factors. They provide a needed, valid means of assessing geographic variation among trauma systems.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Idoso , Criança , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Centros de Traumatologia
9.
Am J Surg ; 224(1 Pt B): 584-589, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35300857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to decreased access to care and social isolation, which have the potential for negative psychophysical effects. We examine the impact of the pandemic on physical and mental health outcomes after trauma. METHODS: Patients in a prospective study were included. The cohort injured during the pandemic was compared to a cohort injured before the pandemic. We performed regression analyses to evaluate the association between the COVID-19 pandemic and physical and mental health outcomes. RESULTS: 1,398 patients were included. In adjusted analysis, patients injured during the pandemic scored significantly worse on the SF-12 physical composite score (OR 2.21; [95% CI 0.69-3.72]; P = 0.004) and were more likely to screen positive for depression (OR 1.46; [1.02-2.09]; P = 0.03) and anxiety (OR 1.56; [1.08-2.26]; P = 0.02). There was no significant difference in functional outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Patients injured during the COVID-19 pandemic had worse mental health outcomes but not physical health outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia
10.
J Surg Res ; 276: 31-36, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35334381

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) are surgical emergencies associated with high morbidity and mortality. Identifying risk factors for poor outcome is a critical part of preoperative decision-making and counseling. Sarcopenia, the loss of lean muscle mass, has been associated with an increased risk of mortality and can be measured using cross-sectional imaging. Our aim was to determine the impact of sarcopenia on mortality in patients with NSTI. We hypothesized that sarcopenia would be associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients with NSTI. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of NSTI patients admitted from 1995 to 2015 to two academic institutions. Operative and pathology reports were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis in all cases. Average bilateral psoas muscle cross-sectional area at L4, normalized for height (Total Psoas Index [TPI]), was calculated using computed tomography (CT). Sarcopenia was defined as TPI in the lowest sex-specific quartile. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the association between sarcopenia and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: There were 115 patients with preoperative imaging, 61% male and a median age of 57 y interquartile range (IQR 46.6-67.0). Overall in-hospital mortality was 12.1%. There was no significant difference in sex, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities and American Society of Anesthesiologists classification (Table 1). After multivariate analysis, sarcopenia was independently associated with increased in-hospital mortality (Odds ratio, 3.5; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.05-11.8). CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia is associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality in patients with NSTIs. Sarcopenia identifies patients with higher likelihood of poor outcomes, which can possibly help surgeons in counseling their patients and families.


Assuntos
Sarcopenia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculos Psoas/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculos Psoas/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/complicações , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/complicações , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/patologia
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e222448, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35294541

RESUMO

Importance: Trauma centers improve outcomes for young patients with serious injuries. However, most injury-related hospital admissions and deaths occur in older adults, and it is not clear whether trauma center care provides the same benefit in this population. Objective: To examine whether 30- and 365-day mortality of injured older adults is associated with the treating hospital's trauma center level. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective, population-based cohort study used Medicare claims data from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2016, for all fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries 66 years or older with inpatient admission for traumatic injury in 2014 to 2015. Data analysis was performed from January 1 to June 31, 2021. Preinjury health was measured using 2013 claims, and outcomes were measured through 2016. The population was stratified by anatomical injury pattern. Propensity scores for level I trauma center treatment were estimated using the Abbreviated Injury Scale, age, and residential proximity to trauma center and then used to match beneficiaries from each trauma level (I, II, III, and IV/non-trauma centers) by injury type. Exposure: Admitting hospital's trauma center level. Main Outcomes and Measures: Case fatality rates (CFRs) at 30 and 365 days after injury, estimated in the matched sample using multivariable, hierarchical logistic regression models. Results: A total of 433 169 Medicare beneficiaries (mean [SD] age, 82.9 [8.3] years; 68.4% female; 91.5% White) were included in the analysis. A total of 206 275 (47.6%) were admitted to non-trauma centers and 161 492 (37.3%) to level I or II trauma centers. Patients with isolated extremity fracture had the fewest deaths (365-day CFR ranged from 16.1% [95% CI, 11.2%-22.4%] to 17.4% [95% CI, 11.8%-24.6%] by trauma center status). Patients with both hip fracture and traumatic brain injury had the most deaths (365-day CFRs ranged from 33.4% [95% CI, 25.8%-42.1%] to 35.8% [95% CI, 28.9%-43.5%]). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that older adults do not benefit from existing trauma center care, which is designed with younger patients in mind. There is a critical need to improve trauma care practices to address common injury mechanisms and types of injury in older adults.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente , Centros de Traumatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Medicare , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
J Surg Res ; 275: 172-180, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35279583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) is defined as a total measure of an individual's economic or social position in relation to others. Income and educational level are often used as quantifiable objective measures of SES but are inherently limited. Perceived SES (p-SES), refers to an individual's perception of their own SES. Herein, we assess the correlation between objective SES (o-SES) as defined by income and educational level and p-SES after injury and compare their associations with long-term outcomes after injury. METHODS: Moderate-to-severely injured patients admitted to a Level 1 trauma center were asked to complete a phone-based survey assessing functional and mental health outcomes, social dysfunction, chronic pain, and return to work/school 6-12 mo postinjury. o-SES was determined by income and educational level (low educational level: high school or lower; low income: live in zip code with median income/household lower than the national median). p-SES was determined by asking patients to categorize their SES. The correlation coefficient between o-SES and p-SES was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression models were built to determine the associations between o-SES and p-SES and long-term outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 729 patients were included in this study. Patients who reported a low p-SES were younger, more likely to suffer penetrating injuries, and to have a weak social support network. Twenty-one percent of patients with high income and high educational level classified their p-SES as low or mid-low, and conversely, 46% of patients with low education and low income classified their p-SES as high or mid-high. The correlation coefficient between p-SES and o-SES was 0.2513. After adjusting for confounders, p-SES was a stronger predictor of long-term outcomes, including functional limitations, social dysfunction, mental health outcomes, return to work/school, and chronic pain than was o-SES. CONCLUSIONS: Patient-reported p-SES correlates poorly with o-SES indicating that the commonly used calculation of income and education may not accurately capture an individuals' SES. Furthermore, we found p-SES to be more strongly correlated with long-term outcome measures than o-SES. As we strive to improve long-term outcomes after injury, p-SES may be an important variable in the early identification of individuals who are likely to suffer from worse long-term outcomes after injury.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Escolaridade , Humanos , Renda , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Centros de Traumatologia
13.
Hematology ; 27(1): 232-238, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35156559

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To establish a reliable XN-HPC cutoff, for an effective CD34 + cell count of ≥2 × 106cells/kg of the recipient's body weight, in harvested bone marrow products in allogenic transplantation. METHODS: The study was carried out in two phases. In retrospective Phase 1, data from 47 donors were analyzed. Sysmex analyzer XN-20 and BD FACS Calibur were employed to process XN-HPC and CD34 + cell enumeration, respectively. To make the two variables comparable, both XN-HPC and CD34 + cell counts were reported as the number of cells/kg of the recipient's body weight. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated for CD34 + cells and XN-HPC, followed by the calculation of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to identify the XN-HPC value which could effectively predict the cutoff of ≥2 × 106 CD34 + cells/kg of the recipient's body weight. In Phase 2, the computed XN-HPC cutoff was validated in a prospective set of 53 donors by obtaining the positive and negative predictive values. RESULTS: Statistically significant correlation was obtained between XN-HPC and CD34 + cell count with Spearman's rho of 0.54 (p-value <0.001). The optimal XN-HPC cutoff, for the required CD34 + ve cell count of ≥2 × 106 cells/kg of the recipient's body weight, was calculated to be ≥2.80×106 cells/kg of the recipient's body weight with the specificity and sensitivity of 100% and 31%, respectively. The ROC curve demonstrated the area under the curve to be 0.74. Phase 2 validation revealed 100% PPV. CONCLUSIONS: For harvested bone marrow products with XN-HPC of ≥2.80×106 cell/kg of the recipient's body weight, CD34 + cell enumeration by flow cytometry can safely be disposed of.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea , Separação Celular , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Células-Tronco , Doadores de Tecidos , Aloenxertos , Antígenos CD34 , Contagem de Células , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(5): 906-915, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35001020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2016, the National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine called for the development of a National Trauma Research Action Plan. The Department of Defense funded the Coalition for National Trauma Research to generate a comprehensive research agenda spanning the continuum of trauma and burn care. Given the public health burden of injuries to the central nervous system, neurotrauma was one of 11 panels formed to address this recommendation with a gap analysis and generation of high-priority research questions. METHODS: We recruited interdisciplinary experts to identify gaps in the neurotrauma literature, generate research questions, and prioritize those questions using a consensus-driven Delphi survey approach. We conducted four Delphi rounds in which participants generated key research questions and then prioritized the importance of the questions on a 9-point Likert scale. Consensus was defined as 60% or greater of panelists agreeing on the priority category. We then coded research questions using an National Trauma Research Action Plan taxonomy of 118 research concepts, which were consistent across all 11 panels. RESULTS: Twenty-eight neurotrauma experts generated 675 research questions. Of these, 364 (53.9%) reached consensus, and 56 were determined to be high priority (15.4%), 303 were deemed to be medium priority (83.2%), and 5 were low priority (1.4%). The research topics were stratified into three groups-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), mild TBI (mTBI), and spinal cord injury. The number of high-priority questions for each subtopic was 46 for severe TBI (19.7%), 3 for mTBI (4.3%) and 7 for SCI (11.7%). CONCLUSION: This Delphi gap analysis of neurotrauma research identified 56 high-priority research questions. There are clear areas of focus for severe TBI, mTBI, and spinal cord injury that will help guide investigators in future neurotrauma research. Funding agencies should consider these gaps when they prioritize future research. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic Test or Criteria, Level IV.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/epidemiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Consenso , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Projetos de Pesquisa
16.
Infection ; 50(2): 289-293, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807403

RESUMO

The first cases of COVID-19 were reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Skin manifestations of COVID-19 vary, among which herpes zoster has recently been found to be associated with the infection. We studied the available literature regarding COVID-19-associated herpes zoster (HZ). We searched the PubMed and Scopus databases for available literature till 20th of May 2021 using the following terms: 'Herpes zoster' or 'Varicella zoster virus' and "COVID-19" or "coronavirus disease" or "SARS-CoV-2". This search revealed 87 publications, of which 29 articles met the inclusion criteria. A total of 29 patients had HZ associated with COVID-19 infection. The patients' ages ranged from 7 to 82 years, averaging 56 years. Thirteen patients (45%) were men and 16 (55%) women. We summarized the demographic data, clinical data, comorbidities, treatment used, lymphocyte count, and distribution and timeline of HZ rash in COVID patients. Lymphopenia was prevalent in 86.6% of patients (where lymphocyte data were available). We discuss possible causes of HZ due to COVID-19. More and larger studies are needed to confirm any relationship between these two infections; however, this study may pave the way for similar studies on this topic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Herpes Zoster , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/complicações , Criança , China , Feminino , Herpes Zoster/complicações , Herpes Zoster/epidemiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 3 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(1): 117-125, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current national burden of emergency general surgery (EGS) illnesses and the extent of surgeon involvement in the care of these patients remain largely unknown. To inform needs assessments, research, and education, we sought to: (1) translate previously developed International Classification of Diseases (ICD), 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis codes representing EGS conditions to ICD 10th Revision, CM (ICD-10-CM) codes and (2) determine the national burden of and assess surgeon involvement across EGS conditions. METHODS: We converted ICD-9-CM codes to candidate ICD-10-CM codes using General Equivalence Mappings then iteratively refined the code list. We used National Inpatient Sample 2016 to 2017 data to develop a national estimate of the burden of EGS disease. To evaluate surgeon involvement, using Wisconsin Hospital Association discharge data (January 1, 2016 to June 30, 2018), we selected adult urgent/emergent encounters with an EGS condition as the principal diagnosis. Surgeon involvement was defined as a surgeon being either the attending provider or procedural physician. RESULTS: Four hundred and eighty-five ICD-9-CM codes mapped to 1,696 ICD-10-CM codes. The final list contained 985 ICD-10-CM codes. Nationally, there were 2,977,843 adult patient encounters with an ICD-10-CM EGS diagnosis. Of 94,903 EGS patients in the Wisconsin Hospital Association data set, most encounters were inpatient as compared with observation (75,878 [80.0%] vs. 19,025 [20.0%]). There were 57,780 patients (60.9%) that underwent any procedure. Among all Wisconsin EGS patients, most had no surgeon involvement (64.9% [n = 61,616]). Of the seven most common EGS diagnoses, surgeon involvement was highest for appendicitis (96.0%) and biliary tract disease (77.1%). For the other five most common conditions (skin/soft tissue infections, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, intestinal obstruction/ileus, pancreatitis, diverticular disease), surgeons were involved in roughly 20% of patient care episodes. CONCLUSION: Surgeon involvement for EGS conditions ranges from highly likely (appendicitis) to relatively unlikely (skin/soft tissue infections). The wide range in surgeon involvement underscores the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration in the care of EGS patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic/epidemiological, Level III.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Emergências/epidemiologia , Cirurgia Geral/organização & administração , Papel do Médico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Ferimentos e Lesões , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cirurgiões , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Wisconsin/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia
18.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(2): 277-286, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the ubiquity of rib fractures in patients with blunt chest trauma, long-term outcomes for patients with this injury pattern are not well described. METHODS: The Functional Outcomes and Recovery after Trauma Emergencies (FORTE) project has established a multicenter prospective registry with 6- to 12-month follow-up for trauma patients treated at participating centers. We combined the FORTE registry with a detailed retrospective chart review investigating admission variables and injury characteristics. All trauma survivors with complete FORTE data and isolated chest trauma (Abbreviated Injury Scale score of ≤1 in all other regions) with rib fractures were included. Outcomes included chronic pain, limitation in activities of daily living, physical limitations, exercise limitations, return to work, and both inpatient and discharge pain control modalities. Multivariable logistic regression models were built for each outcome using clinically relevant demographic and injury characteristic univariate predictors. RESULTS: We identified 279 patients with isolated rib fractures. The median age of the cohort was 68 years (interquartile range, 56-78 years), 59% were male, and 84% were White. Functional and quality of life limitations were common among survivors of isolated rib fractures even 6 to 12 months after injury. Forty-three percent of patients without a preexisting pain disorder reported new daily pain, and new chronic pain was associated with low resilience. Limitations in physical functioning and exercise capacity were reported in 56% and 51% of patients, respectively. Of those working preinjury, 28% had not returned to work. New limitations in activities of daily living were reported in 29% of patients older than 65 years. Older age, higher number of rib fractures, and intensive care unit admission were independently associated with higher odds of receiving regional anesthesia. Receiving a regional nerve block did not have a statistically significant association with any patient-reported outcome measures. CONCLUSION: Isolated rib fractures are a nontrivial trauma burden associated with functional impairment and chronic pain even 6 to 12 months after injury. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic/epidemiologic, level III.


Assuntos
Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Escala Resumida de Ferimentos , Idoso , Dor Crônica/etiologia , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 91(6): 988-994, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Timely recognition of sepsis and identification of pathogens can improve outcomes in critical care patients but microbial cultures have low accuracy and long turnaround times. In this proof-of-principle study, we describe metagenomic sequencing and analysis of nonhuman DNA in plasma. We hypothesized that quantitative analysis of bacterial DNA (bDNA) levels in plasma can enable detection and monitoring of pathogens. METHODS: We enrolled 30 patients suspected of sepsis in the surgical trauma intensive care unit and collected plasma samples at the time of diagnostic workup for sepsis (baseline), and 7 days and 14 days later. We performed metagenomic sequencing of plasma DNA and used computational classification of sequencing reads to detect and quantify total and pathogen-specific bDNA fraction. To improve assay sensitivity, we developed an enrichment method for bDNA based on size selection for shorter fragment lengths. Differences in bDNA fractions between samples were evaluated using t test and linear mixed-effects model, following log transformation. RESULTS: We analyzed 72 plasma samples from 30 patients. Twenty-seven samples (37.5%) were collected at the time of infection. Median total bDNA fraction was 1.6 times higher in these samples compared with samples with no infection (0.011% and 0.0068%, respectively, p < 0.001). In 17 patients who had active infection at enrollment and at least one follow-up sample collected, total bDNA fractions were higher at baseline compared with the next sample (p < 0.001). Following enrichment, bDNA fractions increased in paired samples by a mean of 16.9-fold. Of 17 samples collected at the time when bacterial pathogens were identified, we detected pathogen-specific DNA in 13 plasma samples (76.5%). CONCLUSION: Bacterial DNA levels in plasma are elevated in critically ill patients with active infection. Pathogen-specific DNA is detectable in plasma, particularly after enrichment using selection for shorter fragments. Serial changes in bDNA levels may be informative of treatment response. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic/Prognostic, Level V.


Assuntos
Bactérias , DNA Bacteriano , Metagenômica/métodos , Sepse , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Estado Terminal/terapia , DNA Bacteriano/sangue , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Melhoria de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/microbiologia , Sepse/terapia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Ann Surg ; 274(6): 913-920, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334655

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Determine the proportion and characteristics of traumatic injury survivors who perceive a negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their recovery and to define post-injury outcomes for this cohort. BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has precipitated physical, psychological, and social stressors that may create a uniquely difficult recovery and reintegration environment for injured patients. METHODS: Adult (≥18 years) survivors of moderate-to-severe injury completed a survey 6 to 14 months post-injury during the COVID-19 pandemic. This survey queried individuals about the perceived impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on injury recovery and assessed post-injury functional and mental health outcomes. Regression models were built to identify factors associated with a perceived negative impact of the pandemic on injury recovery, and to define the relationship between these perceptions and long-term outcomes. RESULTS: Of 597 eligible trauma survivors who were contacted, 403 (67.5%) completed the survey. Twenty-nine percent reported that the COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted their recovery and 24% reported difficulty accessing needed healthcare. Younger age, lower perceived-socioeconomic status, extremity injury, and prior psychiatric illness were independently associated with negative perceived impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on injury recovery. In adjusted analyses, patients who reported a negative impact of the pandemic on their recovery were more likely to have new functional limitations, daily pain, lower physical and mental component scores of the Short-Form-12 and to screen positive for PTSD and depression. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic is negatively impacting the recovery of trauma survivors. It is essential that we recognize the impact of the pandemic on injured patients while focusing on directed efforts to improve the long-term outcomes of this already at-risk population.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Qualidade de Vida , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
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