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1.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study seeks to validate a radiological classification system of spontaneous upper urinary tract rupture (sUUTR) and to analyse its relationship with clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics of sUUTR. METHODS: We analysed data from 66 patients with a computerised tomography (CT)-proven sUUTR treated with ureteral or nephrostomy catheter positioning. Comorbidities were scored with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). All CT scans were reviewed by two experienced radiologists and one urologist, who classified sUUTR in (a) local spread, (b) free fluid and (c) urinoma. Interobserver agreement for radiological score was evaluated with the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Cohen's Kappa analyses. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models verified the association between clinical variables and sUUTR severity. RESULTS: The interobserver agreement for sUUTR classification was high among radiologists and between the radiologists and the urologist (all Kappa > 0.7), with an overall high interrater reliability (ICC 0.82). Local spread, free fluid and urinoma were found in 24 (36.4%), 39 (59.1%) and 3 (4.5%) cases, respectively. Patients with free fluid/urinoma had higher rate of CCI ≥ 1 than those with local spread (40.5% vs. 16.7%, p = 0.04). Intraoperative absence of urine extravasation was more frequently found in patients with local spread than those with free fluid/urinoma (66.7% vs. 28.6%, p < 0.01). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that local spread (OR 4.5, p < 0.01) was associated with absence of contrast medium extravasation during pyelography, after accounting for stone size, fever and CCI. CONCLUSIONS: The analysed sUUTR classification score had good inter/intra-reader reliability among radiologists and urologists. Absence of urine extravasation was five times more frequent in patients with local spread, making conservative treatment feasible in these cases.

2.
Eur Urol ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511305

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The European Association of Urology (EAU) has updated its guidelines on sexual and reproductive health for 2021. OBJECTIVE: To present a summary of the 2021 version of the EAU guidelines on sexual and reproductive health, including advances and areas of controversy in male infertility. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The panel performed a comprehensive literature review of novel data up to January 2021. The guidelines were updated and a strength rating for each recommendation was included that was based either on a systematic review of the literature or consensus opinion from the expert panel, where applicable. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The male partner in infertile couples should undergo a comprehensive urological assessment to identify and treat any modifiable risk factors causing fertility impairment. Infertile men are at a higher risk of harbouring and developing other diseases including malignancy and cardiovascular disease and should be screened for potential modifiable risk factors, such as hypogonadism. Sperm DNA fragmentation testing has emerged as a novel biomarker that can identify infertile men and provide information on the outcomes from assisted reproductive techniques. The role of hormone stimulation therapy in hypergonadotropic hypogonadal or eugonadal patients is controversial and is not recommended outside of clinical trials. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence to support the widespread use of other empirical treatments and surgical interventions in clinical practice (such as antioxidants and surgical sperm retrieval in men without azoospermia). There is low-quality evidence to support the routine use of testicular fine-needle mapping as an alternative diagnostic and predictive tool before testicular sperm extraction (TESE) in men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA), and either conventional or microdissection TESE remains the surgical modality of choice for men with NOA. CONCLUSIONS: All infertile men should undergo a comprehensive urological assessment to identify and treat any modifiable risk factors. Increasing data indicate that infertile men are at higher risk of cardiovascular mortality and of developing cancers and should be screened and counselled accordingly. There is low-quality evidence supporting the use of empirical treatments and interventions currently used in clinical practice; the efficacy of these therapies needs to be validated in large-scale randomised controlled trials. PATIENT SUMMARY: Approximately 50% of infertility will be due to problems with the male partner. Therefore, all infertile men should be assessed by a specialist with the expertise to not only help optimise their fertility but also because they are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease and cancer long term and therefore require appropriate counselling and management. There are many treatments and interventions for male infertility that have not been validated in high-quality studies and caution should be applied to their use in routine clinical practice.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5205, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471128

RESUMO

Molecular mechanisms associated with human germ cell aplasia in infertile men remain undefined. Here we perform single-cell transcriptome profiling to highlight differentially expressed genes and pathways in each somatic cell type in testes of men with idiopathic germ cell aplasia. We identify immaturity of Leydig cells, chronic tissue inflammation, fibrosis, and senescence phenotype of the somatic cells, as well markers of chronic inflammation in the blood. We find that deregulated expression of parentally imprinted genes in myoid and immature Leydig cells, with relevant changes in the ratio of Lamin A/C transcripts and an active DNA damage response in Leydig and peritubular myoid cells are also indicative of senescence of the testicular niche. This study offers molecular insights into the pathogenesis of idiopathic germ cell aplasia.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Dano ao DNA , Inflamação , Testículo/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/genética , Comunicação Celular , Quimiocinas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Células Germinativas , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Células Intersticiais do Testículo , Masculino , Fenótipo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Espermatogênese/genética , Espermatogênese/fisiologia , Espermatogônias/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17473, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471195

RESUMO

As for all newly-emergent pathogens, SARS-CoV-2 presents with a relative paucity of clinical information and experimental models, a situation hampering both the development of new effective treatments and the prediction of future outbreaks. Here, we find that a simple virus-free model, based on publicly available transcriptional data from human cell lines, is surprisingly able to recapitulate several features of the clinically relevant infections. By segregating cell lines (n = 1305) from the CCLE project on the base of their sole angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) mRNA content, we found that overexpressing cells present with molecular features resembling those of at-risk patients, including senescence, impairment of antibody production, epigenetic regulation, DNA repair and apoptosis, neutralization of the interferon response, proneness to an overemphasized innate immune activity, hyperinflammation by IL-1, diabetes, hypercoagulation and hypogonadism. Likewise, several pathways were found to display a differential expression between sexes, with males being in the least advantageous position, thus suggesting that the model could reproduce even the sex-related disparities observed in the clinical outcome of patients with COVID-19. Overall, besides validating a new disease model, our data suggest that, in patients with severe COVID-19, a baseline ground could be already present and, as a consequence, the viral infection might simply exacerbate a variety of latent (or inherent) pre-existing conditions, representing therefore a tipping point at which they become clinically significant.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , COVID-19/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação para Cima , COVID-19/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Teóricos , Caracteres Sexuais
5.
Andrology ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating testosterone levels have been found to be reduced in men with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, COVID-19, with lower levels being associated with more severe clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess total testosterone levels and the prevalence of total testosterone still suggesting for hypogonadism at 7-month follow-up in a cohort of 121 men who recovered from laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and hormonal values were collected for all patients. Hypogonadism was defined as total testosterone ≤9.2 nmol/L. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was used to score health-significant comorbidities. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression models tested the association between clinical and laboratory variables and total testosterone levels at follow-up assessment. RESULTS: Circulating total testosterone levels increased at 7-month follow-up compared to hospital admittance (p < 0.0001), while luteinizing hormone and 17ß-estradiol levels significantly decreased (all p ≤ 0.02). Overall, total testosterone levels increased in 106 (87.6%) patients, but further decreased in 12 (9.9%) patients at follow-up, where a total testosterone level suggestive for hypogonadism was still observed in 66 (55%) patients. Baseline Charlson Comorbidity Index score (OR 0.36; p = 0.03 [0.14, 0.89]) was independently associated with total testosterone levels at 7-month follow-up, after adjusting for age, BMI, and IL-6 at hospital admittance. CONCLUSIONS: Although total testosterone levels increased over time after COVID-19, more than 50% of men who recovered from the disease still had circulating testosterone levels suggestive for a condition of hypogonadism at 7-month follow-up. In as many as 10% of cases, testosterone levels even further decreased. Of clinical relevance, the higher the burden of comorbid conditions at presentation, the lower the probability of testosterone levels recovery over time.

7.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1011, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446834

RESUMO

Mechanomedicine is an emerging field focused on characterizing mechanical changes in cells and tissues coupled with a specific disease. Understanding the mechanical cues that drive disease progression, and whether tissue stiffening can precede disease development, is crucial in order to define new mechanical biomarkers to improve and develop diagnostic and prognostic tools. Classically known stromal regulators, such as fibroblasts, and more recently acknowledged factors such as the microbiome and extracellular vesicles, play a crucial role in modifications to the stroma and extracellular matrix (ECM). These modifications ultimately lead to an alteration of the mechanical properties (stiffness) of the tissue, contributing to disease onset and progression. We describe here classic and emerging mediators of ECM remodeling, and discuss state-of-the-art studies characterizing mechanical fingerprints of urological diseases, showing a general trend between increased tissue stiffness and severity of disease. Finally, we point to the clinical potential of tissue stiffness as a diagnostic and prognostic factor in the urological field, as well as a possible target for new innovative drugs.

9.
Transl Oncol ; 14(11): 101211, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455373

RESUMO

AIM: Since its discovery Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), also referred to as kallikrein-3 (KLK3), has been used as standard circulating biomarker for prostate cancer (PCa). However, its specificity remains not adequate and its mechanism of action still elusive. Therefore, deciphering PSA role throughout PCa-pathobiology would be relevant in improving both cancer diagnosis and outcome prediction. We investigated the possible role played by PSA on/in the tumor microenvironment and over the first steps of cancer invasion. METHODS: Fresh PCa-specimens and cell lines were used for ex-vivo/in-vitro invasion assays and assessment of prostate tissue-PSA (tPSA), type 1 collagen (COL1A1) and ß1-integrin expression. Tissue Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Decipher® datasets were considered to estimate tPSA clinical relevance. RESULTS: A more precise, inverse, correspondence between tPSA and clinical/pathological parameters was found than for circulating PSA. KLK3 combined with Gleason grade and pathologic stage, better predicted cancer-related mortality. Consistently, we demonstrated that PSA inhibits prostate extracellular-matrix (ECM) invasion by PCa cells. As for the mechanism of action, we provided novel information that PSA is able to cleave COL1A1, a main component of the ECM. Finally, ß1-integrin, a crucial COL1A1 transducing-receptor involved in tumor adhesion/invasion, resulted to be downregulated in PCa specimens with higher levels of tPSA. CONCLUSIONS: By interfering with type 1 collagen and its downstream targets, PSA may hamper adhesion and path of the cancer cells through ECM and their migration ability, thus explaining the inverse correlation highlighted between prostate tPSA levels and clinically significant disease.

10.
J Clin Med ; 10(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362105

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are common events after radical nephrectomy (RN). In this study we aimed to predict AKI and CKD after RN relying on specific histological aspects. We collected data from a cohort of 144 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy. A histopathological review of the healthy part of the removed kidney was performed using an established chronicity score (CS). Logistic regression analyses were performed to predict AKI after RN, while linear regression analysis was adopted for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) variation at 1 year. The outcomes of the study were to determine variables correlated with AKI onset, and with eGFR decay at 1 year. The proportion of AKI was 64%. Logistic analyses showed that baseline eGFR independently predicted AKI (odds ratio 1.04, 95%CI 1.02:1.06). Moreover, AKI (Beta -16, 95%CI -21:-11), baseline eGFR (Beta -0.42, 95%CI -0.52:-0.33), and the presence of arterial narrowing (Beta 10, 95%CI 4:15) were independently associated with eGFR decline. Our findings showed that AKI onset and eGFR decline were more likely to occur with higher baseline eGFR and lower CS, highlighting that RN in normal renal function patients represents a more traumatic event than its CKD counterpart.

11.
BMC Urol ; 21(1): 104, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, renal angioembolization (RAE) has gained an important role in the non-operative management (NOM) of moderate to high-grade blunt renal injuries (BRI), but its use remains heterogeneous. The aim of this review is to examine the current literature on indications and outcomes of angioembolization in BRI. METHODS: We conducted a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS and Web of Science Databases up to February 2021 in accordance with PRISMA guidelines for studies on BRI treated with RAE. The methodological quality of eligible studies and their risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale RESULTS: A total of 16 articles that investigated angioembolization of blunt renal injury were included in the study. Overall, 412 patients were included: 8 presented with grade II renal trauma (2%), 97 with grade III renal trauma (23%); 225 with grade IV (55%); and 82 with grade V (20%). RAE was successful in 92% of grade III-IV (294/322) and 76% of grade V (63/82). Regarding haemodynamic status, success rate was achieved in 90% (312/346) of stable patients, but only in 63% (42/66) of unstable patients. The most common indication for RAE was active contrast extravasation in hemodynamic stable patients with grade III or IV BRI. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first review assessing outcomes and indication of angioembolization in blunt renal injuries. The results suggest that outcomes are excellent in hemodynamic stable, moderate to high-grade renal trauma.

12.
World J Urol ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432135

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To perform a cost analysis between vacuum-assisted percutaneous nephrolithotomy (vmPCNL) and minimally invasive PCNL (MIP) and explore potential predictors of costs associated with the procedures. METHODS: We analyzed data from 225 patients who underwent vmPCNL or MIP at a single tertiary referral academic center between January 2016 and December 2020. We collected patients' demographics, peri-and postoperative data and detailed expense records. After propensity score matching, 108 (66.7%) vmPCNL and 54 (33.3%) MIP procedures were analyzed. Descriptive statistics assessed differences in clinical and operative parameters. Univariable and multivariable linear regression models tested the association between clinical variables and costs. RESULTS: Operative time (OT) was shorter for vmPCNL, and the use of additional instruments to complete litholapaxy was more frequent in MIP (all p ≤ 0.01). Length of stay (LOS) was longer for MIP patients (p = 0.03) and the stone-free (SF) rate was higher after vmPCNL (p = 0.04). The overall instrumentation cost was higher for vmPCNL (p < 0.001), but total procedural costs were equivalent (p = 0.9). However, the overall cost for the hospitalization was higher for MIP than vmPCNL (p = 0.01). Univariable linear regression revealed that patient's comorbidities, OT, any postoperative complication and LOS were associated with hospitalization costs (all p < 0.001). Multivariable linear regression analysis revealed that LOS and OT were associated with hospitalization costs (all p < 0.001), after accounting for vmPCNL procedure, patients' comorbidities, and complications. CONCLUSION: vmPCNL may represent a valid option due to clinical and economic benefits. Shorter OT, the lower need for disposable equipment and the lower complication rate reduced procedural and hospitalization costs.

13.
Andrology ; 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A severe male infertility factor has been associated with both lower health status and increased mortality in infertile men. OBJECTIVES: To investigate reproductive factors associated with health status impairment in infertile men over a 10-year time frame since the first clinical evaluation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 899 infertile men were analysed at baseline between 2003 and 2010. Health-significant comorbidities were scored with the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Patients were followed up yearly recording any worsening in their health status until 2019. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of Charlson Comorbidity Index score increase. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 136 months (Interquartile range: 121, 156), 85 men (9.5%) depicted an increase of their baseline Charlson Comorbidity Index score of at least one point. The most frequent reason for Charlson Comorbidity Index upgrade was cancer (34%), cardiovascular diseases (29%) and diabetes mellitus (22%). Compared to patients without a Charlson Comorbidity Index increase, patients with a Charlson Comorbidity Index increase presented with higher body mass index and follicle-stimulating hormone values, a higher rate of baseline Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥ 1 (all p < 0.01) and a greater proportion of non-obstructive azoospermia (p < 0.001). In the Cox regression model, the patient's BMI (p < 0.001), baseline Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥ 1 (p < 0.01) and azoospermia status (p = 0.001) were found to be independently associated with Charlson Comorbidity Index increases. CONCLUSIONS: Almost 10% of men presenting for primary infertility had a decrease of the overall health status already in the relatively short 10-year time frame after the first presentation. Non-obstructive azoospermic men showed the worst health status impairment and should be strictly followed-up regardless of their fertility status.

14.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299442

RESUMO

A new strategy that takes advantage of the synergism between NMR and UHPLC-HRMS yields accurate concentrations of a high number of compounds in biofluids to delineate a personalized metabolic profile (SYNHMET). Metabolite identification and quantification by this method result in a higher accuracy compared to the use of the two techniques separately, even in urine, one of the most challenging biofluids to characterize due to its complexity and variability. We quantified a total of 165 metabolites in the urine of healthy subjects, patients with chronic cystitis, and patients with bladder cancer, with a minimum number of missing values. This result was achieved without the use of analytical standards and calibration curves. A patient's personalized profile can be mapped out from the final dataset's concentrations by comparing them with known normal ranges. This detailed picture has potential applications in clinical practice to monitor a patient's health status and disease progression.


Assuntos
Metabolômica/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Urina/química , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cistite/metabolismo , Cistite/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/urina
15.
Andrology ; 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyaluronic acid is a glycosaminoglycan widely used in the fields of orthopedics, ophthalmology, and aesthetic medicine due to its significant ability to reduce the synthesis of pro-inflammatory proteins and its activity against oxidative stress, a feature of many degenerative illnesses. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present review is to provide a comprehensive narrative review of the most recent literature on the use of hyaluronic acid in andrology in order to facilitate the use of this therapeutic device in the common clinical practice of many physicians. Specific conditions covered in the review are Peyronie's disease, premature ejaculation, and penile enlargement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A broad and comprehensive literature search included Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Libraries, with no time restriction up to December 2020 and restricted to English language publications. Unpublished studies were not included. The study was registered as "The role of hyaluronic acid in andrology: A systematic review and meta-analysis" in PROSPERO with the ID CRD42021223416. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Hyaluronic acid is a valid choice for the treatment of Peyronie's disease in terms of the resolution of the acute phase of the disease and of contributing to stabilizing the disease as a bridge to potential surgery. Data, furthermore, suggest that hyaluronic acid is frequently associated with an overall clinical improvement, allowing the patient to resume normal sexual activity. With regard to premature ejaculation, data suggests hyaluronic acid-based treatments were effective in prolonging intra-vaginal ejaculation time. Furthermore, hyaluronic acid was found to be safe and well-tolerated, with main adverse events limited to local discomfort, ecchymosis, papule formation, and glans numbness, all of which were reported to resolve spontaneously. Last, with regard to penile enlargement, the overall perception of experts is that hyaluronic acid may be an extremely well-tolerated compound with potential for application in specific areas of male sexual health that are often neglected as compared to more common, and relatively simpler to treat, conditions.

16.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0251608, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097690

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the prevalence of isolated teratozoospermia (iTZS) in a cohort of infertile and fertile men; explore the relationship between iTZS, inflammatory parameters and sperm DNA fragmentation index (SDF) in the same cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 1824 infertile men and 103 fertile controls. Semen analysis, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and serum hormones were investigated. DFI was tested in infertile men only. According to 2010 WHO semen analysis, patients were categorized in 3 sub-groups of isolated sperm defects: isolated oligozoospermia (iOZS), isolated asthenozoospermia (iAZS) and iTZS. Descriptive statistics and linear regression models tested the association between clinical variables and inflammatory markers. RESULTS: Among infertile men, iAZS, iTZS, and iOZS were found in 13.9%, 11.9% and 4.1% participants, respectively. iTZS was found in 37 (35.9%) fertile men. Infertile men with iTZS had higher NLR values than those with iOZS, iAZS and men with normal semen parameters (all p<0.001). FSH and LH were higher and inhibin B lower in iOZS infertile men compared to all other groups (p≤0.001). Hormonal characteristics were similar between iTZS infertile and fertile men. Similarly, iTZS infertile men had higher SDF than all other groups (all p<0.001). Infertile men with iTZS had higher NLR values than fertile men with iTZS (p<0.01). Linear regression analysis showed that, in infertile men, iTZS was associated with SDF and NLR (all p≤0.01). CONCLUSIONS: iTZS was found in 11.9% of infertile men but it was even more prevalent in fertile controls. Infertile men with iTZS had higher NLR than fertile controls and increased SDF values than infertile participant with iAZS, iOZS, or normal semen parameters. No differences in hormonal characteristics were found between infertile and fertile men with iTZS.

17.
Andrology ; 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34169669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The EAU guidelines on male sexual and reproductive health state that both partners of the infertile couple should undergo simultaneous investigation. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and the characteristics of infertile men who were referred for an andrological evaluation after failed attempts of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) with those who were evaluated at the beginning of their infertility pathway at a single academic centre over a 17-year period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of 3213 primary infertile couples assessed between 2003 and 2020 were analysed. Descriptive statistics compared the overall characteristics of male partners of couples with (+ART) or without (-ART) previous ART prior to andrological consultation. Logistic regression models analysed variables associated with +ART. Local polynomial regression models explored the probability of +ART over the analysed time frame. RESULTS: Of all, 493 (15.3%) participants were +ART. Patients and female partners' age was higher in +ART couples (all p ≤ 0.04). Sperm concentration, progressive sperm motility and normal sperm morphology were lower in +ART than in -ART patients (all p < 0.001), along with a greater percentage of non-obstructive azoospermia in +ART compared to -ART men (p < 0.0001). At univariable analysis, patient age and partner age >35 years and a less recent assessment were associated with +ART status (all p ≤ 0.04). Male age and less recent years of assessment were also independent predictors of +ART, after accounting for partner's age >35 years (all p < 0.01). A not significant decrease of this pattern was observed throughout the last 7 years at local polynomial regression models. DISCUSSION: Overall awareness towards the importance of a comprehensive evaluation for the male partner of every infertile couple should therefore be further strengthened. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 15% of couples still undergo ART without any initial andrological evaluation in the real-life setting. A not significant decrease in this trend was observed over most recent years.

18.
Eur Urol ; 80(3): 333-357, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183196

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The present summary of the European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines is based on the latest guidelines on male sexual health published in March 2021, with a last comprehensive update in January 2021. OBJECTIVE: To present a summary of the 2021 version of the EAU guidelines on sexual and reproductive health. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature review was performed up to January 2021. The guidelines were updated, and a strength rating for each recommendation was included based on either a systematic review of the evidence or a consensus opinion from the expert panel. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Late-onset hypogonadism is a clinical condition in the ageing male combining low levels of circulating testosterone and specific symptoms associated with impaired hormone production and/or action. A comprehensive diagnostic and therapeutic work-up, along with screening recommendations and contraindications, is provided. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the persistent inability to attain and maintain an erection sufficient to permit satisfactory sexual performance. Along with a detailed basic and advanced diagnostic approach, a novel decision-making algorithm for treating ED in order to better tailor therapy to individual patients is provided. The EAU guidelines have adopted the definition of premature ejaculation (PE), which has been developed by the International Society for Sexual Medicine. After the subtype of PE has been defined, patient's expectations should be discussed thoroughly and pharmacotherapy must be considered as the first-line treatment for patients with lifelong PE, whereas treating the underlying cause must be the initial goal for patients with acquired PE. Haemospermia is defined as the appearance of blood in the ejaculate. Several reasons of haemospermia have been acknowledged; the primary goal over the management work-up is to exclude malignant conditions and treat any other underlying cause. CONCLUSIONS: The 2021 guidelines on sexual and reproductive health summarise the most recent findings, and advise in terms of diagnosis and treatment of male hypogonadism and sexual dysfunction for their use in clinical practice. These guidelines reflect the multidisciplinary nature of their management. PATIENT SUMMARY: Updated European Association of Urology guidelines on sexual and reproductive health are presented, addressing the diagnosis and treatment of the most prevalent conditions in men. Patients must be fully informed of all relevant diagnostic and therapeutic options and, together with their treating physicians, decide on optimal personalised management strategies.

19.
Andrology ; 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infertility affects 15%-25% of all couples during their reproductive life span. It is a significant societal and public health problem with potential psychological, social, and economic consequences. Furthermore, infertility has been linked to adverse long-term health outcomes. Despite the advanced diagnostic and therapeutic techniques available, approximately 30% of infertile couples do not obtain a live birth after fertility treatment. For these couples, there are no further options to increase their chances of a successful pregnancy and live birth. OBJECTIVES: Three overall questions will be studied: (1) What are the risk factors and natural life courses of infertility, early embryonic loss, and adverse pregnancy outcomes? (2) Can we develop new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for fecundity and treatment success? And (3) what are the health characteristics of women and men in infertile couples at the time of fertility treatment and during long-term follow-up? MATERIAL AND METHODS: ReproUnion Biobank and Infertility Cohort (RUBIC) is established as an add-on to the routine fertility management at Copenhagen University Hospital Departments in the Capital Region of Denmark and Reproductive Medicine Centre at Skåne University Hospital in Sweden. The aim is to include a total of 5000 couples equally distributed between Denmark and Sweden. The first patients were enrolled in June 2020. All eligible infertile couples are prospectively asked to participate in the project. Participants complete an extensive questionnaire and undergo a physical examination and collection of biospecimens (blood, urine, hair, saliva, rectal swabs, feces, semen, endometrial biopsies, and vaginal swabs). After the cohort is established, the couples will be linked to the Danish and Swedish national registers to obtain information on parental, perinatal, childhood, and adult life histories, including disease and medication history. This will enable us to understand the causes of infertility and identify novel therapeutic options for this important societal problem.

20.
Curr Probl Cancer ; : 100759, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130863

RESUMO

The indications for adjuvant vascular endothelial growth factor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (VEGF-TKI) agents after curative intent nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma are still a matter of debate. The ASSURE, PROTECT and ATLAS trials have failed to meet their primary end-points. Conversely, S-TRAC has shown a disease free survival (DFS) benefit. To date, meta-analyses have repeatedly proved the absence of a clinical benefit, in term of DFS and overall survival (OS). Nevertheless, the results of the SORCE trial have been recently released and might add valuable information. We pooled the results of all five reported trials testing for any potential DFS and OS benefits associated with VEGF-TKI use. Interestingly, for pooled DFS we found a marginal positive hazard ratio (HR) of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-1.00; P-value = 0.049) in favor of adjuvant VEGF-TKI agents. This benefit was more pronounced for DFS in the sub-groups of only high-risk patients (HR: 0.89, 95% CI 0.80-0.99; P-value = 0.026), but less pronounced in clear-cell only subgroup (HR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.85-1.00; P-value = 0.044). Overall survival benefit was instead not reached. However, pooled relative risk for high-grade (grade ≥3 according to CTCAE classification) adverse events was irremediably high, 2.56 (95% CI: 2.15-3.04; P-value < 0.001). Given the marginal benefit in terms of DFS and the drawback of high-grade adverse events, even after the SORCE trial publication, adjuvant VEGF-TKIs therapy cannot be considered in the whole group of patients with non-metastatic high-risk renal cell carcinoma after surgery.

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