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1.
Europace ; 2021 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458771

RESUMO

AIMS: Classical cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), biomarkers, and common genetic variation have been suggested for risk assessment of atrial fibrillation (AF). To evaluate their clinical potential, we analysed their individual and combined ability of AF prediction. METHODS AND RESULTS: In N = 6945 individuals of the FINRISK 1997 cohort, we assessed the predictive value of CVRF, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and 145 recently identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) combined in a developed polygenic risk score (PRS) for incident AF. Over a median follow-up of 17.8 years, n = 551 participants (7.9%) developed AF. In multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models, NT-proBNP [hazard ratio (HR) of log transformed values 4.77; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.66-6.22; P < 0.001] and the PRS (HR 2.18; 95% CI 1.88-2.53; P < 0.001) were significantly related to incident AF. The discriminatory ability improved asymptotically with increasing numbers of SNPs. Compared with a clinical model, AF risk prediction was significantly improved by addition of NT-proBNP and the PRS. The C-statistic for the combination of CVRF, NT-proBNP, and the PRS reached 0.83 compared with 0.79 for CVRF only (P < 0.001). A replication in the Dutch Prevention of REnal and Vascular ENd-stage Disease (PREVEND) cohort revealed similar results. Comparing the highest vs. lowest quartile, NT-proBNP and the PRS both showed a more than three-fold increased AF risk. Age remained the strongest risk factor with a 16.7-fold increased risk of AF in the highest quartile. CONCLUSION: The PRS and the established biomarker NT-proBNP showed comparable predictive ability. Both provided incremental predictive value over standard clinical variables. Further improvements for the PRS are likely with the discovery of additional SNPs.

2.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438022

RESUMO

AIMS : There is inconsistent evidence on the relation of alcohol intake with incident atrial fibrillation (AF), in particular at lower doses. We assessed the association between alcohol consumption, biomarkers, and incident AF across the spectrum of alcohol intake in European cohorts. METHODS AND RESULTS : In a community-based pooled cohort, we followed 107 845 individuals for the association between alcohol consumption, including types of alcohol and drinking patterns, and incident AF. We collected information on classical cardiovascular risk factors and incident heart failure (HF) and measured the biomarkers N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity troponin I. The median age of individuals was 47.8 years, 48.3% were men. The median alcohol consumption was 3 g/day. N = 5854 individuals developed AF (median follow-up time: 13.9 years). In a sex- and cohort-stratified Cox regression analysis alcohol consumption was non-linearly and positively associated with incident AF. The hazard ratio for one drink (12 g) per day was 1.16, 95% CI 1.11-1.22, P < 0.001. Associations were similar across types of alcohol. In contrast, alcohol consumption at lower doses was associated with reduced risk of incident HF. The association between alcohol consumption and incident AF was neither fully explained by cardiac biomarker concentrations nor by the occurrence of HF. CONCLUSIONS : In contrast to other cardiovascular diseases such as HF, even modest habitual alcohol intake of 1.2 drinks/day was associated with an increased risk of AF, which needs to be considered in AF prevention.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic vulnerability to coronary heart disease (CHD) is well established, but little is known whether these effects are mediated or modified by equally well-established social determinants of CHD. We estimate the joint associations of the polygenetic risk score (PRS) for CHD and education on CHD events. METHODS: The data are from the 1992, 1997, 2002, 2007 and 2012 surveys of the population-based FINRISK Study including measures of social, behavioural and metabolic factors and genome-wide genotypes (N=26 203). Follow-up of fatal and non-fatal incident CHD events (N=2063) was based on nationwide registers. RESULTS: Allowing for age, sex, study year, region of residence, study batch and principal components, those in the highest quartile of PRS for CHD had strongly increased risk of CHD events compared with the lowest quartile (HR=2.26; 95% CI: 1.97 to 2.59); associations were also observed for low education (HR=1.58; 95% CI: 1.32 to 1.89). These effects were largely independent of each other. Adjustment for baseline smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, igh-density lipoprotein (HDL) and total cholesterol, blood pressure and diabetes attenuated the PRS associations by 10% and the education associations by 50%. We do not find strong evidence of interactions between PRS and education. CONCLUSIONS: PRS and education predict CHD events, and these associations are independent of each other. Both can improve CHD prediction beyond behavioural risks. The results imply that observational studies that do not have information on genetic risk factors for CHD do not provide confounded estimates for the association between education and CHD.

4.
Innate Immun ; 27(1): 3-14, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243051

RESUMO

Our aim was to analyze whether endotoxemia, i.e. translocation of LPS to circulation, is reflected in the serum metabolic profile in a general population and in participants with cardiometabolic disorders. We investigated three Finnish cohorts separately and in a meta-analysis (n = 7178), namely population-based FINRISK97, FinnTwin16 consisting of young adult twins, and Parogene, a random cohort of cardiac patients. Endotoxemia was determined as serum LPS activity and metabolome by an NMR platform. Potential effects of body mass index (BMI), smoking, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and coronary heart disease (CHD) status were considered. Endotoxemia was directly associated with concentrations of VLDL, IDL, LDL, and small HDL lipoproteins, VLDL particle diameter, total fatty acids (FA), glycoprotein acetyls (GlycA), aromatic and branched-chain amino acids, and Glc, and inversely associated with concentration of large HDL, diameters of LDL and HDL, as well as unsaturation degree of FAs. Some of these disadvantageous associations were significantly stronger in smokers and subjects with high BMI, but did not differ between participants with different CHD status. In participants with MetS, however, the associations of endotoxemia with FA parameters and GlycA were particularly strong. The metabolic profile in endotoxemia appears highly adverse, involving several inflammatory characters and risk factors for cardiometabolic disorders.

5.
Neurology ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive analysis of circulating metabolites and incident stroke in large prospective population-based settings. METHODS: We investigated the association of metabolites with risk of stroke in seven prospective cohort studies including 1,791 incident stroke events among 38,797 participants in whom circulating metabolites were measured by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) technology. The relationship between metabolites and stroke was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. The analyses were performed considering all incident stroke events and ischemic and hemorrhagic events separately. RESULTS: The analyses revealed ten significant metabolite associations. Amino acid histidine (hazard ratio (HR) per standard deviation (SD) = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85, 0.94; P = 4.45×10-5), glycolysis-related metabolite pyruvate (HR per SD = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.14; P = 7.45×10-4), acute phase reaction marker glycoprotein acetyls (HR per SD = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.15; P = 1.27×10-3), cholesterol in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) 2 and several other lipoprotein particles were associated with risk of stroke. When focusing on incident ischemic stroke, a significant association was observed with phenylalanine (HR per SD = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.19; P = 4.13×10-4) and total and free cholesterol in large HDL particles. CONCLUSIONS: We found association of amino acids, glycolysis-related metabolites, acute phase reaction markers, and several lipoprotein subfractions with the risk of stroke. These findings support the potential of metabolomics to provide new insights into the metabolic changes preceding stroke.

6.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(6): e002769, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is accelerated in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). METHODS: To test whether this reflects differential genetic influences on CAD risk in subjects with T2D, we performed a systematic assessment of genetic overlap between CAD and T2D in 66 643 subjects (27 708 with CAD and 24 259 with T2D). Variants showing apparent association with CAD in stratified analyses or evidence of interaction were evaluated in a further 117 787 subjects (16 694 with CAD and 11 537 with T2D). RESULTS: None of the previously characterized CAD loci was found to have specific effects on CAD in T2D individuals, and a genome-wide interaction analysis found no new variants for CAD that could be considered T2D specific. When we considered the overall genetic correlations between CAD and its risk factors, we found no substantial differences in these relationships by T2D background. CONCLUSIONS: This study found no evidence that the genetic architecture of CAD differs in those with T2D compared with those without T2D.

7.
Eur Heart J ; 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351885

RESUMO

AIMS : Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) and 4 (ANGPTL4) inhibit lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and represent emerging drug targets to lower circulating triglycerides and reduce cardiovascular risk. To investigate the molecular effects of genetic mimicry of ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4 inhibition and compare them to the effects of genetic mimicry of LPL enhancement. METHODS AND RESULTS : Associations of genetic variants in ANGPTL3 (rs11207977-T), ANGPTL4 (rs116843064-A), and LPL (rs115849089-A) with an extensive serum lipid and metabolite profile (208 measures) were characterized in six cohorts of up to 61 240 participants. Genetic associations with anthropometric measures, glucose-insulin metabolism, blood pressure, markers of kidney function, and cardiometabolic endpoints via genome-wide summary data were also explored. ANGPTL4 rs116843064-A and LPL rs115849089-A displayed a strikingly similar pattern of associations across the lipoprotein and lipid measures. However, the corresponding associations with ANGPTL3 rs11207977-T differed, including those for low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein particle concentrations and compositions. All three genotypes associated with lower concentrations of an inflammatory biomarker glycoprotein acetyls and genetic mimicry of ANGPTL3 inhibition and LPL enhancement were also associated with lower C-reactive protein. Genetic mimicry of ANGPTL4 inhibition and LPL enhancement were associated with a lower waist-to-hip ratio, improved insulin-glucose metabolism, and lower risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes, whilst genetic mimicry of ANGPTL3 was associated with improved kidney function. CONCLUSIONS : Genetic mimicry of ANGPTL4 inhibition and LPL enhancement have very similar systemic metabolic effects, whereas genetic mimicry of ANGPTL3 inhibition showed differing metabolic effects, suggesting potential involvement of pathways independent of LPL. Genetic mimicry of ANGPTL4 inhibition and LPL enhancement were associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. These findings reinforce evidence that enhancing LPL activity (either directly or via upstream effects) through pharmacological approaches is likely to yield benefits to human health.

8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249422

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that using population-specific reference panels has a significant effect on downstream population genomic analyses like haplotype phasing, genotype imputation, and association, especially in the context of population isolates. Here, we developed a high-resolution recombination rate mapping at 10 and 50 kb scale using high-coverage (20-30×) whole-genome sequenced data of 55 family trios from Finland and compared it to recombination rates of non-Finnish Europeans (NFE). We tested the downstream effects of the population-specific recombination rates in statistical phasing and genotype imputation in Finns as compared to the same analyses performed by using the NFE-based recombination rates. We found that Finnish recombination rates have a moderately high correlation (Spearman's ρ = 0.67-0.79) with NFE, although on average (across all autosomal chromosomes), Finnish rates (2.268 ± 0.4209 cM/Mb) are 12-14% lower than NFE (2.641 ± 0.5032 cM/Mb). Finnish recombination map was found to have no significant effect in haplotype phasing accuracy (switch error rates ~2%) and average imputation concordance rates (97-98% for common, 92-96% for low frequency and 78-90% for rare variants). Our results suggest that haplotype phasing and genotype imputation mostly depend on population-specific contexts like appropriate reference panels and their sample size, but not on population-specific recombination maps. Even though recombination rate estimates had some differences between the Finnish and NFE populations, haplotyping and imputation had not been noticeably affected by the recombination map used. Therefore, the currently available HapMap recombination maps seem robust for population-specific phasing and imputation pipelines, even in the context of relatively isolated populations like Finland.

9.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243845

RESUMO

There is currently limited understanding of the genetic aetiology of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). We aimed at identifying genetic loci associated with OSA risk and to test if OSA and its comorbidities share a common genetic background.We conducted the first large-scale genome-wide association study of OSA using FinnGen Study (217 955 individuals) with 16 761 OSA patients identified using nationwide health registries.We estimated 8.3% [0.06-0.11] heritability and identified five loci associated with OSA (p<5.0×10-8): rs4837016 near GTPase activating protein and VPS9 domains 1 (GAPVD1), rs10928560 near C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), rs185932673 near Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID (CAMK1D) and rs9937053 near Fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) - a variant previously associated with body mass index (BMI). In a BMI-adjusted analysis, an association was observed for rs10507084 near Rhabdomyosarcoma 2 associated transcript (RMST)/NEDD1 gamma-tubulin ring complex targeting factor (NEDD1). We found high genetic correlations between OSA and BMI (rg=0.72 [0.62-0.83]) and with comorbidities including hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2D), coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, depression, hypothyroidism, asthma and inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD) (rg>0.30). Polygenic risk score (PRS) for BMI showed 1.98-fold increased OSA risk between the highest and the lowest quintile and Mendelian randomisation supported a causal relationship between BMI and OSA.Our findings support the causal link between obesity and OSA and joint genetic basis between OSA and comorbidities.

10.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 300, 2020 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease has emerged as a strong cardiovascular risk factor, and in many current guidelines, it is already considered as a coronary heart disease (CHD) equivalent. Routinely, creatinine has been used as the main marker of renal function, but recently, cystatin C emerged as a more promising marker. The aim of this study was to assess the comparative cardiovascular and mortality risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) using cystatin C-based and creatinine-based equations of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in participants of population-based and disease cohorts. METHODS: The present study has been conducted within the BiomarCaRE project, with harmonized data from 20 population-based cohorts (n = 76,954) from 6 European countries and 3 cardiovascular disease (CVD) cohorts (n = 4982) from Germany. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess hazard ratios (HRs) for the various CKD definitions with adverse outcomes and mortality after adjustment for the Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) variables and study center. Main outcome measures were cardiovascular diseases, cardiovascular death, and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of CKD stage 3-5 by creatinine- and cystatin C-based eGFR, respectively, was 3.3% and 7.4% in the population-based cohorts and 13.9% and 14.4% in the disease cohorts. CKD was an important independent risk factor for subsequent CVD events and mortality. For example, in the population-based cohorts, the HR for CVD mortality was 1.72 (95% CI 1.53 to 1.92) with creatinine-based CKD and it was 2.14 (95% CI 1.90 to 2.40) based on cystatin-based CKD compared to participants without CKD. In general, the HRs were higher for cystatin C-based CKD compared to creatinine-based CKD, for all three outcomes and risk increased clearly below the conventional threshold for CKD, also in older adults. Net reclassification indices were larger for a cystatin-C based CKD definition. Differences in HRs (between the two CKD measures) in the disease cohorts were less pronounced than in the population-based cohorts. CONCLUSION: CKD is an important risk factor for subsequent CVD events and total mortality. However, point estimates of creatinine- and cystatin C-based CKD differed considerably between low- and high-risk populations. Especially in low-risk settings, the use of cystatin C-based CKD may result in more accurate risk estimates and have better prognostic value.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20567, 2020 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239708

RESUMO

The role of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as a preceding metabolic state for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease is widely recognised. To accumulate knowledge of the pathological mechanisms behind the condition at the methylation level, we conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of MetS and its components, testing 1187 individuals of European ancestry for approximately 470 000 methylation sites throughout the genome. Methylation site cg19693031 in gene TXNIP -previously associated with type 2 diabetes, glucose and lipid metabolism, associated with fasting glucose level (P = 1.80 × 10-8). Cg06500161 in gene ABCG1 associated both with serum triglycerides (P = 5.36 × 10-9) and waist circumference (P = 5.21 × 10-9). The previously identified type 2 diabetes-associated locus cg08309687 in chromosome 21 associated with waist circumference for the first time (P = 2.24 × 10-7). Furthermore, a novel HDL association with cg17901584 in chromosome 1 was identified (P = 7.81 × 10-8). Our study supports previous genetic studies of MetS, finding that lipid metabolism plays a key role in pathology of the syndrome. We provide evidence regarding a close interplay with glucose metabolism. Finally, we suggest that in attempts to identify methylation loci linking separate MetS components, cg19693031 appears to represent a strong candidate.

12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2020172, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034641

RESUMO

Importance: Epidemiological data on lower gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) in the general population are sparse. Objective: To describe the incidence, recurrence, mortality, and case fatality rates of major upper GIB and lower GIB in the general population of Finland between 1987 and 2016. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study used data from the 1987 to the 2012 cycles of the National FINRISK Study, a health examination survey that was conducted every 5 years in Finland. Survey participants were adults aged 25 to 74 years who were recruited from a population register by random sampling; those with a history of hospitalization for GIB were excluded. Participants were followed up from survey enrollment to onset of GIB that led to hospitalization, death from any cause, or study end (December 31, 2016). Follow-up was performed through linkage with national electronic health registers. Data were analyzed from February 1, 2019, to January 31, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence, recurrence, mortality, and case fatality rates for all, upper, lower, and unspecified GIB. Outcome measures were stratified by sex and age group. Results: Among the 39 054 participants included in the study, 494 (1.3%) experienced upper GIB (321 men [65.0%]; mean [SD] age, 52.8 [12.1] years) and 645 (1.7%) had lower GIB (371 men [57.5%]; mean [SD] age, 54.0 [11.7] years). The age-standardized incidence rate was 0.94 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 0.85-1.04) for upper GIB and 1.26 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 1.15-1.38) for lower GIB; the incidence was higher in men than in women. Between 1987 and 2016 the incidence rate of upper GIB remained mostly stable, ranging from 0.40 to 0.66 per 1000 person-years, whereas constant increases occurred in the incidence of lower GIB until the rate stabilized. The proportion of recurrent GIB events showed an increasing trend from 1987 to 2016. The upper GIB-specific mortality was higher (0.07 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 0.04-0.09) than the lower GIB-specific mortality (0.01 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 0.001-0.03). Case fatality was high for those with upper GIB (7.0%; 95% CI, 4.7-10.1) compared with those with lower GIB (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.1-1.3). Case fatality remained stable over the years but was higher in men (between 5% and 10%) than women (<2%) with GIB. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that the overall incidence rate of upper GIB was lower than the incidence of lower GIB, but the recurrence, mortality, and 28-day case fatality were higher in participants with upper GIB. These data can serve as a reference when putting into context the rates of drug-associated GIB and can inform efforts to improve GIB care and outcome and to prevent rebleeding or death for patients with major GIB.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/mortalidade , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/mortalidade , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/patologia , Feminino , Finlândia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo
13.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110245

RESUMO

Multivariate methods are known to increase the statistical power to detect associations in the case of shared genetic basis between phenotypes. They have, however, lacked essential analytic tools to follow-up and understand the biology underlying these associations. We developed a novel computational workflow for multivariate GWAS follow-up analyses, including fine-mapping and identification of the subset of traits driving associations (driver traits). Many follow-up tools require univariate regression coefficients which are lacking from multivariate results. Our method overcomes this problem by using Canonical Correlation Analysis to turn each multivariate association into its optimal univariate Linear Combination Phenotype (LCP). This enables an LCP-GWAS, which in turn generates the statistics required for follow-up analyses. We implemented our method on 12 highly correlated inflammatory biomarkers in a Finnish population-based study. Altogether, we identified 11 associations, four of which (F5, ABO, C1orf140 and PDGFRB) were not detected by biomarker-specific analyses. Fine-mapping identified 19 signals within the 11 loci and driver trait analysis determined the traits contributing to the associations. A phenome-wide association study on the 19 representative variants from the signals in 176,899 individuals from the FinnGen study revealed 53 disease associations (p < 1 × 10-4). Several reported pQTLs in the 11 loci provided orthogonal evidence for the biologically relevant functions of the representative variants. Our novel multivariate analysis workflow provides a powerful addition to standard univariate GWAS analyses by enabling multivariate GWAS follow-up and thus promoting the advancement of powerful multivariate methods in genomics.

15.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(19): e017598, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975162

RESUMO

Background Epidemiological and animal studies have associated systemic inflammation with blood pressure (BP). However, the mechanistic factors linking inflammation and BP remain unknown. Fatty acid-derived eicosanoids serve as mediators of inflammation and have been suggested to regulate renal vascular tone, peripheral resistance, renin-angiotensin system, and endothelial function. We hypothesize that specific proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids are linked with BP. Methods and Results We studied a population sample of 8099 FINRISK 2002 participants randomly drawn from the Finnish population register (53% women; mean age, 48±13 years) and, for external validation, a sample of 2859 FHS (Framingham Heart Study) Offspring study participants (55% women; mean age, 66±9 years). Using nontargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we profiled 545 distinct high-quality eicosanoids and related oxylipin mediators in plasma. Adjusting for conventional hypertension risk factors, we observed 187 (34%) metabolites that were significantly associated with systolic BP (P

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15760, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978407

RESUMO

Health differences among the elderly and the role of medical treatments are topical issues in aging societies. We demonstrate the use of modern statistical learning methods to develop a data-driven health measure based on 21 years of pharmacy purchase and mortality data of 12,047 aging individuals. The resulting score was validated with 33,616 individuals from two fully independent datasets and it is strongly associated with all-cause mortality (HR 1.18 per point increase in score; 95% CI 1.14-1.22; p = 2.25e-16). When combined with Charlson comorbidity index, individuals with elevated medication score and comorbidity index had over six times higher risk (HR 6.30; 95% CI 3.84-10.3; AUC = 0.802) compared to individuals with a protective score profile. Alone, the medication score performs similarly to the Charlson comorbidity index and is associated with polygenic risk for coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Bioestatística/métodos , Mortalidade , Idade de Início , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
17.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839779

RESUMO

The human microbiota has a close relationship with human disease and it remodels components of the glycocalyx including heparan sulfate (HS). Studies of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein receptor binding domain suggest that infection requires binding to HS and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in a codependent manner. Here, we show that commensal host bacterial communities can modify HS and thereby modulate SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding and that these communities change with host age and sex. Common human-associated commensal bacteria whose genomes encode HS-modifying enzymes were identified. The prevalence of these bacteria and the expression of key microbial glycosidases in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was lower in adult COVID-19 patients than in healthy controls. The presence of HS-modifying bacteria decreased with age in two large survey datasets, FINRISK 2002 and American Gut, revealing one possible mechanism for the observed increase in COVID-19 susceptibility with age. In vitro , bacterial glycosidases from unpurified culture media supernatants fully blocked SARS-CoV-2 spike binding to human H1299 protein lung adenocarcinoma cells. HS-modifying bacteria in human microbial communities may regulate viral adhesion, and loss of these commensals could predispose individuals to infection. Understanding the impact of shifts in microbial community composition and bacterial lyases on SARS-CoV-2 infection may lead to new therapeutics and diagnosis of susceptibility.

18.
Europace ; 22(10): 1463-1469, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830215

RESUMO

AIMS: Natriuretic peptides are extensively studied biomarkers for atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF). Their role in the pathogenesis of both diseases is not entirely understood and previous studies several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the NPPA-NPPB locus associated with natriuretic peptides have been identified. We investigated the causal relationship between natriuretic peptides and AF as well as HF using a Mendelian randomization approach. METHODS AND RESULTS: N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (N = 6669), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) (N = 6674), and mid-regional pro atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) (N = 6813) were measured in the FINRISK 1997 cohort. N = 30 common SNPs related to NT-proBNP, BNP, and MR-proANP were selected from studies. We performed six Mendelian randomizations for all three natriuretic peptide biomarkers and for both outcomes, AF and HF, separately. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) based on multiple SNPs were used as genetic instrumental variable in Mendelian randomizations. Polygenic risk scores were significantly associated with the three natriuretic peptides. Polygenic risk scores were not significantly associated with incident AF nor HF. Most cardiovascular risk factors showed significant confounding percentages, but no association with PRS. A causal relation except for small causal betas is unlikely. CONCLUSION: In our Mendelian randomization approach, we confirmed an association between common genetic variation at the NPPA-NPPB locus and natriuretic peptides. A strong causal relationship between natriuretic peptides and incidence of AF as well as HF at the community-level was ruled out. Therapeutic approaches targeting natriuretic peptides will therefore very likely work through indirect mechanisms.

19.
Stroke ; 51(9): 2770-2777, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is a common cause of death and a leading cause of disability and morbidity. Stroke risk assessment remains a challenge, but circulating biomarkers may improve risk prediction. Controversial evidence is available on the predictive ability of troponin concentrations and the risk of stroke in the community. Furthermore, reports on the predictive value of troponin concentrations for different stroke subtypes are scarce. METHODS: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hsTnI) concentrations were assessed in 82 881 individuals (median age, 50.7 years; 49.7% men) free of stroke or myocardial infarction at baseline from 9 prospective European community cohorts. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to determine relative risks, followed by measures of discrimination and reclassification using 10-fold cross-validation to control for overoptimism. Follow-up was based upon linkage with national hospitalization registries and causes of death registries. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 12.7 years, 3033 individuals were diagnosed with incident nonfatal or fatal stroke (n=1654 ischemic strokes, n=612 hemorrhagic strokes, and n=767 indeterminate strokes). In multivariable regression models, hsTnI concentrations were associated with overall stroke (hazard ratio per 1-SD increase, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.10-1.21]), ischemic stroke (hazard ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.09-1.21]), and hemorrhagic stroke (hazard ratio, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.01-1.20]). Adding hsTnI concentrations to classical cardiovascular risk factors (C indices, 0.809, 0.840, and 0.736 for overall, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke, respectively) increased the C index significantly but modestly. In individuals with an intermediate 10-year risk (5%-20%), the net reclassification improvement for overall stroke was 0.038 (P=0.021). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated hsTnI concentrations are associated with an increased risk of incident stroke in the community, irrespective of stroke subtype. Adding hsTnI concentrations to classical risk factors only modestly improved estimation of 10-year risk of stroke in the overall cohort but might be of some value in individuals at an intermediate risk.


Assuntos
Miocárdio/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Troponina I/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
20.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 74(12): 1008-1015, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigate whether socially disadvantaged individuals are more susceptible to the detrimental effects of smoking and alcohol intake on allostatic load (AL), a marker of physiological 'wear and tear', resulting from adaptation to chronic stress. METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis, 27 019 men and 26 738 women aged 35-74 years were identified from 21 European cohorts in the BiomarCaRE consortium. We defined three educational classes (EDs) according to years of schooling and an AL score as the sum of z-scores of eight selected biomarkers from the cardiovascular, metabolic and inflammatory systems. We used the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition to disentangle the ED gradient in AL score into the differential exposure (DE, attributable to different distribution of smoking and alcohol intake across EDs) and the differential susceptibility (DS, attributable to a different effect of risk factors on AL across EDs) components. RESULTS: Less-educated men (mean AL difference: 0.68, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.79) and women (1.52, 95% CI 1.40 to 1.64) had higher AL scores. DE accounted for 7% and 6% of the gradient in men and women, respectively. In men, combining smoking and alcohol intake, DS accounted for 42% of the gradient (smoking DS coefficient=0.177, 26% of the gradient; alcohol DS coefficient=0.109; 16%, not statistically significant). DS contribution increased to 69% in metabolic markers. DS estimates were consistent across age groups, irrespective of comorbidities and robust to unmeasured confounding. No DS was observed in women. CONCLUSIONS: In men, a DS mechanism substantially contributes to the educational class gradient in allostatic load.

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