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Salud Publica Mex ; 61(4): 504-513, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314212


OBJECTIVE: To estimate the out-of-pocket expenses (OOPE) during the last year of life in Mexican older adults (OA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Estimation of the OOPE corresponding to the last year of life of OA, adjusting by type of management, affiliation and cause of death. Data from the National Health and Aging Study in Mexico (2012) were used. To calculate the total OOPE, the expenses in the last year were used in: medications, medical consultations and hospitalization. The OOPE was adjusted for inflation and is reported in US dollars 2018. RESULTS: The mean OOPE was $6 255.3±18 500. In the ambulatory care group, the OOPE was $4 134.9±13 631.3. The OOPE in hospitalization was $7 050.6±19 971.0. CONCLUSIONS: The probability of incurre in OOPE is lower when hospitalization is not required. With hospitalization, affiliation to social security and attending to public hospitals plays a protective role.

PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212558, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807590


AIM: This systematic review and meta-analysis characterizes the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among intravenous drug users (IDUs) in upper middle-income countries. METHODS: Five databases were searched from 1990-2016 for studies that took place in countries with a GDP per capita of $7,000 to $13,000 USD. The data extraction was performed based on information regarding prevalence, sample size, age of participants, duration of intravenous drug use (IDU), recruitment location, dates of data collection, study design, sampling scheme, type of tests used in identifying antibody reactivity to HCV, and the use of confirmatory tests. The synthesis was performed with a random effects model. The Cochrane statistical Q-test was used to evaluate the statistical heterogeneity of the results. RESULTS: The 33 studies included in the analysis correspond to a sample of seven countries and 23,342 observations. The point prevalence value estimates and confidence intervals of the random effects model were 0.729 and 0.644-0.800, respectively for all seven countries, and were greatest for China (0.633; 0.522-0.732) as compared to Brazil (0.396; 0.249-0.564). Prevalence for Montenegro (0.416; 0.237-0.621) and Malaysia (0.475; 0.177-0.792) appear to be intermediate. Mexico (0.960) and Mauritania (0.973) had only one study with the largest prevalence. A clear association was not observed between age or duration of IDU and prevalence of HCV, but the data from some groups may indicate a possible relationship. The measures of heterogeneity (Q and I2) suggest a high level of heterogeneity in studies conducted at the country level and by groups of countries. CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we found that the pooled prevalence of HCV was high (0.729) among a group of seven upper middle income countries. However, there was significant variation in the prevalence of HCV observed in China (0.633) and Brazil (0.396).

PLoS One ; 14(1): e0208076, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629602


AIM: To examine the burden of out-of-pocket household expenditures and time spent on care by families responsible for children with Down Syndrome (DS). METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed after surveying families of children with DS. The children all received medical care at the Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gomez (HIMFG), a National Institute of Health. Data were collected on out-of-pocket household expenditures for the medical care of these children. The percentage of such expenditure was calculated in relation to available household expenditure (after subtracting the cost of food/housing), and the percentage of households with catastrophic expenditure. Finally, the time spent on the care of the child was assessed. RESULTS: The socioeconomic analysis showed that 67% of the households with children with DS who received medical care in the HIMFG were within the lower four deciles (I-IV) of expenses, indicating a limited ability to pay for medical services. Yearly out-of-pocket expenditures for a child with DS represented 27% of the available household expenditure, which is equivalent to $464 for the United States dollars (USD). On average, 33% of families with DS children had catastrophic expenses, and 46% of the families had to borrow money to pay for medical expenses. The percentage of catastrophic expenditure was greater for a household with children aged five or older compared with households with younger children. The regression analysis revealed that the age of the child is the most significant factor determining the time spent on care. CONCLUSIONS: Some Mexican families of children with DS incur substantial out-of-pocket expenditures, which constitute an economic burden for families of children who received medical care at the HIMFG.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(12): e0006938, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30550569


BACKGROUND: Given that dengue disease is growing and may progress to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), data on economic cost and disease burden are important. However, data for Mexico are limited. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Burden of dengue fever (DF) and DHF in Mexico was assessed using official databases for epidemiological information, disabilities weights from Shepard et al, the reported number of cases and deaths, and costs. Overall costs of dengue were summed from direct medical costs to the health system, cost of dengue to the patient (out-of-pocket expenses [medical and non-medical], indirect costs [loss of earnings, patient and/or caregiver]), and other government expenditures on prevention/surveillance. The first three components, calculated as costs per case by a micro-costing approach (PAATI; program, actions, activities, tasks, inputs), were scaled up to overall cost using epidemiology data from official databases. PAATI was used to calculate cost of vector control and prevention, education, and epidemiological surveillance, based on an expert consensus and normative construction of an ideal scenario. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for Mexico in 2016 were calculated to be 2283.46 (1.87 per 100,000 inhabitants). Overall economic impact of dengue in Mexico for 2012 was US$144 million, of which US$44 million corresponded to direct medical costs and US$5 million to the costs from the patient's perspective. The estimated cost of prevention/surveillance was calculated with information provided by federal government to be US$95 million. The overall economic impact of DF and DHF showed an increase in 2013 to US$161 million and a decrease to US$133, US$131 and US$130 million in 2014, 2015 and 2016, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The medical and economic impact of dengue were in agreement with other international studies, and highlight the need to include governmental expenditure for prevention/surveillance in overall cost analyses given the high economic impact of these, increasing the necessity to evaluate its effectiveness.

Dengue/economia , Dengue Grave/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cuidadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Pessoas com Deficiência , Programas Governamentais , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Dengue Grave/epidemiologia , Dengue Grave/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-34522


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Identificar el nivel de empoderamiento y las características del apoyo social de los individuos con enfermedad renal crónica (ERC). Métodos. Estudio transversal en personas con enfermedad renal crónica que habitan en el municipio de Hidalgo, Michoacán, México, y que asisten a la Asociación de Enfermos del Riñón, Asociación Civil (A.C.). Se indagó sobre el perfil sociodemográfico y las características personales asociadas a la enfermedad, el nivel de empoderamiento, el nivel de apoyo social y el funcionamiento familiar. Resultados. Cerca de 90% de la muestra cuenta con apoyo social suficiente, mientras que 40% de los participantes pertenece a familias semirrelacionadas o relacionadas. El puntaje de empoderamiento global fue de 117,5 ± 14,3; el empoderamiento comunitario fue más alto en el grupo de mayor edad (P < 0,05). La interacción social positiva es el componente del apoyo social que correlaciona con mayor fuerza con el nivel de empoderamiento (r = 0,333; P < 0,01). Conclusiones. El empoderamiento está determinado por, y es un determinante del apoyo social y ha facilitado el acceso a la terapia de reemplazo renal en esta comunidad.

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. Identify the degree of empowerment and the characteristics of the social support for individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods. Cross-sectional study of people with chronic kidney disease living in the municipality of Hidalgo, Michoacán, Mexico, who belong to the Association of Kidney Patients, Civil Association. The study examined the sociodemographic profile and personal characteristics associated with the disease, the degree of empowerment, the degree of social support, and family functioning. Results. Close to 90% of the sample receives sufficient social support, while 40% of the participants belong to semi-cohesive or cohesive families The overall empowerment score was 117.5 ± 14.3; community empowerment was higher in the older group (P < 0.05). Positive social interaction is the social support component most strongly correlated with the degree of empowerment (r = 0.333; P < 0.01). Conclusions. Empowerment is determined by, and is a determinant of, social support and has facilitated access to renal replacement therapy in this community.Objective. Identify the degree of empowerment and the characteristics of the social support for individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Identificar o nível de empoderamento e apoio social de pacientes com nefropatia crônica. Métodos. Estudo transversal realizado com pacientes com nefropatia crônica residentes no município de Fidalgo, Michoacán, México, que participavam de uma associação civil de pacientes renais crônicos (Asociación de Enfermos del Riñón). Foram investigados aspectos pessoais e sociodemográficos dos pacientes associados à doença, nível de empoderamento e apoio social e funcionamento familiar. Resultados. Cerca de 90% da amostra estudada dispõem de uma rede de apoio social satisfatória e 40% pertencem a famílias com boa coesão ou coesão média. A pontuação global de empoderamento foi de 117,5 ± 14,3 e o empoderamento comunitário foi maior no grupo com idade mais avançada (P < 0,05). Interação social positiva é o componente da rede de apoio social com correlação mais forte com o nível de empoderamento (r = 0,333; P < 0,01). Conclusões. O empoderamento é determinado pela rede de apoio social, sendo também um determinante deste apoio, e facilita o acesso à terapia renal substitutiva nesta comunidade.

Apoio Social , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Apoio Social , Insuficiência Renal Crônica
Biomed Res Int ; 2017: 6069374, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28503570


Objectives. To construct a frailty index from next-of-kin information of the last year of life of community-dwelling 50 years old or older adults and test its association with health services utilization. Methods. Cross-sectional analysis from next-of-kin data available from the last wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS). Measurements. Along with descriptive statistics, the frailty index (FI) was tested in regression models to assess its association with adverse outcomes previous to death: number of hospitalized days in the previous year and number of visits to a physician in the previous year, in unadjusted and adjusted models. Results. From a total of 2,649 individuals the mean of age was 74.8 (±11.4) and 56.3% (n = 1,183) were women. The mean of the FI was of 0.279 (±SD 0.131, R = 0.0-0.738) and distribution was biased to the right. There was a significant association (p < 0.001) between the FI and number of hospitalized days (ß = 45.7, 95% CI 36.1-55.4, p < 0.001) and for the number of visits to a physician (ß = 25.93, 95% CI 19.27-32.6, p < 0.001) both models adjusted for age and sex. Conclusion. The FI constructed with next-of-kin data showed similar characteristics to similar indexes of older adults. It was independently associated with health care use.

Envelhecimento/patologia , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 10(8): e0004897, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27501146


INTRODUCTION: The increasing burden of dengue fever (DF) in the Americas, and the current epidemic in previously unaffected countries, generate major costs for national healthcare systems. There is a need to quantify the average cost per DF case. In Mexico, few data are available on costs, despite DF being endemic in some areas. Extrapolations from studies in other countries may prove unreliable and are complicated by the two main Mexican healthcare systems (the Secretariat of Health [SS] and the Mexican Social Security Institute [IMSS]). The present study aimed to generate specific average DF cost-per-case data for Mexico using a micro-costing approach. METHODS: Expected medical costs associated with an ideal management protocol for DF (denoted ´ideal costs´) were compared with the medical costs of current treatment practice (denoted ´real costs´) in 2012. Real cost data were derived from chart review of DF cases and interviews with patients and key personnel from 64 selected hospitals and ambulatory care units in 16 states for IMSS and SS. In both institutions, ideal and real costs were estimated using the program, actions, activities, tasks, inputs (PAATI) approach, a micro-costing technique developed by us. RESULTS: Clinical pathways were obtained for 1,168 patients following review of 1,293 charts. Ideal and real costs for SS patients were US$165.72 and US$32.60, respectively, in the outpatient setting, and US$587.77 and US$490.93, respectively, in the hospital setting. For IMSS patients, ideal and real costs were US$337.50 and US$92.03, respectively, in the outpatient setting, and US$2,042.54 and US$1,644.69 in the hospital setting. CONCLUSIONS: The markedly higher ideal versus real costs may indicate deficiencies in the actual care of patients with DF. It may be necessary to derive better estimates with micro-costing techniques and compare the ideal protocol with current practice when calculating these costs, as patients do not always receive optimal care.

Dengue/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , México
PLoS One ; 11(5): e0154625, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27159320


AIM: We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of seven hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing strategies in blood donors. METHODS: Three of the seven strategies were based on HCV diagnosis and reporting guidelines in Mexico and four were from previous and current recommendations outlined by the CDC. The strategies that were evaluated determine antibody levels according to the signal-to-cut-off (S/CO) ratio and use reflex Immunoblot (IMB) or HCV RNA tests to confirm true positive (TP) cases of chronic HCV infection. Costs were calculated from the perspective of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). A decision tree model was developed to estimate the expected number of true positive cases and costs for the base-case scenarios and for the sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Base-case findings indicate an extended dominance of the CDC-USA2 and CDC-USA4 options by the IMSS Mexico3 and IMSS-Mexico1 alternatives. The probabilistic sensitivity analyses results suggest that for a willingness-to-pay (WTP) range of $0-9,000 USD the IMSS-Mexico1 strategy is the most cost-effective of all strategies ($5,000 USD per TP). The IMSS-Mexico3, IMSS-Mexico2, and CDC-USA3 strategies are also cost-effective strategies that cost between $7,800 and $8,800 USD per TP case detected. The CDC-USA1 strategy was very expensive and not cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: HCV antibody testing strategies based on the classification of two or three levels of the S/CO are cost-effective procedures to identify patients who require reflex IMB or HCV RNA testing to confirm chronic HCV infection.

Doadores de Sangue , Análise Custo-Benefício , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico , Humanos
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 39(2),feb. 2016
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-28217


Objetivo. Estimar la razón de costo-efectividad de una intervención breve de cinco pasos dirigida a reducir el estrés y los síntomas depresivos causados por convivir con un consumidor excesivo de alcohol. Métodos. El análisis costo-efectividad se realizó usando un árbol de decisión y se basó en los síntomas depresivos medidos con la escala CES-D. La efectividad de la intervención breve se evaluó comparando un grupo de mujeres indígenas que recibieron la intervención (n = 43) con otro similar sin intervención (n = 30). Los grupos se evaluaron antes, inmediatamente después de la intervención y a los 12 meses y se llevó a cabo en el Estado de Hidalgo, en México. El tratamiento farmacológico fue seleccionado como alternativa de comparación utilizando distintas estimaciones. Para evaluar el valor de la remisión de los síntomas de depresión se emplearon las razones de costo- efectividad y costo-efectividad incremental. Asimismo, se realizaron análisis de sensibilidad. Resultados. La intervención breve resultó ser más efectiva que la farmacológica en la remisión de síntomas depresivos y su costo fue más bajo ($US 31,24 y $US 107,60, respectivamente). Solo si la intervención breve incrementara su costo por encima de 338% o si su efectividad fuera menor de 22,8% dejaría de ser costo-efectiva. Conclusiones. La intervención breve de cinco pasos es una alternativa costo-efectiva con la cual se consiguen reducir significativamente los síntomas de depresión de las mujeres indígenas ocasionados por convivir con un consumidor excesivo de alcohol, así como una opción accesible para la atención de la salud mental en el primer nivel de atención.

Objective. Estimate the cost-effectiveness ratio of a five-step brief intervention aimed at reducing the stress and symptoms of depression caused by living with an alcohol abuser. Methods. The cost-effectiveness analysis was carried out with a decision tree, based on symptoms of depression measured on the CES-D scale. The effectiveness of the brief intervention was evaluated by comparing a group of indigenous women who received the intervention (n = 43) with a similar group who did not (n = 30). The groups were evaluated before, immediately after, and 12 months after the intervention, in the state of Hidalgo (Mexico). Pharmacological treatment was selected for comparison, using different estimates. Cost-effectiveness and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were used to calculate the value of the remission of depressive symptoms. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted. Results. The brief intervention turned out to be more effective than the pharmacological one in terms of the remission of depressive symptoms. Its cost was also lower ($US 31.24 versus $US 107.60). The brief intervention would cease to be cost-effective only if its cost increased by 338% or more, or if its effectiveness were 22.8% or less. Conclusions. The five-step brief intervention is a cost-effective option that results in significant reductions in depressive symptoms in indigenous women caused by living with alcohol abusers. It is also an affordable option for primary mental health care.

Depressão , Avaliação de Custo-Efetividade , População Indígena , México , Avaliação de Custo-Efetividade , Depressão , Grupos Populacionais
Rev Invest Clin ; 67(4): 219-26, 2015 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26426587


BACKGROUND: The value of drug-eluting stents in preventing cardiovascular events has not been investigated in Mexico. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of early and new-generation drug-eluting stents from the perspective of a healthcare provider. METHODS: We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of early and new-generation drug-eluting stents in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy attending a Cardiology Hospital of the Mexican Social Security Institute. The health endpoint used was major acute cardiovascular events prevented. The effectiveness by stent type was obtained from the literature. A retrospective chart review study was conducted to collect cost data on cardiovascular events including seven cost categories. Average and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of estimates. RESULTS: Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios in base-case were 28,910 and US$ 35,590 for early and new-generation stents, respectively. In an optimal scenario, incremental-cost effectiveness ratio was 24,776 and US$ 25,262 for early and new stents, respectively. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggested that 90% of cases were cost-effective when willingness-to-pay was 58,000 and US$ 66,000 for early and new-generation stents, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The cost-effectiveness ratios of early and new-generation stents were significantly higher than corresponding bare-metal stents.

Cardiomiopatias/terapia , Stents Farmacológicos , Isquemia Miocárdica/terapia , Stents , Angioplastia/economia , Angioplastia/métodos , Cardiomiopatias/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Stents Farmacológicos/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Stents/economia , Resultado do Tratamento
Salud pública Méx ; 56(6): 612-618, nov.-dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-733339


Objective. To estimate direct medical costs (DMC) associated with treatment of Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) in newborns (NB) in two specialized public hospitals in Mexico. Materials and methods. The perspective used was health care payer. We estimated DMC associated with RDS management. The pattern of resource use was established by reviewing clinical records. Microcosting and bootstrap techniques were used to obtain the DMC. Estimated costs were reported in 2011 US dollars. Results. Average DMC per RDS event was 14 226 USD. The most significant items that account for this cost were hospitalization (38%), laboratory and diagnostic exams (18%), incubator time (10%), surfactant therapy (7%), and mechanical ventilation (7%). Conclusion. Average DMC in NB with RDS fluctuated in relation to gestational age weight at birth and clinical complications presented by patients during their hospitalization.

Objetivo. Determinar los costos médicos directos (CMD) asociados con el tratamiento del síndrome de dificultad respiratoria (SDR) en recién nacidos pretérmino en dos hospitales públicos de alta especialidad de México. Material y métodos. Se utilizó la perspectiva del pagador de servicios de salud. El uso de recursos se estimó mediante la revisión de expedientes clínicos. Se empleó la técnica de microcosteo y de bootstrap para la obtención de los CMD. Los costos fueron reportados en dólares estadounidenses de 2011. Resultados. El CMD por evento de SDR promedio fue de 14 226 dólares distribuidos entre los costos de hospitalización (38%), laboratorio y exámenes de diagnóstico (18%), tiempo en incubación (10%), terapia con surfactantes (7%) y ventilación mecánica (7%). Conclusión. Los CMD promedio en recién nacidos pretérmino con SDR están relacionados con la edad gestacional, el peso al nacer y las complicaciones clínicas que presentan los pacientes durante su hospitalización.

Análise de Alimentos/normas , Fósforo/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos , Guias como Assunto , Cooperação Internacional , Molibdênio/química , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Salud Publica Mex ; 56(6): 612-8, 2014 Nov-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25604412


OBJECTIVE: To estimate direct medical costs (DMC) associated with treatment of Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) in newborns (NB) in two specialized public hospitals in Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The perspective used was health care payer. We estimated DMC associated with RDS management. The pattern of resource use was established by reviewing clinical records. Microcosting and bootstrap techniques were used to obtain the DMC. Estimated costs were reported in 2011 US dollars. RESULTS: Average DMC per RDS event was 14 226 USD. The most significant items that account for this cost were hospitalization (38%), laboratory and diagnostic exams (18%), incubator time (10%), surfactant therapy (7%), and mechanical ventilation (7%). CONCLUSION: Average DMC in NB with RDS fluctuated in relation to gestational age weight at birth and clinical complications presented by patients during their hospitalization.

Hospitais Públicos/economia , Doenças do Prematuro/economia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Custos Hospitalares , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Seguro Saúde , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/economia , Masculino , México , Estudos Retrospectivos
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 51(5): 514-21, 2013 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24144145


OBJECTIVE: to conduct cost-effectiveness analysis of etanercept compared with other biologic therapies in the treatment of moderate or severe rheumatoid arthritis in patients with previous unresponse to immune selective anti-inflammatory derivatives failure. METHODS: a pharmacoeconomic model based on decision analysis to assess the clinical outcome after giving etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab or tocilizumab to treat moderate or severe rheumatoid arthritis was employed. Effectiveness of medications was assessed with improvement rates of 20 % or 70 % of the parameters established by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR 20 and ACR 70). RESULTS: the model showed that etanercept had the most effective therapeutic response rate: 79.7 % for ACR 20 and 31.4 % for ACR 70, compared with the response to other treatments. Also, etanercept had the lowest cost ($149,629.10 per patient) and had the most cost-effective average ($187,740.40 for clinical success for ACR 20 and $476,525.80 for clinical success for ACR 70) than the other biologic therapies. CONCLUSIONS: we demonstrated that treatment with etanercept is more effective and less expensive compared to the other drugs, thus making it more efficient therapeutic option both in terms of means and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

Antirreumáticos/economia , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoglobulina G/economia , Imunoglobulina G/uso terapêutico , Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico , Terapia Biológica , Análise Custo-Benefício , Árvores de Decisões , Etanercepte , Humanos
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 70(4): 290-298, jul.-ago. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-702401


Introducción. La hemofilia A es causada por la deficiencia del factor VIII. El tratamiento consiste principalmente en aumentar la concentración del FVIII en la sangre utilizando productos de remplazo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar los beneficios clínicos y económicos del manejo profiláctico con factor VIII en niños con hemofilia A en México. Métodos. Se realizó la evaluación económica del manejo profiláctico (PROF) y del tratamiento sobre demanda (SD). Las estrategias comparadas fueron el manejo profiláctico -consistente en FVIII recombinante 25 UI/kg cada tercer día- vs. tratamiento sobre demanda -consistente en FVIII derivado de plasma 40 UI/kg. Se reportó el número de sangrados evitados (SE). Se empleó una tasa de descuento del 5%. Los resultados se expresaron en pesos mexicanos. Resultados. El costo de incremental de PROF respecto a SD fue de $7,727,554 pesos. El manejo con PROF ofrece una reducción de 112 SE frente al manejo de SD (162.9 vs. 50.7). El costo por SE fue de $68,876 pesos. Conclusiones. Un abordaje con PROF mejora la calidad de vida respecto al manejo SD y reduce el número de hemorragias que enfrentan los niños con hemofilia A. PROF es una alternativa costo-efectiva (RCEI $68,876 pesos) para reducir sangrados de acuerdo con la disponibilidad de pago establecida por las autoridades de salud en México.

Background. Hemophilia A is due to a deficiency of factor VIII. Treatment consists primarily of increasing the concentration of FVIII in the blood using replacement products. The aim of this study was to estimate the clinical and economic benefits of prophylactic management with factor VIII in children with hemophilia A in Mexico. We undertook this study to estimate the clinical and economic benefits of prophylactic management (PROF) with factor VIII (FVIII) in children with severe hemophilia in Mexico. Methods. We carried out an economic evaluation of PROF vs. treatment on demand (OD). The strategies compared were management with PROF consisting of recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) 25 IU kg every other day vs. OD management consisting of plasma-derived FVIII (pdFVIII) 40 IU kg. A Markov model was performed with a time horizon of 16 years in patients with severe hemophilia for 2 years, reporting the number of events of bleeding averted (BA). We used a discount rate of 5%. The results are expressed in Mexican pesos (2012). Results. The incremental cost of PROF regarding SD was $7,727,554 pesos. PROF management provides a reduction of 112 BA vs. OD management (162.9 vs. 50.7). Cost per BA was $68,876 pesos. Conclusions. Management with PROF reduces the number of bleeding events facing children with hemophilia A compared to OD management. PROF is a cost-effective alternative to reduce bleeding ($68,876 pesos per BA) according to the willingness to pay established by health authorities in Mexico.

Value Health Reg Issues ; 2(3): 368-374, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29702772


OBJECTIVE: In Mexico, health authorities have raised reach the total of people living with HIV/ AIDS who need treatment have access to it, with the proper use of the best ARV therapies. Evaluate health spending would mean the management of patients with HIV/AIDS with the first-line therapy of abacavir/lamivudine with respect to tenofovir/emtricitabine and lamivudine-zidovudine. METHODS: A literature review was conducted to seek evidence from clinical studies that demonstrated similar efficacy of ARV treatment between abacavir-lamivudine medications compared with other options. To calculate the incremental cost between these treatments, there was a Budget Impact Analysis and a pharmacoeconomic model was constructed to estimate the economic benefits by increasing its market share. RESULTS: Increased market penetration of abacavir/lamivudine represent a save of $ 44.8 million for the National Health System in Mexico during the years 2012-2017, without compromising the quality and effectiveness of treatment. Furthermore, this increase in market share with abacavir-lamivudine, the National Health System could get an additional benefit to deal on average 5.197 with HIV patients by 5 years with ARV therapies in Mexico. CONCLUSIONS: The use of abacavir/lamivudine in ARV treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS is a cost saving for the Mexican health System, which leads to a potential reduction in resources of US$44.8 million in treatment costs in the five projected years.

Gac Med Mex ; 148(6): 552-7, 2012 Nov-Dec.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23254714


Access to health services is a social basic determinant of health in Mexico unlike what happens in developed countries. The demand for health services is focused on primary care, but the design meets only the supply of hospital care services. So it generates a dissonance between the needs and the effective design of health services. In addition, the term affiliation refers to population contributing or in the recruitment process, that has been counted as members of these social security institutions (SS) and Popular Insurance (SP). In the case of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) three of four contributors are in contact with health services; while in the SP, this indicator does not exist. Moreover, the access gap between health services is found in the health care packages so that members of the SS and SP do not have same type of coverage. The question is: which model of health care system want the Mexicans? Primary care represents the first choice for increasing the health systems performance, as well as to fulfill their function of social protection: universal access and coverage based on needs, regardless whether it is a public or private health insurance. A central aspect for development of this component is the definition of the first contact with the health system through the creation of a primary health care team, led by a general practitioner as the responsible of a multidisciplinary health team. The process addresses the concepts of primary care nursing, consumption of inputs (mainly medical drugs), maintenance and general services. Adopting a comprehensive strategy that will benefit all Mexicans equally and without discrimination, this primary care system could be financed with a total operating cost of approximately $ 22,809 million by year.

Assistência à Saúde , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Humanos , México
Salud Publica Mex ; 54 Suppl 1: S73-81, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22965446


OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost-effectiveness ratio of surfactant rescue treatment of premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) who are covered by the Medical Insurance for a New Generation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cost-effectiveness evaluation was conducted from the third-payer perspective. Comparisons were made between the use of bovine surfactant (BS) therapy and without BS therapy. A decision tree model with a lifetime horizon was used where the measurements of effectiveness were life years gained (LYG) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). A 5% discount rate was considered for costs and health outcomes. All costs are expressed in Mexican pesos 2009. RESULTS: Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were MXN$136,670 per LYG and MXN$125,250 per QALY. CONCLUSION: Surfactant therapy was confirmed as a cost-effective strategy in accordance with World Health Organization criteria of three per capita gross domestic product (GDP) per QALY in premature infants with RDS in Mexico.

Surfactantes Pulmonares/economia , Surfactantes Pulmonares/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/tratamento farmacológico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , México
Av. diabetol ; 28(4): 95-101, jul.-ago. 2012. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-106726


Introducción: En México hay una alta proporción de pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2)en descontrol, así como problemas en la calidad de la conducta prescriptiva en la atención médica del primer contacto a pesar de las recomendaciones de la normatividad e información basada en la evidencia de las guías clínicas publicadas. Objetivos: Analizar los factores asociados a la correcta prescripción en el tratamiento de laDM2.Material y métodos: Estudio transversal con muestra aleatorizada por conglomerados polietápico en 6 hospitales generales de zona y 5 unidades de medicina familiar, donde se aplicó encuesta a paciente y médico para conocer el patrón de descripción; a partir de la información recogida se realizaron regresiones logísticas bivariadas entre la correcta prescripción de glibenclamida por parte del médico y cada uno de los factores para finalmente ajustar modelos de regresión logística múltiple. Resultados: Se evaluó a 267 médicos, de los cuales el 39,62% fueron clasificados como correcta prescripción. Dentro de los principales factores que favorecen la correcta prescripción destacan los relacionados con la experiencia del médico, contar con una especialidad, los años desde la graduación de la especialidad y tener práctica clínica en más de un lugar. Conclusiones: Estos resultados muestran la necesidad de desarrollar intervenciones educativas en las que se modifiquen los factores identificados para la correcta prescripción(AU)

Introduction: In México, there is a high proportion of patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), as well as multiple problems in the quality of prescribing in first contact medical care, despite the recommendations of the regulations, evidence-based guidelines, and international reports. Objective: To analyze the factors associated with good prescribing of treatment for DM2. Material and methods: Survey research methods with a random multi-stage cluster sampling. Two surveys were conducted with patients and physicians to assess prescription patterns in hospitals and ambulatory care clinics. A set of bivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess the association of the prescription patterns with organizational and medical factors, and multiple logistic regression models were finally fitted. Results: A total of 267 physicians were evaluated, of whom 39,62% were classified as prescribing correctly. Among the principal factors associated with correct prescription were, physician experience, to have specialty training, years since graduation from the specialty, and to have a clinical practice in more than one setting. Conclusions: The results show the need to develop educational interventions to address the factors identified with good patterns of prescription for diabetes in Mexican hospitals and ambulatory clinics(AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glibureto/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Glibureto/metabolismo , Glibureto/farmacocinética , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Modelos Logísticos , Amostragem por Conglomerados , Análise Multivariada
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 69(2): 111-115, mar.-abr. 2012. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-700989


Background. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequent etiologic agent causing lower respiratory tract infection in children <2 years of age. Between 0.5 and 3% of patients will require hospitalization. The aim of this study was to estimate the direct medical cost of treating children <2 years old with suspicion of RSV at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). Methods. Direct medical costs were estimated from an institutional perspective. Medical records were reviewed from patients <2 years of age who attended emergency services in second-level hospitals including subjects who required hospitalization. Estimated costs were obtained with the microcosting technique using the institutional costs from IMSS (year 2010). Costs were reported in USD (year 2011). Results. When analyzing total medical costs, outpatient management yielded a cost of $230.0 ± $10.30 U.S. dollars (USD), whereas hospitalized patients exhibited an average cost of $8,313.20 ± $595.30 USD. The main components of outpatient management costs were emergency visits, specialist consultations and diagnostic testing (41.6%, 32.7% and 10.7% of the total cost, respectively). In the case of hospitalized patients, intensive care unit cost (89.3%) and overall hospitalization cost (6.5%) represented 95.7% of the total cost. Conclusions. RSV is a disease that represents a significant economic burden for health care institutions, although most patients are treated on an outpatient basis.