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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3346, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431621

RESUMO

Predicting longer-term mortality risk requires collection of clinical data, which is often cumbersome. Therefore, we use a well-standardized metabolomics platform to identify metabolic predictors of long-term mortality in the circulation of 44,168 individuals (age at baseline 18-109), of whom 5512 died during follow-up. We apply a stepwise (forward-backward) procedure based on meta-analysis results and identify 14 circulating biomarkers independently associating with all-cause mortality. Overall, these associations are similar in men and women and across different age strata. We subsequently show that the prediction accuracy of 5- and 10-year mortality based on a model containing the identified biomarkers and sex (C-statistic = 0.837 and 0.830, respectively) is better than that of a model containing conventional risk factors for mortality (C-statistic = 0.772 and 0.790, respectively). The use of the identified metabolic profile as a predictor of mortality or surrogate endpoint in clinical studies needs further investigation.

2.
Nature ; 572(7769): 323-328, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367044

RESUMO

Exome-sequencing studies have generally been underpowered to identify deleterious alleles with a large effect on complex traits as such alleles are mostly rare. Because the population of northern and eastern Finland has expanded considerably and in isolation following a series of bottlenecks, individuals of these populations have numerous deleterious alleles at a relatively high frequency. Here, using exome sequencing of nearly 20,000 individuals from these regions, we investigate the role of rare coding variants in clinically relevant quantitative cardiometabolic traits. Exome-wide association studies for 64 quantitative traits identified 26 newly associated deleterious alleles. Of these 26 alleles, 19 are either unique to or more than 20 times more frequent in Finnish individuals than in other Europeans and show geographical clustering comparable to Mendelian disease mutations that are characteristic of the Finnish population. We estimate that sequencing studies of populations without this unique history would require hundreds of thousands to millions of participants to achieve comparable association power.

3.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Prognostic significance of metabolically healthy overweight and obesity (MHO) is under debate. However the relationship between MHO and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is less studied. We compared successful aging (longevity plus HRQoL) in men with MHO, metabolically healthy normal weight (MHN) and metabolically unhealthy overweight and obesity (MUO). METHODS: In the Helsinki Businessmen Study longitudinal cohort, consisting of men born 1919 to 1934. In 1985/86, overweight (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and metabolic health were determined in 1309 men (median age 60 years). HRQoL was assessed using RAND-36/SF-36 in 2000 and 2007, and all-cause mortality retrieved from registers up to 2018. The proportion of men reaching 90 years was also calculated. RESULTS: Of the men, 469 (35.8%), 538 (41.1%), 276 (21.1%), and 26 (2.0%) were MHN, MHO, MUO and MUN, respectively. During the 32-year follow-up, 72.3% men died. With MHN as reference, adjusted hazard ratio with all-cause mortality was 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93 to 1.27) for MHO, and 1.18 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.47) for MUO. During follow-up, 273 men reached 90 years. With MHN as reference, adjusted odds ratio for MHO was 0.82 (95% CI 0.59 to 1.14) and 0.62 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.95) for MUO. Men in MHN group scored generally highest in RAND-36 HRQoL subscales in 2000 and 2007, of those significantly better in Physical functioning, Role physical, Role emotional, Bodily Pain, and General health sub-scales compared to MHO group in 2000. CONCLUSIONS: As compared to MHN, MHO in late midlife does not increase mortality, but impairs odds for successful aging.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Liver disease is traditionally categorized as alcoholic and non-alcoholic. We studied various risk factors predictive of advanced non-viral liver disease in general population and analyzed the interaction between these factors and alcohol consumption. METHODS: Persons without underlying liver disease who participated in the Health2000 or FINRISK studies 1992-2012 comprised a cohort of 41 260 individuals. Pattern of alcohol consumption and metabolic, lifestyle-related, and anthropometric parameters were analyzed with Cox regression analysis using severe liver disease hospitalization, cancer, or death as end-point. Viral liver diseases were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 355 liver events occurred during the mean 12.4-year follow-up (511 789 person-years). In the multivariate model, age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.03, P = 0.0083 for men; HR 1.04, P = 0.0198 for women), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (HR 1.52, P = 0.0006 for men; HR 1.58, P = 0.0167 for women), patatin-like phospholipase-containing domain 3 mutations (HR 1.9, P = 0.024 for men; HR 2.7, P = 0.0109 for women), and weekly binge drinking (HR 2.4, P = 0.0024 for men; HR 7.4, P < 0.0001 for women) predicted development of severe liver disease. Among men, diabetes (HR 2.7, P = 0.0002), average alcohol consumption (HR for 10 g/day 1.1, P = 0.0022), non-married status (HR 1.9, P = 0.0397 for single; HR 2.4, P = 0.0002 for widowed/separated), and serum high-density lipoprotein (HR 2.2, P = 0.0022) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HR 1.2, P = 0.0237) were additional risk factors. Alcohol intake increased the risk especially among persons with high WHR (P for interaction 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Age, patatin-like phospholipase-containing domain 3 haplotype, and WHR increase the risk for development of severe liver disease. We found strong synergism between alcohol and central obesity. Binge drinking is an additional risk factor.

5.
Hepatology ; 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323122

RESUMO

The effects of alcohol use in non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease are unclear. We investigated the impact of alcohol use in fatty liver disease on incident liver, cardiovascular, and malignant disease, and death. Study comprised 8345 persons with hepatic steatosis (fatty-liver index >60) who participated in the health-examination surveys (FINRISK 1992-2012 or Health 2000), with available data on baseline alcohol intake. Main exclusions were baseline clinical liver disease, viral hepatitis, ethanol intake >50g/day, and current abstainers. Data were linked with national registers for hospital admissions, malignancies and death regarding liver, cardiovascular, and malignant disease, and all-cause death. Adjustment were for multiple confounders. Alcohol consumption showed a dose-dependent risk increase for incident advanced liver disease and malignancies. Consuming 10-19g/day of alcohol in general, or 0-9g/day as non-wine beverages, doubled the risk for advanced liver disease compared to lifetime abstainers. In contrast, alcohol intake up to 49g/day was associated with a 22-40% reduction of incident CVD. We observed a J-shaped association between alcohol intake and all-cause death with a maximal risk reduction of 21% (95%CI 5-34%) at alcohol intake of 0-9g/day compared to lifetime abstainers. However, these benefits on CVD and mortality were only observed in never smokers. Alcohol intake above 30g/day yielded increased risk estimates for mortality compared to lifetime abstainers. In a subpopulation with longitudinal data, alcohol intake remained stable over time in >80% of subjects. CONCLUSION: Even low alcohol intake in fatty liver disease is associated with increased risks for advanced liver disease and cancer. Low to moderate alcohol use is associated with reduced mortality and CVD risk, but only among never smokers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255807

RESUMO

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are the major causes for nonviral liver cirrhosis in the population. Whereas the typical NAFLD patient is one with abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and no or minimal alcohol use, the patient with pure alcoholic liver cirrhosis has, according to cohort studies, typically consumed >5-10 daily alcohol drinks for several years.1 However, both alcohol use and components of the MetS are continuous variables and, as such, not dichotomic. Recent evidence suggests harmful synergistic effects of obesity, MetS, and alcohol intake for the risk of future liver disease.2 Consequently, given an increasing population prevalence of overweight and obese alcohol users, expectedly, there will be many patients that do not fit either the typical NAFLD or typical ALD phenotype, but share features of both disease entities. Current case-finding strategies focusing on either pure NAFLD or pure ALD3,4 may underestimate the true risk in individuals who will develop liver disease as the result of interaction between alcohol and metabolic disorders.1.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(13): e012415, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256696

RESUMO

Background We asked whether, after excluding familial hypercholesterolemia, individuals with high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( LDL -C) or triacylglyceride levels and a family history of the same hyperlipidemia have greater coronary artery disease risk or different lipidomic profiles compared with population-based hyperlipidemias. Methods and Results We determined incident coronary artery disease risk for 755 members of 66 hyperlipidemic families (≥2 first-degree relatives with similar hyperlipidemia) and 19 644 Finnish FINRISK population study participants. We quantified 151 circulating lipid species from 550 members of 73 hyperlipidemic families and 897 FINRISK participants using mass spectrometric shotgun lipidomics. Familial hypercholesterolemia was excluded using functional LDL receptor testing and genotyping. Hyperlipidemias ( LDL -C or triacylglycerides >90th population percentile) associated with increased coronary artery disease risk in meta-analysis of the hyperlipidemic families and the population cohort (high LDL -C: hazard ratio, 1.74 [95% CI, 1.48-2.04]; high triacylglycerides: hazard ratio, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.09-1.74]). Risk estimates were similar in the family and population cohorts also after adjusting for lipid-lowering medication. In lipidomic profiling, high LDL -C associated with 108 lipid species, and high triacylglycerides associated with 131 lipid species in either cohort (at 5% false discovery rate; P-value range 0.038-2.3×10-56). Lipidomic profiles were highly similar for hyperlipidemic individuals in the families and the population ( LDL -C: r=0.80; triacylglycerides: r=0.96; no lipid species deviated between the cohorts). Conclusions Hyperlipidemias with family history conferred similar coronary artery disease risk as population-based hyperlipidemias. We identified distinct lipidomic profiles associated with high LDL -C and triacylglycerides. Lipidomic profiles were similar between hyperlipidemias with family history and population-ascertained hyperlipidemias, providing evidence of similar and overlapping underlying mechanisms.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9219, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239477

RESUMO

Benefit of physical activity in prevention of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is unclear. We aimed to clarify this by studying how different types of physical activity associate with SAH risk. By following 65 521 population-based FINRISK participants prospectively from medical and autopsy registries since 1972 until 2014, we detected 543 incident SAHs. At baseline, we measured leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), occupational physical activity (OPA), and commuting physical activity (CPA) levels. The Cox model adjusted for all well-known SAH risk factors and for socioeconomic status, provided hazard ratios (HRs) for physical activity variables. Every 30-minute increase in weekly LTPA decreased SAH risk linearly in men and women HR = 0.95 (95% CI = 0.90-1.00). CPA reduced SAH risk as well, but the association diminished as participants retired. In contrast, individuals with moderate (1.41, 1.04-1.92) and high OPA (1.34, 0.99-1.81) had elevated SAH risk. Protective association of LTPA persisted in all age and hypertension groups, and was even greater in current smokers 0.88 (0.81-0.96) than non-smokers (p = 0.04 for difference). Commuting and leisure time physical activity seem to reduce SAH risk in men and women and is most beneficial for smokers. Future intervention studies should investigate whether physical activity can reduce the rupture risk of intracranial aneurysms.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1169-1181, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155286

RESUMO

Polygenic scores (PSs) are becoming a useful tool to identify individuals with high genetic risk for complex diseases, and several projects are currently testing their utility for translational applications. It is also tempting to use PSs to assess whether genetic variation can explain a part of the geographic distribution of a phenotype. However, it is not well known how the population genetic properties of the training and target samples affect the geographic distribution of PSs. Here, we evaluate geographic differences, and related biases, of PSs in Finland in a geographically well-defined sample of 2,376 individuals from the National FINRISK study. First, we detect geographic differences in PSs for coronary artery disease (CAD), rheumatoid arthritis, schizophrenia, waist-hip ratio (WHR), body-mass index (BMI), and height, but not for Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis. Second, we use height as a model trait to thoroughly assess the possible population genetic biases in PSs and apply similar approaches to the other phenotypes. Most importantly, we detect suspiciously large accumulations of geographic differences for CAD, WHR, BMI, and height, suggesting bias arising from the population's genetic structure rather than from a direct genotype-phenotype association. This work demonstrates how sensitive the geographic patterns of current PSs are for small biases even within relatively homogeneous populations and provides simple tools to identify such biases. A thorough understanding of the effects of population genetic structure on PSs is essential for translational applications of PSs.

10.
J Med Genet ; 56(9): 607-616, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory processes contribute to the pathophysiology of multiple chronic conditions. Genetic factors play a crucial role in modulating the inflammatory load, but the exact mechanisms are incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE: To assess genetic determinants of 16 circulating cytokines and cell adhesion molecules (inflammatory phenotypes) in Finns. METHODS: Genome-wide associations of the inflammatory phenotypes were studied in Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (N=5284). A subsequent meta-analysis was completed for 10 phenotypes available in a previous genome-wide association study, adding up to 13 577 individuals in the study. Complementary association tests were performed to study the effect of the ABO blood types on soluble adhesion molecule levels. RESULTS: We identified seven novel and six previously reported genetic associations (p<3.1×10-9). Three loci were associated with soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) level, one of which was the ABO locus that has been previously associated with soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) levels. Our findings suggest that the blood type B associates primarily with sVCAM-1 level, while the A1 subtype shows a robust effect on sE-selectin and sICAM-1 levels. The genotypes in the ABO locus associating with higher soluble adhesion molecule levels tend to associate with lower circulating cholesterol levels and lower cardiovascular disease risk. CONCLUSION: The present results extend the knowledge about genetic factors contributing to the inflammatory load. Our findings suggest that two distinct mechanisms contribute to the soluble adhesion molecule levels in the ABO locus and that elevated soluble adhesion molecule levels per se may not increase risk for cardiovascular disease.

11.
N Engl J Med ; 380(26): 2529-2540, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding high-sensitivity troponin concentrations in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction may be useful in determining the probability of myocardial infarction and subsequent 30-day outcomes. METHODS: In 15 international cohorts of patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction, we determined the concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin I or high-sensitivity troponin T at presentation and after early or late serial sampling. The diagnostic and prognostic performance of multiple high-sensitivity troponin cutoff combinations was assessed with the use of a derivation-validation design. A risk-assessment tool that was based on these data was developed to estimate the risk of index myocardial infarction and of subsequent myocardial infarction or death at 30 days. RESULTS: Among 22,651 patients (9604 in the derivation data set and 13,047 in the validation data set), the prevalence of myocardial infarction was 15.3%. Lower high-sensitivity troponin concentrations at presentation and smaller absolute changes during serial sampling were associated with a lower likelihood of myocardial infarction and a lower short-term risk of cardiovascular events. For example, high-sensitivity troponin I concentrations of less than 6 ng per liter and an absolute change of less than 4 ng per liter after 45 to 120 minutes (early serial sampling) resulted in a negative predictive value of 99.5% for myocardial infarction, with an associated 30-day risk of subsequent myocardial infarction or death of 0.2%; a total of 56.5% of the patients would be classified as being at low risk. These findings were confirmed in an external validation data set. CONCLUSIONS: A risk-assessment tool, which we developed to integrate the high-sensitivity troponin I or troponin T concentration at emergency department presentation, its dynamic change during serial sampling, and the time between the obtaining of samples, was used to estimate the probability of myocardial infarction on emergency department presentation and 30-day outcomes. (Funded by the German Center for Cardiovascular Research [DZHK]; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00470587, NCT02355457, NCT01852123, NCT01994577, and NCT03227159; and Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry numbers, ACTRN12611001069943, ACTRN12610000766011, ACTRN12613000745741, and ACTRN12611000206921.).


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Troponina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Troponina I/sangue
12.
Blood Press ; 28(4): 239-249, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044621

RESUMO

Background: White-coat effect (WCE) confounds diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. The prevalence of white-coat hypertension is higher in Europe and Asia compared to other continents suggesting that genetic factors could play a role. Methods: To study genetic variation affecting WCE, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study involving 1343 Finnish subjects. For the discovery stage, we used Genetics of Drug Responsiveness in Essential Hypertension (GENRES) cohort (n = 206), providing the mean WCE values from up to four separate office/ambulatory recordings conducted on placebo. Associations with p values <1 × 10-5 were included in the replication step in three independent cohorts: Haemodynamics in Primary and Secondary Hypertension (DYNAMIC) (n = 182), Finn-Home study (n = 773) and Dietary, Lifestyle and Genetic Determinants of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome (DILGOM) (n = 182). Results: No single nucleotide polymorphisms reached genome-wide significance for association with either systolic or diastolic WCE. However, two loci provided suggestive evidence for association. A known coronary artery disease risk locus rs2292954 in SPG7 associated with systolic WCE (discovery p value = 2.2 × 10-6, replication p value = 0.03 in Finn-Home, meta-analysis p value 2.6 × 10-4), and rs10033652 in RASGEF1B with diastolic WCE (discovery p value = 4.9 × 10-6, replication p value = 0.04 in DILGOM, meta-analysis p value = 5.0 × 10-3). Conclusion: This study provides evidence for two novel candidate genes, SPG7 and RASGEF1B, associating with WCE. Our results need to be validated in even larger studies carried out in other populations.

13.
Ann Med ; 51(2): 174-181, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055965

RESUMO

Aims: To quantify the incidence and prevalence of heart failure (HF) in persons with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and to examine the 1-year survival after the diagnosis of HF. Materials and methods: All cases of HF (n = 295,990) and T2DM in Finland were identified from national electronic health care registers for the period 1996-2012. The annual incidence and prevalence rates of HF and 1-year survival after the first diagnosis of HF were calculated for persons with T2DM and without diabetes using Poisson regression for the event rates. Results: The age-adjusted rate ratio for incident HF among men with T2DM in the age group 35-74 years declined from 3.73 (95% CI, 3.46-4.02) in 1996 to 2.17 (2.04-2.31) in 2012 and among women from 3.90 (3.61-4.22) to 2.36 (2.16-2.58). The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio of 1-year death after the diagnosis of HF declined from 1.15 (1.11-1.21) to 1.07 (1.05-1.10) from the first to the second half of the study period. Conclusions: Individuals aged <75 years with T2DM had a considerably higher incidence of HF than individuals without diabetes. The prognosis of HF was worse in individuals with T2DM than in individuals without diabetes. However, the gap between the groups had narrowed over time. Key messages The incidence of heart failure is 2-3 times higher among patients under 75 years of age with type 2 diabetes than among individuals without diabetes. The prognosis of heart failure patients is worse among patients with type 2 diabetes than it is among patients without diabetes although it is improving.

14.
Scand J Public Health ; : 1403494819847051, 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contemporary validation studies of register-based heart failure diagnoses based on current guidelines and complete clinical data are lacking in Finland and internationally. Our objective was to assess the positive and negative predictive values of heart failure diagnoses in a nationwide hospital discharge register. METHODS: Using Finnish Hospital Discharge Register data from 2013-2015, we obtained the medical records for 120 patients with a register-based diagnosis for heart failure (cases) and for 120 patients with a predisposing condition for heart failure, but without a heart failure diagnosis (controls). The medical records of all patients were assessed by a physician who categorized each individual as having heart failure (with reduced or preserved ejection fraction) or no heart failure, based on the definition of current European Society of Cardiology heart failure guidelines. Unclear cases were assessed by a panel of three physicians. This classification was considered as the clinical gold standard, against which the registers were assessed. RESULTS: Register-based heart failure diagnoses had a positive predictive value of 0.85 (95% CI 0.77-0.91) and a negative predictive value of 0.83 (95% CI 0.75-0.90). The positive predictive value decreased when we classified patients with transient heart failure (duration <6 months), dialysis/lung disease or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction as not having heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: Heart failure diagnoses of the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register have good positive predictive value and negative predictive value, even when patients with pre-existing heart conditions are used as healthy controls. Our results suggest that heart failure diagnoses based on register data can be reliably used for research purposes.

15.
Clin Chem ; 65(8): 1042-1050, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity (HDL-CEC) is a functional attribute that may have a protective role in atherogenesis. However, the estimation of HDL-CEC is based on in vitro cell assays that are laborious and hamper large-scale phenotyping. METHODS: Here, we present a cost-effective high-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy method to estimate HDL-CEC directly from serum. We applied the new method in a population-based study of 7603 individuals including 574 who developed incident coronary heart disease (CHD) during 15 years of follow-up, making this the largest quantitative study for HDL-CEC. RESULTS: As estimated by NMR-spectroscopy, a 1-SD higher HDL-CEC was associated with a lower risk of incident CHD (hazards ratio, 0.86; 95%CI, 0.79-0.93, adjusted for traditional risk factors and HDL-C). These findings are consistent with published associations based on in vitro cell assays. CONCLUSIONS: These corroborative large-scale findings provide further support for a potential protective role of HDL-CEC in CHD and substantiate this new method and its future applications.

16.
Am J Hypertens ; 32(8): 734-741, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nighttime blood pressure (BP) and nondipping pattern are strongly associated with hypertensive end-organ damage. However, no previous studies have compared the diagnostic agreement between ambulatory and home monitoring in detecting these BP patterns in the general population. METHODS: We studied a population-based sample of 180 persons aged 32-80 years. The study protocol included 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, home daytime measurements over 7 days, home nighttime measurements (6 measurements over 2 consecutive nights using a timer-equipped home device), and ultrasound measurements for left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). We defined nondipping as a <10% reduction in nighttime BP compared with daytime BP, and nighttime hypertension as BP ≥ 120/70 mm Hg. RESULTS: The agreement between ambulatory and home monitoring for detecting nighttime hypertension was good (80%, κ = 0.56, P < 0.001). However, their agreement in detecting nondipping status was poor (54%, κ = 0.12, P = 0.09). The magnitude of ambulatory systolic BP dipping percent was 1.7% higher than on home monitoring (P = 0.004), whereas no difference was observed for diastolic BP dipping (difference: 0.7%, P = 0.33). LVMI and IMT were significantly greater among individuals with nighttime hypertension than in normotensive individuals, irrespective of the measurement method. However, only ambulatory nondippers, but not home nondippers, had more advanced end-organ damage than dippers. CONCLUSION: We observed a good agreement between ambulatory and home BP monitoring in detecting nighttime hypertension in the general population. Two-night home monitoring could offer an inexpensive and feasible method for the diagnosis of nighttime hypertension.

17.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(3): 204-213, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigates differences between women and men in heart failure (HF) risk and mortality. BACKGROUND: Sex differences in HF epidemiology are insufficiently understood. METHODS: In 78,657 individuals (median 49.5 years of age; age range 24.1 to 98.7 years; 51.7% women) from community-based European studies (FINRISK, DanMONICA, Moli-sani, Northern Sweden) of the BiomarCaRE (Biomarker for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe) consortium, the association between incident HF and mortality, the relationship of cardiovascular risk factors, prevalent cardiovascular diseases, biomarkers (C-reactive protein [CRP]; N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]) with incident HF, and their attributable risks were tested in women vs. men. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 12.7 years, fewer HF cases were observed in women (n = 2,399 [5.9%]) than in men (n = 2,771 [7.3%]). HF incidence increased markedly after 60 years of age, initially with a more rapid increase in men, whereas incidence in women exceeded that of men after 85 years of age. HF onset substantially increased mortality risk in both sexes. Multivariable-adjusted Cox models showed the following sex differences for the association with incident HF: systolic blood pressure hazard ratio (HR) according to SD in women of 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05 to 1.14) versus HR of 1.19 (95% CI: 1.14 to 1.24) in men; heart rate HR of 0.98 (95% CI: 0.93 to 1.03) in women versus HR of 1.09 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.13) in men; CRP HR of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.00 to 1.20) in women versus HR of 1.32 (95% CI: 1.24 to 1.41) in men; and NT-proBNP HR of 1.54 (95% CI: 1.37 to 1.74) in women versus HR of 1.89 (95% CI: 1.75 to 2.05) in men. Population-attributable risk of all risk factors combined was 59.0% in women and 62.9% in men. CONCLUSIONS: Women had a lower risk for HF than men. Sex differences were seen for systolic blood pressure, heart rate, CRP, and NT-proBNP, with a lower HF risk in women.

18.
Stroke ; 50(3): 610-617, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786848

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation and a marker of cardiac function used in the detection of heart failure. Given the link between cardiac dysfunction and stroke, NT-proBNP is a candidate marker of stroke risk. Our aim was to evaluate the association of NT-proBNP with stroke and to determine the predictive value beyond a panel of established risk factors. Methods- Based on the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe-Consortium, we analyzed data of 58 173 participants (50% men; mean age 52 y) free of stroke from 6 community-based cohorts. NT-proBNP measurements were performed in the central Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe laboratory. The outcomes considered were total stroke and subtypes of stroke (ischemic/hemorrhagic). Results- During a median follow-up time of 7.9 years, we observed 1550 stroke events (1176 ischemic). Increasing quarters of the NT-proBNP distribution were associated with increasing risk of stroke ( P for trend <0.0001; multivariable Cox regression analysis adjusted for risk factors and cardiac diseases). Individuals in the highest NT-proBNP quarter (NT-proBNP >82.2 pg/mL) had 2-fold (95% CI, 75%-151%) greater risk of stroke than individuals in the lowest quarter (NT-proBNP <20.4 pg/mL). The association remained unchanged when adjusted for interim coronary events during follow-up, and though it was somewhat heterogeneous across cohorts, it was highly homogenous according to cardiovascular risk profile or subtypes of stroke. The addition of NT-proBNP to a reference model increased the C-index discrimination measure by 0.006 ( P=0.0005), yielded a categorical net reclassification improvement of 2.0% in events and 1.4% in nonevents and an integrated discrimination improvement of 0.007. Conclusions- In European individuals free of stroke, levels of NT-proBNP are positively associated with risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, independently from several other risk factors and conditions. The addition of NT-proBNP to variables of established risk scores improves prediction of stroke, with a medium effect size.

19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 410, 2019 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679432

RESUMO

The contribution of de novo variants in severe intellectual disability (ID) has been extensively studied whereas the genetics of mild ID has been less characterized. To elucidate the genetics of milder ID we studied 442 ID patients enriched for mild ID (>50%) from a population isolate of Finland. Using exome sequencing, we show that rare damaging variants in known ID genes are observed significantly more often in severe (27%) than in mild ID (13%) patients. We further observe a significant enrichment of functional variants in genes not yet associated with ID (OR: 2.1). We show that a common variant polygenic risk significantly contributes to ID. The heritability explained by polygenic risk score is the highest for educational attainment (EDU) in mild ID (2.2%) but lower for more severe ID (0.6%). Finally, we identify a Finland enriched homozygote variant in the CRADD ID associated gene.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização CRADD/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Exoma , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/epidemiologia , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Geografia , Homozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Patologia Molecular , Prevalência , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
20.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(2): 163-173, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649175

RESUMO

Importance: It is uncertain to what extent established cardiovascular risk factors are associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). Objective: To estimate the associations of major cardiovascular risk factors with VTE, ie, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study included individual participant data mostly from essentially population-based cohort studies from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (ERFC; 731 728 participants; 75 cohorts; years of baseline surveys, February 1960 to June 2008; latest date of follow-up, December 2015) and the UK Biobank (421 537 participants; years of baseline surveys, March 2006 to September 2010; latest date of follow-up, February 2016). Participants without cardiovascular disease at baseline were included. Data were analyzed from June 2017 to September 2018. Exposures: A panel of several established cardiovascular risk factors. Main Outcomes and Measures: Hazard ratios (HRs) per 1-SD higher usual risk factor levels (or presence/absence). Incident fatal outcomes in ERFC (VTE, 1041; coronary heart disease [CHD], 25 131) and incident fatal/nonfatal outcomes in UK Biobank (VTE, 2321; CHD, 3385). Hazard ratios were adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, diabetes, and body mass index (BMI). Results: Of the 731 728 participants from the ERFC, 403 396 (55.1%) were female, and the mean (SD) age at the time of the survey was 51.9 (9.0) years; of the 421 537 participants from the UK Biobank, 233 699 (55.4%) were female, and the mean (SD) age at the time of the survey was 56.4 (8.1) years. Risk factors for VTE included older age (ERFC: HR per decade, 2.67; 95% CI, 2.45-2.91; UK Biobank: HR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.71-1.92), current smoking (ERFC: HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.20-1.58; UK Biobank: HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.08-1.40), and BMI (ERFC: HR per 1-SD higher BMI, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.35-1.50; UK Biobank: HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.32-1.41). For these factors, there were similar HRs for pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis in UK Biobank (except adiposity was more strongly associated with pulmonary embolism) and similar HRs for unprovoked vs provoked VTE. Apart from adiposity, these risk factors were less strongly associated with VTE than CHD. There were inconsistent associations of VTEs with diabetes and blood pressure across ERFC and UK Biobank, and there was limited ability to study lipid and inflammation markers. Conclusions and Relevance: Older age, smoking, and adiposity were consistently associated with higher VTE risk.

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