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1.
Psicol. reflex. crit ; 33: 02, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1101334

RESUMO

Abstract Purpose: Negative cultural beliefs about psychotherapy patients represent one of the barriers in the psychological help-seeking and treatment adherence. In Chile today, there is little research about specific beliefs towards this group, and therefore measuring them represents a challenge. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate an instrument to measure cultural beliefs about psychotherapy patients. Methods: A mixed method design conducted in four stages was implemented. First, 32 semi-structured interviews were carried out to identify beliefs about psychotherapy patients in southern Chile. Then, a scale of beliefs about psychotherapy patients (SBPP) was developed and piloted in an adult sample (n = 109). Subsequently, the factorial structure of the new scale was explored in patients of primary health centres in La Araucanía Region of Chile (n = 201). Finally, the validity of the construct was assessed in adults who were not undergoing psychotherapy (n = 361). Results: The results showed the existence of negative cultural beliefs about psychotherapy patients which were included in the construction of the SBPP. The scale had a bifactorial structure (αtransitory situations = 0.81 and αstable characteristics = 0.79), consisting of 15 items with a Likert-type response format, and showed good indicators of validity and reliability on the samples in which were applied. Conclusions: The present study shows the importance of using mixed methods for the examination of socially shared beliefs by the cultural group under study, in order to construct instruments that are psychometrically robust and culturally pertinent.

2.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(2): 161-167, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare inequities may hamper physical and mental health. AIM: To examine perceived discrimination in healthcare services in relation to socio-structural and cultural antecedents as well as their effect on psychological processes and health. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Questionnaires on beliefs about physicians, perceived discrimination, emotions and affective states and avoidance consequences in health were answered by 337 child caregivers (85% women) attending preventive health care appointments at primary health care centers. RESULTS: Negative beliefs about healthcare professionals are directly associated with avoidance behaviors in health and perceived discrimination. The latter perception has no direct effects on avoidance behaviors, but it has an indirect effect through negative emotions associated with discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between cultural, psychological and structural factors in health care. These results contribute to understand the phenomenon of discrimination and its negative consequences.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Percepção , Médicos/psicologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Chile/etnologia , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos/psicologia , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(2): 161-167, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1004328

RESUMO

Background: Healthcare inequities may hamper physical and mental health. Aim: To examine perceived discrimination in healthcare services in relation to socio-structural and cultural antecedents as well as their effect on psychological processes and health. Material and Methods: Questionnaires on beliefs about physicians, perceived discrimination, emotions and affective states and avoidance consequences in health were answered by 337 child caregivers (85% women) attending preventive health care appointments at primary health care centers. Results: Negative beliefs about healthcare professionals are directly associated with avoidance behaviors in health and perceived discrimination. The latter perception has no direct effects on avoidance behaviors, but it has an indirect effect through negative emotions associated with discrimination. Conclusions: There is an association between cultural, psychological and structural factors in health care. These results contribute to understand the phenomenon of discrimination and its negative consequences.

4.
Rev Med Chil ; 146(3): 308-314, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29999100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beliefs about professionals' healthcare may influence healthcare behaviors. Such beliefs are in part the result of the interactions that professionals have with their patients. Recent studies highlight the importance of beliefs about physicians, their effect on health-care behaviors, and the requirement of culturally appropriate tools to measure such beliefs. AIM: To develop and validate a culturally appropriate instrument to measure beliefs about physicians. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Based on a "bottom-up" methodology, a culturally pertinent scale of beliefs about physicians was developed and then validated by expert judges. The resulting scale, with 26 items, was applied to 337 participants aged 31 ± 7 years (85% women). RESULTS: Two factors, grouping 24 items, emerged from the exploratory factor analysis. The first was called negative beliefs about doctors (Cronbach's α = 0.96) and the second was called positive beliefs about doctors (Cronbach's α = 0.95). Both factors explain 70 % of the scale variance. CONCLUSIONS: The devised instrument has adequate psychometric properties and is also culturally relevant. It allows the assessment of cultural beliefs about physicians.


Assuntos
Cultura , Pais , Relações Médico-Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Confiança , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
5.
Suma psicol ; 25(1): 30-40, Jan.-June 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-979366

RESUMO

Abstract This study assesses the relationship between food satisfaction and family satisfaction and their relationships to university student life satisfaction, while also exploring the moderating role of the place of student residence, student self-health perception and the importance students assign to food in relation to well-being. A survey was applied to a convenience sample of 269 university students. The questionnaire included: the Satisfaction with Life Scale, Satisfaction with Food-related Life, the family subscale of the Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale and the first item of the Health-related Quality of Life Index. Having controlled for gender and socioeconomic status, it was found that a student's life satisfaction was significantly related to food satisfaction and, to a lesser extent, family satisfaction. Food satisfaction was positively and significantly related to family satisfaction. A moderating role of student residence was not found. Student health self-perception was found to moderate the relationship between family and life satisfaction, whereas the importance assigned to food in relation to well-being was found to moderate the relationship between food and student life satisfaction. These findings suggest that, in order to increase student life satisfaction, it is important to improve family satisfaction for those students who have a negative health self-perception. Likewise, improving food satisfaction is relevant for those students who gave low importance to food in regard to their well-being.


Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la relación entre la satisfacción con la alimentación y la satisfacción familiar, sus relaciones con la satisfacción con la vida de estudiantes universitarios y explorar el rol moderador del lugar donde el estudiante vive, su autopercepción de la salud y de la importancia asignada a la alimentación para el bienestar. Se aplicó una encuesta a una muestra por conveniencia de 269 estudiantes universitarios. El cuestionario incluyó la Escala de Satisfacción con la Vida, Satisfacción con la Alimentación, la subescala de Familia de la Escala Multidimensional de Satisfacción con la Vida de Estudiantes y el primer ítem del Índice de Calidad de Vida Relacionado con la Salud. Habiendo controlado por género y nivel socioeconómico, se encontró que la satisfacción con la vida del estudiante se relacionó significativamente con la satisfacción con la alimentación y, en menor medida, con su satisfacción familiar. La satisfacción con la alimentación se relacionó positiva y significativamente con la satisfacción familiar. No se encontró un rol moderador del lugar donde el estudiante vive. La autopercepción de salud del estudiante moderaría la relación entre la satisfacción con la vida y la familia, mientras la importancia asignada a la alimentación para el bienestar moderaría la relación entre la satisfacción con la vida y la alimentación. Estos resultados sugieren que para incrementar la satisfacción con la vida de los estudiantes, es importante mejorar la satisfacción con la familia en los estudiantes que tienen una mala autopercepción de salud, mientras que mejorar la satisfacción con la alimentación es relevante en los estudiantes que asignan baja importancia a la alimentación para su bienestar.

6.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(3): 308-314, mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-961395

RESUMO

Background: Beliefs about professionals' healthcare may influence healthcare behaviors. Such beliefs are in part the result of the interactions that professionals have with their patients. Recent studies highlight the importance of beliefs about physicians, their effect on health-care behaviors, and the requirement of culturally appropriate tools to measure such beliefs. Aim: To develop and validate a culturally appropriate instrument to measure beliefs about physicians. Material and Methods: Based on a "bottom-up" methodology, a culturally pertinent scale of beliefs about physicians was developed and then validated by expert judges. The resulting scale, with 26 items, was applied to 337 participants aged 31 ± 7 years (85% women). Results: Two factors, grouping 24 items, emerged from the exploratory factor analysis. The first was called negative beliefs about doctors (Cronbach's α = 0.96) and the second was called positive beliefs about doctors (Cronbach's α = 0.95). Both factors explain 70 % of the scale variance. Conclusions: The devised instrument has adequate psychometric properties and is also culturally relevant. It allows the assessment of cultural beliefs about physicians.

7.
Suma psicol ; 24(1): 25-33, ene.-jun. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-904057

RESUMO

ABSTRACT This study aimed to characterize dieting and non-dieting university students by gender, Received 14 September 2016 based on their satisfaction with life and their food-related life, self-discrepancy, food behavior and health-related aspects. A non-probabilistic sample of 305 students from five Chilean state universities responded a questionnaire that included the Revised Restraint Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale, the Health-related Quality of Life Index, the Nutrition Interest Scale and the Self-Discrepancy Index. Sociodemographic characteristics, food behavior, and approximate weight and height were also enquired. Chronic dieters and non-dieters were distinguished according to the median score of the Revised Restraint Scale. 51.1% of women and 55.5% of men classified as chronic dieters, sharing characteristics such as nutrition concern, mental health problems, higher body mass index, and physical and economic self-discrepancy. Women dieters reported lower life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life, more health problems and health-related restriction of food, while men dieters showed higher social and emotional self-discrepancy.


RESUMEN El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar a estudiantes universitarios dietantes y no dietantes de distinto género, según su satisfacción con la vida y con la alimentación, discrepancia del yo, comportamiento alimentario y aspectos relacionados con la salud. Se aplicó un cuestionario a una muestra no probabilística de 305 estudiantes de cinco universidades estatales de Chile. El cuestionario incluyó la Escala Revisada de Restricción Alimentaria, la Escala de Satisfacción con la Vida, la Escala de Satisfacción con la Alimentación, el Índice de Calidad de Vida relativo a la Salud, la Escala de Interés por la Nutrición y la Escala de Discrepancia del Yo. Se consultaron características sociodemográficas, comportamiento alimentario y el peso y estatura aproximados. Con base en la mediana de la Escala Revisada de Restricción Alimentaria se distinguieron dietantes crónicos y no dietantes. El 51.1% de las mujeres y el 55.5% de los hombres fueron clasificados como dietantes crónicos, quienes comparten características como la preocupación por la nutrición, problemas de salud mental, mayor índice de masa corporal, y discrepancia del yo en los ámbitos físico y económico. Las mujeres dietantes estuvieron menos satisfechas con su vida y con su alimentación, reportaron más problemas de salud y superior restricción de alimentos por motivos de salud. Los hombres dietantes mostraron mayor discrepancia del yo en los ámbitos social y emocional.

8.
Cad Saude Publica ; 33(3): e00165615, 2017 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28380146

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to categorize university students based on their association between food neophobia and levels of subjective well-being, in general and in the food domain, and their perception of their family's eating habits. A survey was conducted among 372 university students from southern Chile. The questionnaire included the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL), Health-related Quality of Life Index (HRQOL-4), and Family Eating Habits Questionnaire (FEHQ). Three student types were distinguished by cluster analysis: Group 1 (26.9%) had the highest scores on the FNS, SWLS and SWFL. Group 2 (40.8%) had a high score on the FNS but the lowest scores on the SWLS and SWFL. Group 3 (32.3%) had the lowest FNS score and high scores on the SWLS and SWFL. Group 2 stood out in having a low score on the FEHQ's component for cohesiveness of family eating. These results suggest that both neophobic and non-neophobic students have positive levels of satisfaction with life and food-related life, and that satisfaction among neophobic students is related to family eating patterns, especially cohesiveness in family eating.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Brasil , Chile/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
9.
Ter. psicol ; 35(1): 15-22, Apr. 2017. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-846328

RESUMO

El estudio de cómo los factores culturales se relacionan con la adherencia a psicoterapia es altamente relevante y sin embargo, en Chile no existen instrumentos que tomen en consideración tales factores. El objetivo de este estudio es ilustrar la construcción de un instrumento para medir variables culturales que se asocian a la adherencia a psicoterapia. Se utilizó una metodología mixta de tres etapas. Primero, se realizaron 32 entrevistas semiestructuradas con el objetivo de identificar creencias socialmente compartidas respecto de la psicoterapia. Luego, se desarrolló la Escala de Creencias en Psicoterapia (ECPSI) y se piloteó en una muestra de 109 personas. Finalmente, se exploró la estructura factorial y propiedades psicométricas de la nueva escala en 201 usuarias de centros de salud primaria de la Región de La Araucanía. Los resultados indican que la ECPSI es un instrumento adecuado psicométricamente y culturalmente pertinente a la sociedad Chilena.


The study of how cultural factors are related to adherence to psychotherapy is highly relevant, however in Chile there are no available measures that addresses these factors. In order to develop an instrument culturally relevant for measuring cultural factors associated with adherence to psychotherapy, a three-stage mixed methodology was used. First, 32 semi-structured interviews were conducted aiming to identifying socially shared beliefs about psychotherapy. Second, the Psychotherapy Beliefs Scale was developed and piloted with a sample of109 participants. Finally, the factorial structure, and the scale reliability were tested with a sample of 201 women recruited from several primary care health centers. The results obtained suggest that this scale is psychometrically sound and culturally relevant for measuring cultural beliefs associated with adherence to psychotherapy.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Entrevistas como Assunto , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Processos Psicoterapêuticos , Estudos Transversais , Fatores Culturais , Análise Fatorial , Análise Multivariada , Psicometria , Psicoterapia
10.
Appetite ; 113: 91-99, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28215544

RESUMO

This study examined longitudinal measurement invariance in the Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL) scale using follow-up data from university students. We examined this measure of the SWFL in different groups of students, separated by various characteristics. Through non-probabilistic longitudinal sampling, 114 university students (65.8% female, mean age: 22.5) completed the SWFL questionnaire three times, over intervals of approximately one year. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine longitudinal measurement invariance. Two types of analysis were conducted: first, a longitudinal invariance by time, and second, a multigroup longitudinal invariance by sex, age, socio-economic status and place of residence during the study period. Results showed that the 3-item version of the SWFL exhibited strong longitudinal invariance (equal factor loadings and equal indicator intercepts). Longitudinal multigroup invariance analysis also showed that the 3-item version of the SWFL displays strong invariance by socio-economic status and place of residence during the study period over time. Nevertheless, it was only possible to demonstrate equivalence of the longitudinal factor structure among students of both sexes, and among those older and younger than 22 years. Generally, these findings suggest that the SWFL scale has satisfactory psychometric properties for longitudinal measurement invariance in university students with similar characteristics as the students that participated in this research. It is also possible to suggest that satisfaction with food-related life is associated with sex and age.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Análise de Variância , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Psicometria , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cad. saúde pública ; 33(3): e00165615, 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-839679

RESUMO

Abstract: The aim of this study was to categorize university students based on their association between food neophobia and levels of subjective well-being, in general and in the food domain, and their perception of their family's eating habits. A survey was conducted among 372 university students from southern Chile. The questionnaire included the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL), Health-related Quality of Life Index (HRQOL-4), and Family Eating Habits Questionnaire (FEHQ). Three student types were distinguished by cluster analysis: Group 1 (26.9%) had the highest scores on the FNS, SWLS and SWFL. Group 2 (40.8%) had a high score on the FNS but the lowest scores on the SWLS and SWFL. Group 3 (32.3%) had the lowest FNS score and high scores on the SWLS and SWFL. Group 2 stood out in having a low score on the FEHQ's component for cohesiveness of family eating. These results suggest that both neophobic and non-neophobic students have positive levels of satisfaction with life and food-related life, and that satisfaction among neophobic students is related to family eating patterns, especially cohesiveness in family eating.


Resumen: El objetivo fue categorizar a los estudiantes universitarios en base a la asociación entre la neofobia alimentaria y los niveles de bienestar subjetivo general (y específico del dominio alimentario), además de la percepción de los estudiantes, en relación con los hábitos alimentarios de la familia. Se realizó una encuesta entre 372 universitarios del sur de Chile. El cuestionario incluyó la Food Neophobia Scale (FNS), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL), Health-related Quality of Life Index (HRQOL-4) y Family Eating Habits Questionnaire (FEHQ). El análisis de clústeres distinguió tres tipos de universitarios: el grupo 1 (26,9%) obtuvo las puntuaciones más altas en la FNS, SWLS y SWFL. El grupo 2 (40,8%) tuvo una puntuación alta en la FNS, aunque con puntuaciones más bajas en la SWLS y SWFL. El grupo 3 (32,3%) tuvo la FNS más baja y puntuaciones altas en la SWLS y SWFL. El grupo 2 se destacó por tener una puntuación baja en el componente del FEHQ, referente a la cohesión de la alimentación familiar. Los resultados sugieren que estudiantes neofóbicos y no-neofóbicos tienen niveles positivos de satisfacción con la vida, y con la vida relacionada con la alimentación, y que la satisfacción entre estudiantes neofóbicos está relacionada con los patrones alimentarios de la familia, sobre todo con la cohesión de la alimentación familiar.


Resumo: Objetivou-se categorizar os estudantes universitários com base na associação entre a neofobia alimentar e níveis de bem-estar subjetivo geral (e específico ao domínio alimentar), além da percepção dos estudantes em relação aos hábitos alimentares da família. Foi realizado um inquérito entre 372 universitários do Sul do Chile. O questionário incluiu a Food Neophobia Scale (FNS), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL), Health-related Quality of Life Index (HRQOL-4) e Family Eating Habits Questionnaire (FEHQ). A análise de clusters distinguiu três tipos de universitários: o grupo 1 (26,9%) obteve as pontuações mais altas na FNS, SWLS e SWFL. O grupo 2 (40,8%) teve pontuação alta na FNS, porém as pontuações mais baixas na SWLS e SWFL. O grupo 3 (32,3%) teve a FNS mais baixa e pontuações altas na SWLS e SWFL. O Grupo 2 se destacou por ter pontuação baixa no componente do FEHQ referente à coesão da alimentação familiar. Os resultados sugerem que estudantes neofóbicos e não-neofóbicos têm níveis positivos de satisfação com a vida, e com a vida relacionada à alimentação, e que a satisfação entre estudantes neofóbicos está relacionada aos padrões alimentares da família, sobretudo à coesão da alimentação familiar.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Brasil , Chile/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
12.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(10): 1270-1276, oct. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-845441

RESUMO

Background: The negative impact of perceived discrimination on health outcomes is well established. However, less attention has been directed towards understanding the effect of perceived discrimination on health behaviors relevant for the treatment of diabetes in ethnic minorities. Aim: To examine the effects of healthcare mistreatment attributed to discrimination on the continuity of Type 2 Diabetes (DM2) care among mapuche patients in a southern region of Chile. Material and Methods: A non-probabilistic sample of 85 mapuche DM2 patients were recruited from public and private health systems. Eligibility criteria included having experienced at least one incident of interpersonal healthcare mistreatment. All participants answered an instrument designed to measure healthcare mistreatment and continuity of diabetes care. Results: Healthcare mistreatment attributed to ethnic discrimination was associated with the discontinuation of diabetes care. Conclusions: Healthcare mistreatment attributed to discrimination negatively impacted the continuity of diabetes care, a fact which may provide a better understanding of health disparities in ethnic minorities.

14.
Nutr. hosp ; 33(2): 451-458, mar.-abr. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-153327

RESUMO

Aim: To characterize typologies of university students according to the perception of their families’ eating habits. Material and method: A questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 372 students of both genders at the Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile. The instrument included: the Family Eating Habits Questionnaire (FEHQ), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale (SWFL) and the Family Resources Scale (FRS). Estimated weight and height were asked about as well as sociodemographic variables. Results: Using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) three factors were detected in the FEHQ: importance of eating to family members, cohesiveness of family eating, and pressure to eat. The EFA detected two factors on the FRS: intangible and tangible support. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) validated the structure of the FEHQ and the FRS with good goodness-of-fit indicators. A cluster analysis distinguished four typologies that differed significantly in the scores of the components on the FEHQ and FRS, scores on the SWLS and SWFL, body mass index, gender and socioeconomic level. Typologies with higher scores in "cohesiveness of family eating" report greater intangible support from their families and higher scores on the SWLS and SWFL. Conclusions: The results show that the frequency and importance assigned to family meals are associated positively with perceived family support, particularly in intangible resources, as well as with the overall satisfaction with life and in the food domain (AU)


Objetivo: caracterizar tipologías de estudiantes universitarios según la percepción de los hábitos alimentarios de sus familias. Material y método: se aplicó un cuestionario a una muestra no probabilística de 372 estudiantes de ambos géneros de la Universidad de La Frontera, Chile. El instrumento incluyó: Cuestionario de Hábitos Alimentarios Familiares (FEHQ), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL) y la Escala de Recursos Familiares (FRS). Se consultó peso y estatura aproximada, así como variables sociodemográficas. Resultados: mediante análisis factorial exploratorio (AFE) se detectaron tres factores en el FEHQ: importancia de la alimentación para los miembros de la familia, cohesión en las comidas familiares y presión por comer. Mediante AFE se detectaron dos factores en la FRS: apoyo intangible y tangible. Mediante análisis factorial confirmatorio se validó la estructura del FEHQ y de la FRS con aceptables niveles de bondad de ajuste. Mediante análisis clúster se distinguieron cuatro tipologías que difirieron significativamente en las puntuaciones de los componentes del FEHQ y de la FRS, puntajes de la SWLS y SWFL, índice de masa corporal, género y nivel socioeconómico. Las tipologías con mayores puntuaciones en "cohesión en las comidas familiares" reportan mayor apoyo intangible de sus familias y superiores puntuaciones en la SWLS y SWFL. Conclusiones: los resultados muestran que la frecuencia y la importancia asignada a las comidas en familia se asocian positivamente con el apoyo familiar percibido, especialmente en recursos intangibles, así como también con la satisfacción global con la vida y en el dominio de la alimentación (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamento Alimentar , Relações Familiares , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Satisfação Pessoal , Qualidade de Vida , Psicometria/instrumentação
15.
Eat Behav ; 21: 123-8, 2016 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26835591

RESUMO

Self-discrepancy describes the distance between an ideal and the actual self. Research suggests that self-discrepancy and dietary restraint are related, causing a significant impact on the person's well-being. However, this relationship has been mostly reported in female and mixed populations. In order to further explore dietary behaviors and their relations to self-discrepancy and well-being-related variables in men, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 119 male students from five Chilean state universities (mean age=21.8, SD=2.75). The questionnaire included the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS) with the subscales weight fluctuations (WF) and diet concern (DC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Satisfaction with Food-Related Life Scale (SWFL), the Nutrition Interest Scale (NIS), and the Self-discrepancy Index (SDI). Questions were asked about socio-demographic characteristics, eating and drinking habits, and approximate weight and height. A cluster analysis applied to the Z-scores of the RRS classified the following typologies: Group 1 (22.7%), men concerned about weight fluctuations; Group 2 (37.0%), men concerned about diet and weight fluctuations; Group 3 (40.3%), unconcerned about diet and weight fluctuations. The typologies differed in their SDI score, restriction on pastry consumption and reported body mass index (BMI). Students with higher DC and WF scores had a higher BMI, and tended to report high self-discrepancy not only on a physical level, but also on social, emotional, economic and personal levels. This study contributes to the literature on subjective well-being, dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in men from non-clinical samples.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Dieta Redutora/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Satisfação Pessoal , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Chile , Análise por Conglomerados , Emoções , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Ciências da Nutrição , Adulto Jovem
16.
Rev Med Chil ; 144(10): 1270-1276, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28074982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The negative impact of perceived discrimination on health outcomes is well established. However, less attention has been directed towards understanding the effect of perceived discrimination on health behaviors relevant for the treatment of diabetes in ethnic minorities. AIM: To examine the effects of healthcare mistreatment attributed to discrimination on the continuity of Type 2 Diabetes (DM2) care among mapuche patients in a southern region of Chile. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A non-probabilistic sample of 85 mapuche DM2 patients were recruited from public and private health systems. Eligibility criteria included having experienced at least one incident of interpersonal healthcare mistreatment. All participants answered an instrument designed to measure healthcare mistreatment and continuity of diabetes care. RESULTS: Healthcare mistreatment attributed to ethnic discrimination was associated with the discontinuation of diabetes care. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare mistreatment attributed to discrimination negatively impacted the continuity of diabetes care, a fact which may provide a better understanding of health disparities in ethnic minorities.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde/etnologia , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Idoso , Chile , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Percepção , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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