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1.
Am J Cardiol ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998506

RESUMO

Coronary procedures predispose patients to adverse events. To improve our understanding of the genetic factors underlying postoperative prognosis, we studied the association of polygenic risk scores (PRSs) with postprocedural complications in coronary patients who underwent revascularization. The study sample comprised 8,296, 6,132, and 13,082 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting, or any revascularization, respectively. We genotyped all subjects and identified adverse events during follow-up of up to 30 years by record linkage with nationwide healthcare registers. We computed PRSs for each postoperative adverse outcome (atrial fibrillation [AF], myocardial infarction, stroke, and bleeding complications) for all participants. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between PRSs and outcomes. A 1-SD increase in AF-PRS was associated with greater risk of postoperative AF with hazard ratios of 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16 to 1.28), 1.15 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.20) and 1.18 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.22) after percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting, and any revascularization, respectively. In contrast, the association of each PRSs with other postoperative complications was nonexistent to marginal. Inclusion of the AF-PRS in a model with a clinical risk score resulted in significant model improvement (increase in model c-statistic 0.0059 to 0.0098 depending on procedure; p <0.0002 for all). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PRS can be used for AF risk-prediction in patients who underwent revascularization. The AF-PRS could potentially be used to improve AF prevention and outcomes in patients who underwent revascularization.

2.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 3, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological and experimental evidence has linked chronic inflammation to cancer aetiology. It is unclear whether associations for specific inflammatory biomarkers are causal or due to bias. In order to examine whether altered genetically predicted concentration of circulating cytokines are associated with cancer development, we performed a two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis. METHODS: Up to 31,112 individuals of European descent were included in genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses of 47 circulating cytokines. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated with the cytokines, located in or close to their coding gene (cis), were used as instrumental variables. Inverse-variance weighted MR was used as the primary analysis, and the MR assumptions were evaluated in sensitivity and colocalization analyses and a false discovery rate (FDR) correction for multiple comparisons was applied. Corresponding germline GWAS summary data for five cancer outcomes (breast, endometrial, lung, ovarian, and prostate), and their subtypes were selected from the largest cancer-specific GWASs available (cases ranging from 12,906 for endometrial to 133,384 for breast cancer). RESULTS: There was evidence of inverse associations of macrophage migration inhibitory factor with breast cancer (OR per SD = 0.88, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.94), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist with endometrial cancer (0.86, 0.80 to 0.93), interleukin-18 with lung cancer (0.87, 0.81 to 0.93), and beta-chemokine-RANTES with ovarian cancer (0.70, 0.57 to 0.85) and positive associations of monokine induced by gamma interferon with endometrial cancer (3.73, 1.86 to 7.47) and cutaneous T-cell attracting chemokine with lung cancer (1.51, 1.22 to 1.87). These associations were similar in sensitivity analyses and supported in colocalization analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our study adds to current knowledge on the role of specific inflammatory biomarker pathways in cancer aetiology. Further validation is needed to assess the potential of these cytokines as pharmacological or lifestyle targets for cancer prevention.

3.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-11, 2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933700

RESUMO

Even though sunlight is viewed as the most important determinant of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status, several European studies have observed higher 25(OH)D concentrations among north-Europeans than south-Europeans. We studied the association between geographical latitude (derived from ecological data) and 25(OH)D status in six European countries using harmonised immunoassay data from 81 084 participants in the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE) project (male sex 48·9 %; median age 50·8 years; examination period 1984-2014). Quantile regression models, adjusted for age, sex, decade and calendar week of sampling and time from sampling to analysis, were used for between-country comparisons. Up until the median percentile, the ordering of countries by 25(OH)D status (from highest to lowest) was as follows: Sweden (at 65·6-63·8°N), Germany (at 48·4°N), Finland (at 65·0-60·2°N), Italy (at 45·6-41·5°N), Scotland (at 58·2-55·1°N) and Spain (at 41·5°N). From the 75th percentile and upwards, Finland had higher values than Germany. As an example, using the Swedish cohort as a comparator, the median 25(OH)D concentration was 3·03, 3·28, 5·41, 6·54 and 9·28 ng/ml lower in the German, Finnish, Italian, Scottish and Spanish cohort, respectively (P-value < 0·001 for all comparisons). The ordering of countries was highly consistent in subgroup analyses by sex, age, and decade and season of sampling. In conclusion, we confirmed the previous observation of a north-to-south gradient of 25(OH)D status in Europe, with higher percentile values among north-Europeans than south-Europeans.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(23): e021995, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34845932

RESUMO

Background Peripheral artery disease (PAD) and coronary artery disease (CAD) represent atherosclerosis in different vascular beds. We used detailed metabolic biomarker profiling to identify common and discordant biomarkers and clarify pathophysiological differences for these vascular diseases. Methods and Results We used 5 prospective cohorts from Finnish population (FINRISK 1997, 2002, 2007, and 2012, and Health 2000; n=31 657; median follow-up time of 14 years) to estimate associations between >200 metabolic biomarkers and incident PAD and CAD. Metabolic biomarkers were measured with nuclear magnetic resonance, and disease events were obtained from nationwide hospital records. During the follow-up, 498 incident PAD and 2073 incident CAD events occurred. In age- and sex-adjusted Cox models, apolipoproteins and cholesterol measures were robustly associated with incident CAD (eg, hazard ratio [HR] per SD for higher apolipoprotein B/A-1 ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.25-1.36), but not with incident PAD (HR per SD for higher apolipoprotein B/A-1 ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.95-1.14; Pheterogeneity<0.001). In contrast, triglyceride levels in low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein were associated with both end points (Pheterogeneity>0.05). Lower proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids relative to total fatty acids, and higher concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids, glycolysis-related metabolites, and inflammatory protein markers were strongly associated with incident PAD, and many of these associations were stronger for PAD than for CAD (Pheterogeneity<0.001). Most differences in metabolic profiles for PAD and CAD remained when adjusting for traditional risk factors. Conclusions The metabolic biomarker profile for future PAD risk is distinct from that of CAD. This may represent pathophysiological differences.

5.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825788

RESUMO

AIMS: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a complicated relationship with the heart, leading to many adverse outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between CKD and the incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) along with mortality as a competing risk in general population cohorts. We also included an assessment of baseline biomarkers of inflammation, myocardial injury, and left ventricular dysfunction with risk of AF and HF, respectively, to shed light on the potential underlying pathophysiology. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study was conducted within the BiomarCaRE project using harmonized data from 12 European population-based cohorts (n = 48 518 participants). Renal function was assessed by glomerular filtration rate estimated using the combined Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation with standardized serum creatinine (Cr) and non-standardized serum cystatin C (CysC). Incidence of AF and HF respectively, during a median follow-up of 8 years was recorded. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine hazard ratios (HRs) for the incidence of AF and HF in CKD and the competing risk of mortality after adjustment for covariates. The mean age at baseline was 51.4 (standard deviation 12.1) years, 49% were men. Overall, 4.3% of subjects had CKD at baseline. The rate for AF was 3.8 per 1000 person-years during follow-up. The HR for AF in patients with CKD compared with patients without CKD was 1.28 (95% confidence interval 1.07-1.54) after adjustment for covariates. The rate for incident HF was 4.1 per 1000 person-years and the HR of CKD for HF was 1.71 (95% confidence interval 1.45-2.01. In subjects with CKD, N-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) showed an association with AF, whereas NT-proBNP and C-reactive protein were associated with HF. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic kidney disease is an independent risk factor for subsequent AF and is even more closely associated with HF. In these relatively young participants with CKD, NT-proBNP was strongly associated with subsequent risk of AF. For HF, in addition, elevated levels of hs-C-reactive protein at baseline were related to incident events.

6.
J Hypertens ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies on the association between metabolic biomarkers and hypertension have been limited by small sample sizes, low number of studied biomarkers, and cross-sectional study design. In the largest study to date, we assess the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between high-abundance serum biomarkers and blood pressure (BP). METHODS: We studied cross-sectional (N = 36 985; age 50.5 ±â€Š14.2; 53.1% women) and longitudinal (N = 4197; age 49.4 ±â€Š11.8, 55.3% women) population samples of Finnish individuals. We included 53 serum biomarkers and other detailed lipoprotein subclass measures in our analyses. We studied the associations between serum biomarkers and BP using both conventional statistical methods and a machine learning algorithm (gradient boosting) while adjusting for clinical risk factors. RESULTS: Fifty-one of 53 serum biomarkers were cross-sectionally related to BP (adjusted P < 0.05 for all). Conventional linear regression modeling demonstrated that LDL cholesterol, remnant cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and acetate were positively, and HDL particle size was negatively, associated with SBP change over time (adjusted P < 0.05 for all). Adding serum biomarkers (cross-sectional root-mean-square error: 16.27 mmHg; longitudinal: 17.61 mmHg) in the model with clinical measures (cross-sectional: 16.70 mmHg; longitudinal 18.52 mmHg) improved the machine learning model fit. Glucose, albumin, triglycerides in LDL, glycerol, VLDL particle size, and acetoacetate had the highest importance scores in models related to current or future BP. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that serum lipids, and particularly LDL-derived and VLDL-derived cholesterol measures, and glucose metabolism abnormalities are associated with hypertension onset. Use of serum metabolite determination could improve identification of individuals at high risk of developing hypertension.

7.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA121034782, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several population-based cohort studies have related higher body mass index (BMI) to a decreased risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The main objective of our study was to investigate whether the previously reported inverse association can be explained by modifying effects of the most important risk factors of SAH-smoking and hypertension. METHODS: We conducted a collaborative study of three prospective population-based Nordic cohorts by combining comprehensive baseline data from 211 972 adult participants collected between 1972 and 2012, with follow-up until the end of 2018. Primarily, we compared the risk of SAH between three BMI categories: (1) low (BMI<22.5), (2) moderate (BMI: 22.5-29.9), and (3) high (BMI≥30) BMI and evaluated the modifying effects of smoking and hypertension on the associations. RESULTS: We identified 831 SAH events (mean age 62 years, 55% women) during the total follow-up of 4.7 million person-years. Compared with the moderate BMI category, persons with low BMI had an elevated risk for SAH (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.30 [1.09-1.55]), whereas no significant risk difference was found in high BMI category (HR, 0.91 [0.73-1.13]). However, we only found the increased risk of low BMI in smokers (HR, 1.49 [1.19-1.88]) and in hypertensive men (HR, 1.72 [1.18-2.50]), but not in nonsmokers (HR, 1.02 [0.76-1.37]) or in men with normal blood pressure values (HR, 0.98 [0.63-1.54]; interaction HRs, 1.68 [1.18-2.41], P=0.004 between low BMI and smoking and 1.76 [0.98-3.13], P=0.06 between low BMI and hypertension in men). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking and hypertension appear to explain, at least partly, the previously reported inverse association between BMI and the risk of SAH. Therefore, the independent role of BMI in the risk of SAH is likely modest.

8.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610649

RESUMO

AIMS: Although absolute (AID) and functional iron deficiency (FID) are known risk factors for patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease, their relevance for the general population is unknown. The aim was to assess the association between AID/FID with incident CV disease and mortality in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 12 164 individuals from three European population-based cohorts, AID was defined as ferritin < 100 µg/L or as ferritin < 30 µg/L (severe AID), and FID was defined as ferritin < 100 µg/L or ferritin 100-299 µg/L and transferrin saturation < 20%. The association between iron deficiency and incident coronary heart disease (CHD), CV mortality, and all-cause mortality was evaluated by Cox regression models. Population attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated. Median age was 59 (45-68) years; 45.2% were male. AID, severe AID, and FID were prevalent in 60.0%, 16.4%, and 64.3% of individuals. AID was associated with CHD [hazard ratio (HR) 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.39, P = 0.01], but not with mortality. Severe AID was associated with all-cause mortality (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.12-1.46, P < 0.01), but not with CV mortality/CHD. FID was associated with CHD (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.07-1.43, P < 0.01), CV mortality (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.03-1.54, P = 0.03), and all-cause mortality (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.24, P = 0.03). Overall, 5.4% of all deaths, 11.7% of all CV deaths, and 10.7% of CHD were attributable to FID. CONCLUSIONS: In the general population, FID was highly prevalent, was associated with incident CHD, CV death, and all-cause death, and had the highest PAF for these events, whereas AID was only associated with CHD and severe AID only with all-cause mortality. This indicates that FID is a relevant risk factor for CV diseases in the general population.

9.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(5): e002862, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects >200 million people worldwide and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. We sought to identify genomic variants associated with PAD overall and in the contexts of diabetes and smoking status. METHODS: We identified genetic variants associated with PAD and then meta-analyzed with published summary statistics from the Million Veterans Program and UK Biobank to replicate their findings. Next, we ran stratified genome-wide association analysis in ever smokers, never smokers, individuals with diabetes, and individuals with no history of diabetes and corresponding interaction analyses, to identify variants that modify the risk of PAD by diabetic or smoking status. RESULTS: We identified 5 genome-wide significant (Passociation ≤5×10-8) associations with PAD in 449 548 (Ncases=12 086) individuals of European ancestry near LPA (lipoprotein [a]), CDKN2BAS1 (CDKN2B antisense RNA 1), SH2B3 (SH2B adaptor protein 3) - PTPN11 (protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 11), HDAC9 (histone deacetylase 9), and CHRNA3 (cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 3 subunit) loci (which overlapped previously reported associations). Meta-analysis with variants previously associated with PAD showed that 18 of 19 published variants remained genome-wide significant. In individuals with diabetes, rs116405693 at the CCSER1 (coiled-coil serine rich protein 1) locus was associated with PAD (odds ratio [95% CI], 1.51 [1.32-1.74], Pdiabetes=2.5×10-9, Pinteractionwithdiabetes=5.3×10-7). Furthermore, in smokers, rs12910984 at the CHRNA3 locus was associated with PAD (odds ratio [95% CI], 1.15 [1.11-1.19], Psmokers=9.3×10-10, Pinteractionwithsmoking=3.9×10-5). CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses confirm the published genetic associations with PAD and identify novel variants that may influence susceptibility to PAD in the context of diabetes or smoking status.

10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(21): e022482, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668383

RESUMO

Background Translocation of lipopolysaccharide from gram-negative bacteria into the systemic circulation results in endotoxemia. In addition to acute infections, endotoxemia is detected in cardiometabolic disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases and obesity. Methods and Results We performed a genome-wide association study of serum lipopolysaccharide activity in 11 296 individuals from 6 different Finnish study cohorts. Endotoxemia was measured by limulus amebocyte lysate assay in the whole population and by 2 other techniques (Endolisa and high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry) in subpopulations. The associations of the composed genetic risk score of endotoxemia and thrombosis-related clinical end points for 195 170 participants were analyzed in FinnGen. Lipopolysaccharide activity had a genome-wide significant association with 741 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 5 independent loci, which were mainly located at genes affecting the contact activation of the coagulation cascade and lipoprotein metabolism and explained 1.5% to 9.2% of the variability in lipopolysaccharide activity levels. The closest genes included KNG1, KLKB1, F12, SLC34A1, YPEL4, CLP1, ZDHHC5, SERPING1, CBX5, and LIPC. The genetic risk score of endotoxemia was associated with deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary heart disease, and venous thromboembolism. Conclusions The biological activity of lipopolysaccharide in the circulation (ie, endotoxemia) has a small but highly significant genetic component. Endotoxemia is associated with genetic variation in the contact activation pathway, vasoactivity, and lipoprotein metabolism, which play important roles in host defense, lipopolysaccharide neutralization, and thrombosis, and thereby thromboembolism and stroke.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494090

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) after first myocardial revascularisation procedure in real world practice and to compare the differences in outcomes of coronary artery by-pass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) among diabetic and non-diabetic patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: A database was compiled from the national hospital discharge register to collect data on all cardiac revascularisations performed in Finland in 2000-2015. The outcomes (all-cause deaths, cardiovascular (CV) deaths, major CV events and need for repeat revascularisation) after the first revascularisation were identified from the national registers at 28-day, 1-year and 3-year time points.A total of 139,242 first-time revascularisations (89,493 PCI and 49,749 CABG) were performed during the study period. Of all the revascularized patients, 24% had diabetes, and 76% were non-diabetic patients. At day 28 the risk of fatal outcomes was lower after PCI than after CABG among non-diabetic patients, whereas no difference was seen among diabetic patients. In long-term follow-up the situation was reversed with PCI showing higher risk compared with CABG for most of the outcomes. In particular, at three-year follow-up the risk of all-cause deaths was elevated among diabetic patients (HR 1.30 (95% CI 1.22-1.38) comparing PCI with CABG) more than among non-diabetic patients (HR 1.09 (1.04-1.15)). The same was true for CV deaths (HR 1.29 (1.20-1.38) among diabetic patients, and HR 1.03 (0.98-1.08) among non-diabetic patients). CONCLUSIONS: Although PCI was associated with better 28-day prognosis, CABG seemed to produce better long-term prognosis especially among diabetic patients.

12.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 195, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of heart failure among diabetic individuals is high, even under tight glycemic control. The correlates and mediators of heart failure risk in individuals with diabetes need more elucidation in large population-based cohorts with long follow-up times and a wide panel of biologically relevant biomarkers. METHODS: In a population-based sample of 3834 diabetic and 90,177 non-diabetic individuals, proportional hazards models and mediation analysis were used to assess the relation of conventional heart failure risk factors and biomarkers with incident heart failure. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 13.8 years, a total of 652 (17.0%) and 5524 (6.1%) cases of incident heart failure were observed in participants with and without diabetes, respectively. 51.4% were women and the mean age at baseline was 48.7 (standard deviation [SD] 12.5) years. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for heart failure among diabetic individuals was 2.70 (95% confidence interval, 2.49-2.93) compared to non-diabetic participants. In the multivariable-adjusted Cox models, conventional cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as smoking (diabetes: HR 2.07 [1.59-2.69]; non-diabetes: HR 1.85 [1.68-2.02]), BMI (diabetes: HR 1.30 [1.18-1.42]; non-diabetes: HR 1.40 [1.35-1.47]), baseline myocardial infarction (diabetes: HR 2.06 [1.55-2.75]; non-diabetes: HR 2.86 [2.50-3.28]), and baseline atrial fibrillation (diabetes: HR 1.51 [0.82-2.80]; non-diabetes: HR 2.97 [2.21-4.00]) had the strongest associations with incident heart failure. In addition, biomarkers for cardiac strain (represented by nT-proBNP, diabetes: HR 1.26 [1.19-1.34]; non-diabetes: HR 1.43 [1.39-1.47]), myocardial injury (hs-TnI, diabetes: HR 1.10 [1.04-1.16]; non-diabetes: HR 1.13 [1.10-1.16]), and inflammation (hs-CRP, diabetes: HR 1.13 [1.03-1.24]; non-diabetes: HR 1.29 [1.25-1.34]) were also associated with incident heart failure. In general, all these associations were equally strong in non-diabetic and diabetic individuals. However, the strongest mediators of heart failure in diabetes were the direct effect of diabetes status itself (relative effect share 43.1% [33.9-52.3] and indirect effects (effect share 56.9% [47.7-66.1]) mediated by obesity (BMI, 13.2% [10.3-16.2]), cardiac strain/volume overload (nT-proBNP, 8.4% [-0.7-17.4]), and hyperglycemia (glucose, 12.0% [4.2-19.9]). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the main mediators of heart failure in diabetes are obesity, hyperglycemia, and cardiac strain/volume overload. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors are strongly related to incident heart failure, but these associations are not stronger in diabetic than in non-diabetic individuals. Active measurement of relevant biomarkers could potentially be used to improve prevention and prediction of heart failure in high-risk diabetic patients.

13.
Liver Int ; 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: While several anthropometric measures predict liver disease, the waist-hip ratio (WHR) has shown superiority in previous studies. We analysed independent and joint associations of waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) with liver disease and liver-related risk factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study (n = 6619) and longitudinal cohort (n = 40 923) comprised individuals from Health 2000 and FINRISK 1992-2012 studies. Prevalent and viral liver diseases were excluded. Longitudinal cohort was linked with national healthcare registers for severe incident liver disease. Linear regression and Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyse anthropometric, lifestyle, metabolic and bioimpedance-related parameters; liver enzymes; and 59 liver-related genetic risk variants. RESULTS: WC and HC showed independent and opposite associations with both liver enzymes and incident liver disease among men (HR for liver disease: WC, 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.11; HC, 0.96, 95% CI 0.92-0.99; P-range .04 to <.001) and women (HR for liver diseases: WC, 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.10; HC, 0.93, 95% CI 0.89-0.98; P-range .005 to .004). HC modified associations between WC and liver enzymes, and between WC and incident liver disease, particularly among men. Liver enzymes and risk of liver disease increased with increasing WC, more so among individuals with high WHR compared to with low WHR. WC and HC jointly reflected both body fat distribution and muscle mass, which was largely mirrored by WHR. CONCLUSIONS: WC and HC exhibit independent and joint associations with liver disease, which are largely reflected by WHR. Both body fat distribution and muscle mass contribute to these anthropometric measures.

14.
Diabetes Care ; 44(11): 2527-2535, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521639

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Natriuretic peptide (NP) concentrations are increased in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) but are associated with a lower diabetes risk. We investigated associations of N-terminal pro-B-type NP (NT-proBNP) and midregional proatrial NP (MR-proANP) with incident type 2 diabetes stratified by the presence of CVD. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Based on the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE) Consortium, we included 45,477 participants with NT-proBNP measurements (1,707 developed type 2 diabetes over 6.5 years of median follow-up; among these, 209 had CVD at baseline) and 11,537 participants with MR-proANP measurements (857 developed type 2 diabetes over 13.8 years of median follow-up; among these, 106 had CVD at baseline). The associations were estimated using multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS: Both NPs were inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes (hazard ratios [95% CI] per 1-SD increase of log NP: 0.84 [0.79; 0.89] for NT-proBNP and 0.77 [0.71; 0.83] for MR-proANP). The inverse association between NT-proBNP and type 2 diabetes was significant in individuals without CVD but not in individuals with CVD (0.81 [0.76; 0.86] vs. 1.04 [0.90; 1.19]; P multiplicative interaction = 0.001). There was no significant difference in the association of MR-proANP with type 2 diabetes between individuals without and with CVD (0.75 [0.69; 0.82] vs. 0.81 [0.66; 0.99]; P multiplicative interaction = 0.236). CONCLUSIONS: NT-proBNP and MR-proANP are inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes. However, the inverse association of NT-proBNP seems to be modified by the presence of CVD. Further investigations are warranted to confirm our findings and to investigate the underlying mechanisms.

15.
Genome Res ; 31(11): 2131-2137, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479875

RESUMO

The number of publicly available microbiome samples is continually growing. As data set size increases, bottlenecks arise in standard analytical pipelines. Faith's phylogenetic diversity (Faith's PD) is a highly utilized phylogenetic alpha diversity metric that has thus far failed to effectively scale to trees with millions of vertices. Stacked Faith's phylogenetic diversity (SFPhD) enables calculation of this widely adopted diversity metric at a much larger scale by implementing a computationally efficient algorithm. The algorithm reduces the amount of computational resources required, resulting in more accessible software with a reduced carbon footprint, as compared to previous approaches. The new algorithm produces identical results to the previous method. We further demonstrate that the phylogenetic aspect of Faith's PD provides increased power in detecting diversity differences between younger and older populations in the FINRISK study's metagenomic data.

16.
Open Heart ; 8(2)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The main aim was to examine age-specific risk factor associations with incident atrial fibrillation (AF) and their attributable fraction in a large European cohort. Additionally, we aimed to examine risk of stroke and mortality in relation to new-onset AF across age. METHODS: We used individual-level data (n=66 951, 49.1% men, age range 40-98 years at baseline) from five European cohorts of the MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph Consortium. The participants were followed for incident AF for up to 10 years and the association with modifiable risk factors from the baseline examinations (body mass index (BMI), hypertension, diabetes, daily smoking, alcohol consumption and history of stroke and myocardial infarction (MI)) was examined. Additionally, the participants were followed up for incident stroke and all-cause mortality after new-onset AF. RESULTS: AF incidence increased from 0.9 per 1000 person-years at baseline age 40-49 years, to 17.7 at baseline age ≥70 years. Multivariable-adjusted Cox models showed that higher BMI, hypertension, high alcohol consumption and a history of stroke or MI were associated with increased risk of AF across age groups (p<0.05). Between 30% and 40% of the AF risk could be attributed to BMI, hypertension and a history of stroke or MI. New-onset AF was associated with a twofold increase in risk of stroke and death at ages≥70 years (p≤0.001). CONCLUSION: In this large European cohort aged 40 years and above, risk of AF was largely attributed to BMI, high alcohol consumption and a history MI or stroke from middle age. Thus, preventive measures for AF should target risk factors such as obesity and hypertension from early age and continue throughout life.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Medição de Risco/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
17.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(5): e003355, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) risk estimation using clinical factors with or without genetic information may identify AF screening candidates more accurately than the guideline-based age threshold of ≥65 years. METHODS: We analyzed 4 samples across the United States and Europe (derivation: UK Biobank; validation: FINRISK, Geisinger MyCode Initiative, and Framingham Heart Study). We estimated AF risk using the CHARGE-AF (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology AF) score and a combination of CHARGE-AF and a 1168-variant polygenic score (Predict-AF). We compared the utility of age, CHARGE-AF, and Predict-AF for predicting 5-year AF by quantifying discrimination and calibration. RESULTS: Among 543 093 individuals, 8940 developed AF within 5 years. In the validation sets, CHARGE-AF (C index range, 0.720-0.824) and Predict-AF (0.749-0.831) had largely comparable discrimination, both favorable to continuous age (0.675-0.801). Calibration was similar using CHARGE-AF (slope range, 0.67-0.87) and Predict-AF (0.65-0.83). Net reclassification improvement using Predict-AF versus CHARGE-AF was modest (net reclassification improvement range, 0.024-0.057) but more favorable among individuals aged <65 years (0.062-0.11). Using Predict-AF among 99 530 individuals aged ≥65 years across each sample, 70 849 had AF risk <5%, of whom 69 067 (97.5%) did not develop AF, whereas 28 681 had AF risk ≥5%, of whom 2264 (7.9%) developed AF. Of 11 379 individuals aged <65 years with AF risk ≥5%, 435 (3.8%) developed AF before age 65 years, with roughly half (46.9%) meeting anticoagulation criteria. CONCLUSIONS: AF risk estimation using clinical factors may prioritize individuals for AF screening more precisely than the age threshold endorsed in current guidelines. The additional value of genetic predisposition is modest but greatest among younger individuals.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), but less is known whether genetic susceptibility to CHD or regional-level social indicators modify this association. METHODS: Risk factors of CHD including a Polygenic Risk Score (PRS) were measured for 19 999 individuals residing in Finland in 1997, 2002, 2007 and 2012 (response rates 60%-75%). During the register-based follow-up until 2015, there were 1381 fatal and non-fatal incident CHD events. Unemployment rate, degree of urbanisation and crime rate of the municipality of residence were used as regional level social indicators. HRs were calculated using register-based antidepressant purchases as a non-reversible time-dependent covariate. RESULTS: Those having depression and in the highest quartile of PRS had somewhat higher CHD risk than predicted only by the main effects of depression and PRS (HR for interaction 1.53, 95% CI 0.95 to 2.45). Depression was moderately associated with CHD in high crime (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.90) and weakly in low crime regions (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.33; p value of interaction=0.087). Otherwise, we did not found evidence for interactions. CONCLUSIONS: Those having both depression and high genetic susceptibility need a special attention in healthcare for CHD.

19.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 698784, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235192

RESUMO

Objectives: Thromboembolism prophylaxis after biologic aortic valve replacement (BAVR) is recommended for 3 months postoperatively. We examined the continuation of oral anticoagulation (OAC) treatment and its effect on the long-term prognosis after BAVR. Methods: We used nation-wide register data from 4,079 individuals who underwent BAVR. We examined the association between warfarin and the non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant use with death, stroke and major bleeding in 2010 - 2016. Results: The risk of stroke was higher (HR 2.39, 95% CI 1.62 - 3.53, p < 0.001) and the risk of death was lower (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65 - 0.96, p = 0.016) in OAC-users compared to individuals without OAC. We observed no significant associations between OAC use and bleeding risk. Conclusion: OAC use after BAVR was associated with increased risk of stroke and decreased risk of death. These observational findings warrant validation in randomized controlled trials before any clinical conclusions can be drawn.

20.
Liver Int ; 41(11): 2590-2600, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) increases morbidity and mortality. However, patients in biopsy-based cohorts are highly selected and the absolute risks of liver- and non-liver outcomes in NAFLD in population remains undefined. We analysed both liver-related and non-liver-related outcomes in Finnish population cohorts of NAFLD. METHODS: We included 10 993 individuals (6707 men, mean age 53.3 ± 12.6 years) with NAFLD (fatty liver index ≥60) from the Finnish population-based FINRISK and Health 2000 studies. Liver fibrosis was assessed by the dAAR score, and genetic risk by a recent polygenic risk score (PRS-5). Incident liver-related outcomes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and chronic kidney disease (CKD) were identified through linkage with national registries. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 12.1 years (1128 069 person-years). The crude incidence rate of liver-related outcomes in NAFLD was 0.97/1000 person-years. The cumulative incidence increased with age, being respectively 2.4% and 1.5% at 20 years in men and women aged 60 years at baseline, while the relative risks for CVD and cancer were 9-16 times higher. The risk of CKD exceeded that of liver outcomes at a baseline age around 50 years. 20-year cumulative incidence of liver-related outcomes was 4.3% in the high, and 1.5% in the low PRS-5 group. The dAAR score associated with liver outcomes, but not with extra-hepatic outcomes. CONCLUSION: The absolute risk of liver-related outcomes in NAFLD is low, with much higher risk of CVD and cancer, emphasizing the need for more individualized and holistic risk-stratification in NAFLD.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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