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1.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637878

RESUMO

On May 7th this year, Georgia, the home of the American College of Rheumatology, enacted a law that effectively bans abortion in the state. Kentucky, Mississippi, Ohio, Louisiana, Alabama, and Missouri recently passed similar laws.

2.
J Exp Med ; 216(5): 1154-1169, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962246

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus carries an increased risk of pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia and fetal adverse outcomes. To identify the underlying molecular mechanisms, we longitudinally profiled the blood transcriptome of 92 lupus patients and 43 healthy women during pregnancy and postpartum and performed multicolor flow cytometry in a subset of them. We also profiled 25 healthy women undergoing assisted reproductive technology to monitor transcriptional changes around embryo implantation. Sustained down-regulation of multiple immune signatures, including interferon and plasma cells, was observed during healthy pregnancy. These changes appeared early after embryo implantation and were mirrored in uncomplicated lupus pregnancies. Patients with preeclampsia displayed early up-regulation of neutrophil signatures that correlated with expansion of immature neutrophils. Lupus pregnancies with fetal complications carried the highest interferon and plasma cell signatures as well as activated CD4+ T cell counts. Thus, blood immunomonitoring reveals that both healthy and uncomplicated lupus pregnancies exhibit early and sustained transcriptional modulation of lupus-related signatures, and a lack thereof associates with adverse outcomes.

3.
J Autoimmun ; 98: 103-112, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594350

RESUMO

Women with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are at high risk for pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia. We previously demonstrated that aPL recognizing ß2GPI promote an extravillous trophoblast pro-inflammatory, anti-migratory and anti-angiogenic profile similar to that seen in preeclampsia. Since preeclampsia in the absence of aPL may have an underlying infectious element, women with aPL may be at increased risk for preeclampsia or other adverse outcomes if an infection is present. Our objective was to determine the impact the common bacterial component, muramyl dipeptide (MDP), has on trophoblast responses to aPL. Herein, we report that bacterial MDP amplifies trophoblast IL-1ß expression, processing, and secretion in the presence of aPL through activation of NOD2. In the absence of MDP, NOD2 also mediates anti- ß2GPI antibody-induced trophoblast IL-1ß and VEGF secretion. Additionally, we report a role for extravillous trophoblast vimentin as a novel danger signal that contributes to the aPL-induced trophoblast IL-1ß production. Together our data indicate that NOD2 mediates trophoblast inflammatory and angiogenic responses to aPL alone, and mediates trophoblast inflammation in the presence of bacterial MDP. These findings suggest that a bacterial infection at the maternal-fetal interface may exacerbate the impact aPL have on trophoblast inflammation and, thus, on pregnancy outcome.

4.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(21): 3813-3824, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30085094

RESUMO

Genetic variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) contributes substantial risk for systemic lupus erythematosus, but high gene density, extreme polymorphism and extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) have made fine mapping challenging. To address the problem, we compared two association techniques in two ancestrally diverse populations, African Americans (AAs) and Europeans (EURs). We observed a greater number of Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles in AA consistent with the elevated level of recombination in this population. In EUR we observed 50 different A-C-B-DRB1-DQA-DQB multilocus haplotype sequences per hundred individuals; in the AA sample, these multilocus haplotypes were twice as common compared to Europeans. We also observed a strong narrow class II signal in AA as opposed to the long-range LD observed in EUR that includes class I alleles. We performed a Bayesian model choice of the classical HLA alleles and a frequentist analysis that combined both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and classical HLA alleles. Both analyses converged on a similar subset of risk HLA alleles: in EUR HLA- B*08:01 + B*18:01 + (DRB1*15:01 frequentist only) + DQA*01:02 + DQB*02:01 + DRB3*02 and in AA HLA-C*17:01 + B*08:01 + DRB1*15:03 + (DQA*01:02 frequentist only) + DQA*02:01 + DQA*05:01+ DQA*05:05 + DQB*03:19 + DQB*02:02. We observed two additional independent SNP associations in both populations: EUR rs146903072 and rs501480; AA rs389883 and rs114118665. The DR2 serotype was best explained by DRB1*15:03 + DQA*01:02 in AA and by DRB1*15:01 + DQA*01:02 in EUR. The DR3 serotype was best explained by DQA*05:01 in AA and by DQB*02:01 in EUR. Despite some differences in underlying HLA allele risk models in EUR and AA, SNP signals across the extended MHC showed remarkable similarity and significant concordance in direction of effect for risk-associated variants.

5.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(454)2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111646

RESUMO

Photosensitivity, or skin sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), is a feature of lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune and dermatologic conditions, but the mechanistic underpinnings are poorly understood. We identify a Langerhans cell (LC)-keratinocyte axis that limits UVR-induced keratinocyte apoptosis and skin injury via keratinocyte epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) stimulation. We show that the absence of LCs in Langerin-diphtheria toxin subunit A (DTA) mice leads to photosensitivity and that, in vitro, mouse and human LCs can directly protect keratinocytes from UVR-induced apoptosis. LCs express EGFR ligands and a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17), the metalloprotease that activates EGFR ligands. Deletion of ADAM17 from LCs leads to photosensitivity, and UVR induces LC ADAM17 activation and generation of soluble active EGFR ligands, suggesting that LCs protect by providing activated EGFR ligands to keratinocytes. Photosensitive systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) models and human SLE skin show reduced epidermal EGFR phosphorylation and LC defects, and a topical EGFR ligand reduces photosensitivity. Together, our data establish a direct tissue-protective function for LCs, reveal a mechanistic basis for photosensitivity, and suggest EGFR stimulation as a treatment for photosensitivity in lupus erythematosus and potentially other autoimmune and dermatologic conditions.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044541

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Extant epidemiologic data of primary Sjögren's Syndrome (pSS) remains limited, particularly for racial/ethnic populations in the United States (US). The Manhattan Lupus Surveillance Program (MLSP), a population-based retrospective registry of cases with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and related diseases including pSS in Manhattan, was used to provide estimates of the incidence and prevalence of pSS across major racial/ethnic populations. METHODS: MLSP cases were identified from hospitals, rheumatologists, and population databases. Three case definitions were used for pSS: physician diagnosis, rheumatologist diagnosis, and modified pSS criteria. Rates among Manhattan residents were age-adjusted, and capture-recapture analyses were conducted to assess case under-ascertainment. RESULTS: By physician diagnosis, age-adjusted overall incidence and prevalence rates of pSS among adult Manhattan residents were 3.5 and 13.1 per 100,000 person-years. Capture-recapture adjustment increased incidence and prevalence rates (4.1 and 14.2). Based on physician diagnosis, incidence and prevalence rates were approximately 6 times higher among women than men (p<0.01). Incidence of pSS was statistically higher among non-Latina Asian (10.5) and non-Latina White women (6.2) compared with Latina women (3.2). Incidence was also higher among non-Latina Asian women compared with non-Latina Black women (3.3). Prevalence of pSS did not differ by race/ethnicity. Similar trends were observed when more restrictive case definitions were applied. CONCLUSION: Data from the MLSP revealed disparities in pSS incidence and prevalence by sex among Manhattan residents and differences in pSS incidence by race/ethnicity among women. These data also provided epidemiologic estimates for the major racial/ethnic populations in the US. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
Blood ; 132(10): 1064-1074, 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29776906

RESUMO

Hemophilic arthropathy (HA) is a debilitating degenerative joint disease that is a major manifestation of the bleeding disorder hemophilia A. HA typically begins with hemophilic synovitis that resembles inflammatory arthritides, such as rheumatoid arthritis, and frequently results in bone loss in patients. A major cause of rheumatoid arthritis is inappropriate release of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by the TNF-α convertase (TACE; also referred to as ADAM17) and its regulator, iRhom2. Therefore, we hypothesized that iRhom2/ADAM17-dependent shedding of TNF-α also has a pivotal role in mediating HA. Here, we show that addition of blood or its components to macrophages activates iRhom2/ADAM17-dependent TNF-α shedding, providing the premise to study the activation of this pathway by blood in the joint in vivo. For this, we turned to hemophilic FVIII-deficient mice (F8-/- mice), which develop a hemarthrosis following needle puncture injury with synovial inflammation and significant osteopenia adjacent to the affected joint. We found that needle puncture-induced bleeding leads to increased TNF-α levels in the affected joint of F8-/- mice. Moreover, inactivation of TNF-α or iRhom2 in F8-/- mice reduced the osteopenia and synovial inflammation that develops in this mouse model for HA. Taken together, our results suggest that blood entering the joint activates the iRhom2/ADAM17/TNF-α pathway, thereby contributing to osteopenia and synovitis in mice. Therefore, this proinflammatory signaling pathway could emerge as an attractive new target to prevent osteoporosis and joint damage in HA patients.

8.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 70(11): 1879-1889, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29781582

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Immune complex (IC) deposition activates polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), increases vascular permeability, and leads to organ damage in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. The bioactive lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), acting via S1P receptor 1 (S1P1 ), is a key regulator of endothelial cell (EC) barrier function. This study was undertaken to investigate whether augmenting EC integrity via S1P1 signaling attenuates inflammatory injury mediated by ICs. METHODS: In vitro barrier function was assessed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing. Phosphorylation of myosin light chain 2 (p-MLC-2) and VE-cadherin staining in HUVECs were assessed by immunofluorescence. A reverse Arthus reaction (RAR) was induced in the skin and lungs of mice with S1P1 deleted from ECs (S1P1 EC-knockout [ECKO] mice) and mice treated with S1P1 agonists and antagonists. RESULTS: S1P1 agonists prevented loss of barrier function in HUVECs treated with IC-activated PMNs. S1P1 ECKO and wild-type (WT) mice treated with S1P1 antagonists had amplified RAR, whereas specific S1P1 agonists attenuated skin and lung RAR in WT mice. ApoM-Fc, a novel S1P chaperone, mitigated EC cell barrier dysfunction induced by activated PMNs in vitro and attenuated lung RAR. Expression levels of p-MLC-2 and disruption of VE-cadherin, each representing manifestations of cell contraction and destabilization of adherens junctions, respectively, that were induced by activated PMNs, were markedly reduced by treatment with S1P1 agonists and ApoM-Fc. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that S1P1 signaling in ECs modulates vascular responses to IC deposition. S1P1 agonists and ApoM-Fc enhance the EC barrier, limit leukocyte escape from capillaries, and provide protection against inflammatory injury. The S1P/S1P1 axis is a newly identified target to attenuate tissue responses to IC deposition and mitigate end-organ damage.

9.
Blood ; 131(19): 2097-2110, 2018 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29500169

RESUMO

In the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) recognition of ß2 glycoprotein I promotes thrombosis, and preclinical studies indicate that this is due to endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) antagonism via apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (apoER2)-dependent processes. How apoER2 molecularly links these events is unknown. Here, we show that, in endothelial cells, the apoER2 cytoplasmic tail serves as a scaffold for aPL-induced assembly and activation of the heterotrimeric protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Disabled-2 (Dab2) recruitment to the apoER2 NPXY motif promotes the activating L309 methylation of the PP2A catalytic subunit by leucine methyl transferase-1. Concurrently, Src homology domain-containing transforming protein 1 (SHC1) recruits the PP2A scaffolding subunit to the proline-rich apoER2 C terminus along with 2 distinct regulatory PP2A subunits that mediate inhibitory dephosphorylation of Akt and eNOS. In mice, the coupling of these processes in endothelium is demonstrated to underlie aPL-invoked thrombosis. By elucidating these intricacies in the pathogenesis of APS-related thrombosis, numerous potential new therapeutic targets have been identified.

10.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 149(5): 401-411, 2018 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547897

RESUMO

Objectives: We evaluate the performance characteristics of antiphosphatidylserine (anti-PS), antiphosphatidylinositol (anti-PI), and antiphospholipid mixture (APhL) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) compared with anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-ß2 glycoprotein I (anti-ß2GPI) in a large group of patients with antiphospholipid (aPL)-related diseases. Methods: Serum samples from 548 patients from the Hopkins and Jamaican systemic lupus erythematosus cohorts, the PROMISSE cohort, and the Antiphospholipid Standardization Laboratory were examined for immunoglobulin G (IgG)/immunoglobulin M (IgM) positivity in aCL, anti-ß2GPI, anti-PS, anti-PI, and APhL ELISA assays. Results: All IgG assays were associated with one or more thrombotic and/or obstetric manifestations, with an increased risk associated with higher antibody titers. Analytical performance was similar among assays, but IgG assays performed better than IgM counterparts. Conclusions: Increasing titers of APhL, anti-PS, and anti-PI antibodies could indicate an increased risk of thrombotic and/or obstetric aPL-related manifestations. These assays may be promising biomarkers for particular APS manifestations.

11.
J Clin Invest ; 128(4): 1397-1412, 2018 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29369823

RESUMO

Lupus nephritis (LN) often results in progressive renal dysfunction. The inactive rhomboid 2 (iRhom2) is a newly identified key regulator of A disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17), whose substrates, such as TNF-α and heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney diseases. Here, we demonstrate that deficiency of iRhom2 protects the lupus-prone Fcgr2b-/- mice from developing severe kidney damage without altering anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) Ab production by simultaneously blocking HB-EGF/EGFR and TNF-α signaling in the kidney tissues. Unbiased transcriptome profiling of kidneys and kidney macrophages revealed that TNF-α and HB-EGF/EGFR signaling pathways are highly upregulated in Fcgr2b-/- mice, alterations that were diminished in the absence of iRhom2. Pharmacological blockade of either TNF-α or EGFR signaling protected Fcgr2b-/- mice from severe renal damage. Finally, kidneys from LN patients showed increased iRhom2 and HB-EGF expression, with interstitial HB-EGF expression significantly associated with chronicity indices. Our data suggest that activation of iRhom2/ADAM17-dependent TNF-α and EGFR signaling plays a crucial role in mediating irreversible kidney damage in LN, thereby uncovering a target for selective and simultaneous dual inhibition of 2 major pathological pathways in the effector arm of the disease.

12.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(4): 549-555, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29371202

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Studies in mouse models implicate complement activation as a causative factor in adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). We investigated whether activation of complement early in pregnancy predicts APOs in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and/or antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies. METHODS: The PROMISSE Study enrolled pregnant women with SLE and/or aPL antibodies (n=487) and pregnant healthy controls (n=204) at <12 weeks gestation and evaluated them monthly. APOs were: fetal/neonatal death, preterm delivery <36 weeks because of placental insufficiency or preeclampsia and/or growth restriction <5th percentile. Complement activation products were measured on serial blood samples obtained at each monthly visit. RESULTS: APO occurred in 20.5% of SLE and/or aPL pregnancies. As early as 12-15 weeks, levels of Bb and sC5b-9 were significantly higher in patients with APOs and remained elevated through 31 weeks compared with those with normal outcomes. Moreover, Bb and sC5b-9 were significantly higher in patients with SLE and/or aPL without APOs compared with healthy controls. In logistic regression analyses, Bb and sC5b-9 at 12-15 weeks remained significantly associated with APO (ORadj=1.41 per SD increase; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.89; P=0.019 and ORadj=1.37 per SD increase; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.80; P=0.022, respectively) after controlling for demographic and clinical risk factors for APOs in PROMISSE. When analyses were restricted to patients with aPL (n=161), associations between Bb at 12-15 weeks and APOs became stronger (ORadj=2.01 per SD increase; 95% CI 1.16 to 3.49; P=0.013). CONCLUSION: In pregnant patients with SLE and/or aPL, increased Bb and sC5b-9 detectable early in pregnancy are strongly predictive of APOs and support activation of complement, particularly the alternative pathway, as a contributor to APOs.

13.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 70(6): 891-902, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29342502

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Women with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are at risk for pregnancy complications associated with poor placentation and placental inflammation. Although these antibodies are heterogeneous, some anti-ß2 -glycoprotein I (anti-ß2 GPI) antibodies can activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and NLRP3 in human first-trimester trophoblasts. The objective of this study was to determine the role of negative regulators of TLR and inflammasome function in aPL-induced trophoblast inflammation. METHODS: Human trophoblasts were not treated or were treated with anti-ß2 GPI aPL or control IgG in the presence or absence of the common TAM (TYRO3, AXL, and Mer tyrosine kinase [MERTK]) receptor ligand growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6) or the autophagy-inducer rapamycin. The expression and function of the TAM receptor pathway and autophagy were measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antiphospholipid antibody-induced trophoblast inflammation was measured by qRT-PCR, activity assays, and ELISA. RESULTS: Anti-ß2 GPI aPL inhibited trophoblast TAM receptor function by reducing cellular expression of the receptor tyrosine kinases AXL and MERTK and the ligand GAS6. The addition of GAS6 blocked the effects of aPL on the TLR-4-mediated interleukin-8 (IL-8) response. However, the NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1ß response was not affected by GAS6, suggesting that another regulatory pathway was involved. Indeed, anti-ß2 GPI aPL inhibited basal trophoblast autophagy, and reversing this with rapamycin inhibited aPL-induced inflammasome function and IL-1ß secretion. CONCLUSION: Basal TAM receptor function and autophagy may serve to inhibit trophoblast TLR and inflammasome function, respectively. Impairment of TAM receptor signaling and autophagy by anti-ß2 GPI aPL may allow subsequent TLR and inflammasome activity, leading to a robust inflammatory response.

14.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 4: 17103, 2018 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29321641

RESUMO

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, such as lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies and anti-ß2-glycoprotein 1 antibodies. APS can present with a variety of clinical phenotypes, including thrombosis in the veins, arteries and microvasculature as well as obstetrical complications. The pathophysiological hallmark is thrombosis, but other factors such as complement activation might be important. Prevention of thrombotic manifestations associated with APS includes lifestyle changes and, in individuals at high risk, low-dose aspirin. Prevention and treatment of thrombotic events are dependent mainly on the use of vitamin K antagonists. Immunosuppression and anticomplement therapy have been used anecdotally but have not been adequately tested. Pregnancy morbidity includes unexplained recurrent early miscarriage, fetal death and late obstetrical manifestation such as pre-eclampsia, premature birth or fetal growth restriction associated with placental insufficiency. Current treatment to prevent obstetrical morbidity is based on low-dose aspirin and/or low-molecular-weight heparin and has improved pregnancy outcomes to achieve successful live birth in >70% of pregnancies. Although hydroxychloroquine and pravastatin might further improve pregnancy outcomes, prospective clinical trials are required to confirm these findings.

15.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 4: 18005, 2018 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29368699

RESUMO

This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nrdp.2017.103.

16.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 70(2): 230-235, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28480528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO) by race/ethnicity among women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), with and without antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), and whether socioeconomic status (SES) accounted for differences. METHODS: Data were from the PROMISSE (Predictors of Pregnancy Outcome: Biomarkers in Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus) study, a multicenter study that enrolled 346 patients with SLE and 62 patients with SLE and aPL (50% white, 20% African American, 17% Hispanic, 12% Asian/Pacific Islander). Measures of SES were educational attainment, median community income, and community education. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine odds of APO for each racial/ethnic group, controlling first for age and clinical variables, and then for SES. RESULTS: The frequency of APO in white women with SLE, with and without aPL, was 29% and 11%, respectively. For African American and Hispanic women it was approximately 2-fold greater. In African American women with SLE alone, adjustment for clinical variables attenuated the odds ratio (OR) from 2.7 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.3-5.5) to 2.3 (95% CI 1.1-5.1), and after additional adjustment for SES, there were no longer significant differences in APO compared to whites. In contrast, in SLE patients with aPL, whites, African Americans, and Hispanics had markedly higher risks of APO compared to white SLE patients without aPL (OR 3.5 [95% CI 1.4-7.7], OR 12.4 [95% CI 1.9-79.8], and OR 10.4 [95% CI 2.5-42.4], respectively), which were not accounted for by clinical or SES covariates. CONCLUSION: This finding suggests that for African American women with SLE without aPL, SES factors are key contributors to disparities in APO, despite monthly care from experts, whereas other factors contribute to disparities in SLE with aPL.

17.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 69(10): 2006-2017, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28891252

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Manhattan Lupus Surveillance Program (MLSP) is a population-based registry designed to determine the prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in 2007 and the incidence from 2007 to 2009 among residents of New York County (Manhattan), New York, and to characterize cases by race/ethnicity, including Asians and Hispanics, for whom data are lacking. METHODS: We identified possible SLE cases from hospital records, rheumatologist records, and administrative databases. Cases were defined according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria, the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) classification criteria, or the treating rheumatologist's diagnosis. Rates among Manhattan residents were age-standardized, and capture-recapture analyses were conducted to assess case underascertainment. RESULTS: By the ACR definition, the age-standardized prevalence and incidence rates of SLE were 62.2 and 4.6 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. Rates were ∼9 times higher in women than in men for prevalence (107.4 versus 12.5) and incidence (7.9 versus 1.0). Compared with non-Hispanic white women (64.3), prevalence was higher among non-Hispanic black (210.9), Hispanic (138.3), and non-Hispanic Asian (91.2) women. Incidence rates were higher among non-Hispanic black women (15.7) compared with non-Hispanic Asian (6.6), Hispanic (6.5), and non-Hispanic white (6.5) women. Capture-recapture adjustment increased the prevalence and incidence rates (75.9 and 6.0, respectively). Alternate SLE definitions without capture-recapture adjustment revealed higher age-standardized prevalence and incidence rates (73.8 and 6.2, respectively, by the SLICC definition and 72.6 and 5.0 by the rheumatologist definition) than the ACR definition, with similar patterns by sex and race/ethnicity. CONCLUSION: The MLSP confirms findings from other registries on disparities by sex and race/ethnicity, provides new estimates among Asians and Hispanics, and provides estimates using the SLICC criteria.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sci Signal ; 10(492)2017 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28811382

RESUMO

Endothelial dysfunction, a hallmark of vascular disease, is restored by plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL). However, a generalized increase in HDL abundance is not beneficial, suggesting that specific HDL species mediate protective effects. Apolipoprotein M-containing HDL (ApoM+HDL), which carries the bioactive lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), promotes endothelial function by activating G protein-coupled S1P receptors. Moreover, HDL-bound S1P is limiting in several inflammatory, metabolic, and vascular diseases. We report the development of a soluble carrier for S1P, ApoM-Fc, which activated S1P receptors in a sustained manner and promoted endothelial function. In contrast, ApoM-Fc did not modulate circulating lymphocyte numbers, suggesting that it specifically activated endothelial S1P receptors. ApoM-Fc administration reduced blood pressure in hypertensive mice, attenuated myocardial damage after ischemia/reperfusion injury, and reduced brain infarct volume in the middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke. Our proof-of-concept study suggests that selective and sustained targeting of endothelial S1P receptors by ApoM-Fc could be a viable therapeutic strategy in vascular diseases.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Lisofosfolipídeos/farmacologia , Receptores de Lisoesfingolipídeo/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Apolipoproteínas M/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/patologia , Lipoproteínas HDL/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Ligação Proteica , Receptores Fc/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Esfingosina/farmacologia
19.
Hypertension ; 70(2): 365-371, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28652462

RESUMO

Preeclampsia is a common pregnancy-specific vascular disorder characterized by new-onset hypertension and proteinuria during the second half of pregnancy. Predisposition to preeclampsia is in part heritable. It is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. We have sequenced 124 candidate genes implicated in preeclampsia to pinpoint genetic variants contributing to predisposition to or protection from preeclampsia. First, targeted exomic sequencing was performed in 500 preeclamptic women and 190 controls from the FINNPEC cohort (Finnish Genetics of Preeclampsia Consortium). Then 122 women with a history of preeclampsia and 1905 parous women with no such history from the National FINRISK Study (a large Finnish population survey on risk factors of chronic, noncommunicable diseases) were included in the analyses. We tested 146 rare and low-frequency variants and found an excess (observed 13 versus expected 7.3) nominally associated with preeclampsia (P<0.05). The most significantly associated sequence variants were protective variants rs35832528 (E982A; P=2.49E-4; odds ratio=0.387) and rs141440705 (R54S; P=0.003; odds ratio=0.442) in Fms related tyrosine kinase 1. These variants are enriched in the Finnish population with minor allele frequencies 0.026 and 0.017, respectively. They may also be associated with a lower risk of heart failure in 11 257 FINRISK women. This study provides the first evidence of maternal protective genetic variants in preeclampsia.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/etiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Proteção
20.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 12(6): 940-946, 2017 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28400421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Kidney disease is a critical concern in counseling patients with lupus considering pregnancy. This study sought to assess the risk of renal flares during pregnancy in women with previous lupus nephritis in partial or complete remission, particularly in those with antidouble-stranded DNA antibodies and low complement levels, and the risk of new-onset nephritis in patients with stable/mildly active SLE. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We assessed active nephritis (renal flares and de novo kidney disease) and associated predictors during pregnancy in patients with lupus with urine protein ≤1000 mg and serum creatinine <1.2 mg/dl at baseline; 373 patients (52% ethnic/racial minorities) enrolled between 2003 and 2012 were prospectively followed in the Predictors of Pregnancy Outcome: Biomarkers in Antiphospholipid Syndrome and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Study. Active nephritis was defined by proteinuria increase of >500 mg and/or red blood cell casts. RESULTS: Of 118 patients with previous kidney disease, 13 renal flares (11%) occurred (seven of 89 in complete remission and six of 29 in partial remission) compared with four with de novo kidney involvement (2%) in 255 patients without past kidney disease (P<0.001). Active nephritis was not associated with ethnicity, race, age, creatinine, BP, or antihypertensive and other medications. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, patients with past kidney disease in complete or partial remission more often experienced active nephritis (adjusted odds ratio, 6.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.84 to 25.71; P=0.004 and adjusted odds ratio, 20.98; 95% confidence interval, 4.69 to 93.98; P<0.001, respectively) than those without past kidney disease. Low C4 was associated with renal flares/de novo disease (adjusted odds ratio, 5.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.64 to 19.13; P<0.01) but not low C3 or positive anti-dsDNA alone. CONCLUSIONS: De novo kidney involvement in SLE, even in ethnic/racial minorities, is uncommon during pregnancy. Past kidney disease and low C4 at baseline independently associate with higher risk of developing active nephritis. Antibodies to dsDNA alone should not raise concern, even in patients with past kidney disease, if in remission.


Assuntos
Rim/fisiopatologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Nefrite Lúpica/etiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antinucleares/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Canadá , Complemento C4/análise , Creatinina/sangue , DNA/imunologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/etnologia , Nefrite Lúpica/diagnóstico , Nefrite Lúpica/etnologia , Nefrite Lúpica/fisiopatologia , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/etnologia , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteinúria/etiologia , Proteinúria/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
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