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1.
Neuroimage Clin ; 26: 102248, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334404

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Volumetric biomarkers for Alzheimer disease (AD) are attractive due to their wide availability and ease of administration, but have traditionally shown lower diagnostic accuracy than measures of neuropathological contributors to AD. Our purpose was to optimize the diagnostic specificity of structural MRIs for AD using quantitative, data-driven techniques. METHODS: This retrospective study assembled several non-overlapping cohorts (total n = 1287) with publicly available data and clinical patients from Barnes-Jewish Hospital (data gathered 1990-2018). The Normal Aging Cohort (n = 383) contained amyloid biomarker negative, cognitively normal (CN) participants, and provided a basis for determining age-related atrophy in other cohorts. The Training (n = 216) and Test (n = 109) Cohorts contained participants with symptomatic AD and CN controls. Classification models were developed in the Training Cohort and compared in the Test Cohort using the receiver operating characteristics areas under curve (AUCs). Additional model comparisons were done in the Clinical Cohort (n = 579), which contained patients who were diagnosed with dementia due to various etiologies in a tertiary care outpatient memory clinic. RESULTS: While the Normal Aging Cohort showed regional age-related atrophy, classification models were not improved by including age as a predictor or by using volumetrics adjusted for age-related atrophy. The optimal model used multiple regions (hippocampal volume, inferior lateral ventricle volume, amygdala volume, entorhinal thickness, and inferior parietal thickness) and was able to separate AD and CN controls in the Test Cohort with an AUC of 0.961. In the Clinical Cohort, this model separated AD from non-AD diagnoses with an AUC 0.820, an incrementally greater separation of the cohort than by hippocampal volume alone (AUC of 0.801, p = 0.06). Greatest separation was seen for AD vs. frontotemporal dementia and for AD vs. non-neurodegenerative diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: Volumetric biomarkers distinguished individuals with symptomatic AD from CN controls and other dementia types but were not improved by controlling for normal aging.

2.
Neurology ; 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345729

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between fractures and Parkinson disease (PD) during the 5-year prodromal phase as compared to controls. METHODS: We performed a population-based case-control study of Medicare beneficiaries in the United States from 2004 to 2009. We identified 89,632 incident PD cases and 117,760 comparable controls 66-90 years of age in 2009. PD case status was the outcome, and noncranial fracture the independent variable. We used logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for association between fracture and PD in yearly time intervals prior to PD diagnosis/control reference date, after adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: There were 39,606 total fractures (25.4% cases, 14.3% controls) over the 5 years prior to the PD diagnosis/control reference date. PD was positively associated with fractures even after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, Charlson comorbidity index, alcohol use, tobacco use, and osteoporosis. The association between PD and fracture was evident at yearly time windows prior to PD diagnosis/control reference date. The association between PD and each type of fracture strengthened as the PD diagnosis/control reference date approached (all time interaction p values ≤0.02). Among beneficiaries with a mechanism of injury, the majority were attributed to falls (74.6% cases, 72.8% controls). CONCLUSION: Fractures occur more commonly during the prodromal period of PD compared to controls, especially as diagnosis date approached, suggesting that patients with PD may experience unrecognized motor and nonmotor symptoms.

3.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 37: 101440, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173004

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the association between gender identity and sexual orientation on health care utilization in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as satisfaction with their doctor and comfort discussing sexual health with their doctor. METHODS: We surveyed participants from the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Registry regarding their gender identity and sexual orientation in 2017. Participants also reported their sociodemographic characteristics, disability status, health behaviors and health care utilization, including whether any hospitalizations or emergency room (ER) visits occurred or any disease-modifying therapy (DMT) was used within the last six months. We compared the likelihood of hospitalizations, ER visits and DMT use between (i) cisgender and transgender participants; and (ii) heterosexual, homosexual, and "other sexual orientation" participants using multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Of the 5,604 eligible responders, 1168 (20.8%) reported their sex at birth as male and 4436 reported their sex at birth as female (79.2%). Twenty-five (0.45%) participants identified as transgender and 260 (4.6%) as non-heterosexual individuals. As compared to participants who reported their sexual orientation as heterosexual, non-heterosexual participants were younger, with an earlier age at MS symptom onset, more likely to have a post-secondary education, and more likely to be single. The frequency of any ER visits, any hospital admissions, and DMT use did not differ according to gender identity did not differ according to gender identity or sexual orientation. As compared to cisgender participants, transgender participants reported less comfort (p < 0.042) discussing sexual health with their doctor; findings were similar for non-heterosexual participants as compared to heterosexual participants. Participants reporting other sexual orientation also reported lower satisfaction (p < 0.039) with their doctor than other participants. CONCLUSION: Gender identity and sexual orientation were not associated with differences in healthcare utilization in persons with MS. However, health care experiences and satisfaction with care may be altered by gender identity and sexual orientation.

5.
Foot Ankle Int ; 41(3): 313-319, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lesser toe metatarsal head degeneration and collapse can cause significant pain and disability. In the setting of global metatarsal head collapse, there are limited operative options. The purpose of our study was to evaluate clinical and radiographic outcomes after lesser toe metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint interpositional arthroplasty with a tendon allograft and to describe the operative technique. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a consecutive series of patients treated by 3 fellowship-trained foot and ankle surgeons at one institution. We created a phone survey to evaluate satisfaction, pain, and likelihood to repeat the surgery. Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) scores were reviewed before and after surgery. Preoperative and postoperative radiographs were evaluated for preservation of metatarsal length. The procedure was performed through a dorsal midline approach. The metatarsal head was reamed to a concave shape. A tendon allograft was fashioned into a ball and secured to the metatarsal with an anchor. Fifteen feet in 14 patients underwent lesser MTP joint interposition arthroplasty, with the average age of 49 years (range, 24-69), and an average follow-up of 4.2 years. RESULTS: Eighty percent (12/15) reported they would have the procedure again. Visual analog scale pain scores showed a decrease in pain from 7 to 1. FAAM sports subscale improved from 56% to 85%. Radiographically, the ratio of the affected metatarsal length to the adjacent metatarsal remained constant before and after surgery, suggesting preservation of the metatarsal cascade. CONCLUSION: Interpositional arthroplasty of the lesser MTP joints with a rolled tendon allograft provided a unique solution, as it allows the surgeon to fill a large void without harvesting an autograft. This study showed improved patient-reported outcomes, high patient satisfaction, and good radiographic outcomes. Lesser metatarsophalangeal joint allograft interposition arthroplasty was a viable solution as a salvage procedure in the setting of global metatarsal head collapse. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, retrospective case series.

6.
Mult Scler ; : 1352458519898591, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disability outcome measures in multiple sclerosis (MS) focus heavily on ambulation; however, limitations in performing everyday activities encompass another type of disability. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the ability of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) scale to discriminate between different levels of disability and to predict disability progression. METHODS: The North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) registry fall 2006 semi-annual survey asked participants to complete the RAND-12, Performance Scales, Patient Determined Disease Steps (PDDS), and IADL questionnaires. We modeled the trajectory of disability change, using the PDDS, over 12 years. Analyses used linear and repeated measures regression methods. RESULTS: Of respondents (n = 9931), 9559 (96%) completed the PDDS and IADL scale. Respondents were mostly female (76%), Caucasian (92%), and 52.3 (10.5) years old with moderate disability (median PDDS 4 (early cane)). Mean (SD) IADL total score was 20.5 (3.7). Discriminant ability of the IADL scale was higher than other measures considered at higher levels of disability. Adjusted longitudinal models showed that needing greater assistance on IADLs was independently predictive of trajectories of greater disability change. CONCLUSION: IADL scale had a greater ability to discriminate between higher disability levels than RAND-12 domains. The IADL scale may provide a useful and clinically relevant tool to measure disability in progressive MS populations.

7.
J Ultrasound Med ; 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995242

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine patient and procedural risk factors for major complications in ultrasound (US)-guided random renal core biopsy. METHODS: Random renal biopsies performed by radiologists in the US department at a single institution between 2014 and 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. The patient's age, sex, race, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were recorded. The biopsy approach, needle gauge, length of cores, number of throws, and presence of a color flow tract were recorded. Outcome data included minor and major complications. Associations between variables were tested with χ2 analyses and univariable/multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: A total of 231 biopsies (167 native and 64 allografts) were reviewed. There was no significant difference in the sex, age, race, or eGFR between native and allograft groups. The overall rate for any complication was 18.2%, with a 4.3% rate of major complications, which was significantly greater in native compared to allograft biopsies (6% versus 0%; P = .045). A risk analysis in native biopsies only showed that major complications were significantly associated with a low eGFR such that patients with stage 4 or 5 kidney disease had higher odds of complications (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: stage 4, 9.405 [1.995-44.338]; P = .0393; stage 5, 10.749 [2.218-52.080]; P = .0203) than patients with normal function (eGFR >60 mL/min). The presence of a color flow tract portended a 10.7 times greater risk of having any complication (95% confidence interval, 4.595-24.994; P < .001). Other procedural factors were not significantly associated with complications. CONCLUSIONS: There is an increased risk of major complications in US-guided random native kidney biopsy in patients with a low eGFR (<30 mL/min) and a patent color flow tract in the immediate postbiopsy setting.

9.
Pediatr Radiol ; 50(1): 98-106, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is an important cause of intractable epilepsy. Early and accurate diagnosis of MTS is essential to providing curative and life-changing therapy but can be challenging in children in whom the impact of diagnosis is particularly high. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the diagnosis of MTS, and image processing of MRI is a recently studied strategy to improve its accuracy. OBJECTIVE: In a retrospective case-control study, we assessed the performance of an image processing algorithm (Correlative Image Enhancement [CIE]) for detecting MTS-related hippocampal signal abnormality in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven pediatric MTS cases (9 males, 18 females; mean age: 16±standard deviation [SD] 6.7 years) were identified from a pathology database of amygdylo-hippocampectomies performed in children with epilepsy. Twenty-seven children with no seizure history (9 males, 18 females; mean age: 13.8±SD 2.8 years), and with normal brain MRI, were identified for the control group. Blinded investigators processed the MRI coronal FLAIR (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) images with CIE, saved the processed images as a separate series, and made equivalent region of interest measurements on the processed and unprocessed series to calculate contrast-to-noise ratio. Six blinded reviewers then rated the randomized series for hippocampal signal abnormality and MTS disease status. RESULTS: CIE increased signal intensity and contrast-to-noise ratio in 26/27 hippocampi with pathologically confirmed MTS (96.3%) with the mean (SD) contrast-to-noise ratio of cases increasing from 14.9 (11.1) to 77.7 (58.7) after processing (P<0.001). Contrast-to-noise ratio increased in 1/54 normal control hippocampi (1.9%), with no significant change in the mean contrast-to-noise ratio of the control group after processing (P=0.57). Mean (SD) reader sensitivity for detecting abnormal signal intensity increased from 83.3% (14.2) to 94.8% (3.3) after processing. Mean specificity for abnormal signal intensity increased from 94.4% (7.3) to 96.3% (0). While sensitivity improved after processing for detection of MTS disease status in 4/6 readers, the mean reader sensitivity and specificity for MTS detection increased only minimally after processing, from 79.6% to 80.7% and from 95.7% to 96.3%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The CIE image processing algorithm selectively increased the contrast-to-noise ratio of hippocampi affected by MTS, improved reader performance in detecting MTS-related hippocampal signal abnormality and could have high impact on pediatric patients undergoing work-up for seizures.

10.
Rehabil Nurs ; 45(2): 80-87, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive neurological disorder, characterized by exacerbations and remissions, often resulting in disability affecting multiple neurological functions. The purpose of this article was (1) to describe the frequencies of self-reported symptoms in a natural environment and (2) to determine characteristics and associations between self-reported symptoms and home gait parameters (speed, stride time, and stride length) at baseline and at 3 months in patients with MS. METHODS: Participants completed the self-report MS-Related Symptom Scale to measure symptoms. A three-dimensional depth imaging system (Foresite Healthcare) was used to measure gait parameters in the home environment. RESULTS: These data show significant correlations between the following symptoms: knee locking or collapsing, difficulty sleeping, depression, and anxiety with decreased number of average walks per day; however, the symptoms including trouble-making toilet: day and difficulty in starting urine were positively correlated with average walks per day. The symptom numbness was significantly correlated with decreased speed and decreased stride length. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that certain groups of symptoms were more frequently reported with certain gait parameters (stride time/speed) in persons with MS. Rehabilitation nurses can provide optimal care to prevent future decline in symptoms and gait.

11.
Eur Radiol ; 30(2): 996-1007, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654212

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the LI-RADS imaging features of primary liver carcinomas (PLCs) other than hepatocellular carcinoma (non-HCC PLCs) differ between patients considered high risk (RF+) versus not high risk (RF-) for HCC and to compare rates of miscategorization as probable or definite HCC between the RF+ and RF- populations. METHODS: This retrospective study included all pathology-proven non-HCC PLCs imaged with liver-protocol CT or MRI from 2007 to 2017 at two liver transplant centers. Patients were defined per LI-RADS v2018 criteria as RF+ or RF-. Two independent, blinded readers (R1, R2) categorized 265 lesions using LI-RADS v2018. Logistic regression was utilized to assess for differences in imaging feature frequencies between RF+ and RF- patients. Fisher's exact test was used to assess for differences in miscategorization rates. RESULTS: Non-HCC PLCs were significantly more likely to exhibit nonrim arterial phase hyperenhancement (R1: OR = 2.94; R2: OR = 7.09) and nonperipheral "washout" (R1: OR = 3.65; R2: OR = 7.69) but significantly less likely to exhibit peripheral "washout" (R1: OR = 0.30; R2: OR = 0.10) and delayed central enhancement (R1: OR = 0.18; R2: OR = 0.25) in RF+ patients relative to RF- patients. Consequently, non-HCC PLCs were more often miscategorized as probable or definite HCC in RF+ versus RF- patients (R1: 23.3% vs. 3.6%, p < 0.001; R2: 11.0% vs. 2.6%, p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Non-HCC PLCs are more likely to mimic HCCs on CT and MRI in the LI-RADS target population than in patients without LI-RADS-defined HCC risk factors. KEY POINTS: • The presence of LI-RADS-defined risk factors for HCC tends to alter the imaging appearances of non-HCC PLCs, resulting in higher frequencies of major features and lower frequencies of LR-M features. • Non-HCC PLCs are more likely to be miscategorized as probable or definite HCC in the LI-RADS target population than in patients without LI-RADS-defined HCC risk factors.

12.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 39: 101884, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), a common outcome measure in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), is obtained prospectively through a direct standardized evaluation. The objective of this study is to develop and validate an algorithm to derive EDSS scores from previous neurological clinical documentation. METHODS: The algorithm utilizes data from the history, review of systems, and physical exam. EDSS scores formally obtained from research patients were compared to captured EDSS (c-EDSS) scores. To test inter-rater reliability, a second investigator captured scores from a subset of patients. Agreement between formal and c-EDSS scores was assessed using a weighted kappa. Clinical concordance was defined as a difference of one-step in EDSS (0.5) and functional system (1.0) scores. RESULTS: Clinical documentation from 92 patients (EDSS range 0.0-8.5) was assessed. Substantial agreement between the c-EDSS and formal EDSS (kappa 0.80; 95% CI 0.74-0.86) was observed. The mean difference between scores was 0.16. The clinical concordance was 78%. Near-perfect agreement was found between the two raters (kappa 0.89; 95% CI 0.84-0.95). The mean inter-rater difference in c-EDSS was 0.23. CONCLUSIONS: This algorithm reliably captures EDSS scores retrospectively with substantial correlation with formal EDSS and high inter-rater agreement. This algorithm may have practical implications in clinic, MS research and clinical trials.

13.
Neurol Clin Pract ; 9(5): 381-390, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750023

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders, the demographic and clinical characteristics associated with the presence of functional gastrointestinal disorders, and the effects of these disorders with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a large, diverse population of persons with MS. Methods: In 2014, we surveyed participants in the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis registry regarding functional gastrointestinal disorders using the Rome III questionnaire. Participants also reported their sociodemographic characteristics, disability status using Patient Determined Disease Steps, the presence of comorbid depression and anxiety, health behaviors, and HRQOL using the RAND-12. We determined the prevalence of each gastrointestinal disorder using the Rome III criteria. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we assessed the factors associated with the presence of each bowel disorder. Using linear regression, we evaluated the association between functional gastrointestinal disorders and HRQOL. Results: Of 6,312 eligible respondents, 76.5% were female, with a mean (SD) age of 58.3 (10.2) years. Forty-two percent of respondents (n = 2,647) had a functional gastrointestinal disorder, most often irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which affected 28.2% of participants. The prevalence of all functional gastrointestinal disorders increased with greater disability, and the prevalence of IBS increased with longer disease duration. After adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, functional gastrointestinal disorders were associated with lower physical and mental HRQOL (both p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Functional gastrointestinal disorders are common in MS and are associated with reduced HRQOL.

14.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225093, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Primary brain tumors are composed of tumor cells, neural/glial tissues, edema, and vasculature tissue. Conventional MRI has a limited ability to evaluate heterogeneous tumor pathologies. We developed a novel diffusion MRI-based method-Heterogeneity Diffusion Imaging (HDI)-to simultaneously detect and characterize multiple tumor pathologies and capillary blood perfusion using a single diffusion MRI scan. METHODS: Seven adult patients with primary brain tumors underwent standard-of-care MRI protocols and HDI protocol before planned surgical resection and/or stereotactic biopsy. Twelve tumor sampling sites were identified using a neuronavigational system and recorded for imaging data quantification. Metrics from both protocols were compared between World Health Organization (WHO) II and III tumor groups. Cerebral blood volume (CBV) derived from dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion imaging was also compared with the HDI-derived perfusion fraction. RESULTS: The conventional apparent diffusion coefficient did not identify differences between WHO II and III tumor groups. HDI-derived slow hindered diffusion fraction was significantly elevated in the WHO III group as compared with the WHO II group. There was a non-significantly increasing trend of HDI-derived tumor cellularity fraction in the WHO III group, and both HDI-derived perfusion fraction and DSC-derived CBV were found to be significantly higher in the WHO III group. Both HDI-derived perfusion fraction and slow hindered diffusion fraction strongly correlated with DSC-derived CBV. Neither HDI-derived cellularity fraction nor HDI-derived fast hindered diffusion fraction correlated with DSC-derived CBV. CONCLUSIONS: Conventional apparent diffusion coefficient, which measures averaged pathology properties of brain tumors, has compromised accuracy and specificity. HDI holds great promise to accurately separate and quantify the tumor cell fraction, the tumor cell packing density, edema, and capillary blood perfusion, thereby leading to an improved microenvironment characterization of primary brain tumors. Larger studies will further establish HDI's clinical value and use for facilitating biopsy planning, treatment evaluation, and noninvasive tumor grading.

15.
Neurology ; 93(17): e1605-e1617, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578300

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To define the natural history of the C9orf72 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (C9ALS) patient population, develop disease biomarkers, and characterize patient pathologies. METHODS: We prospectively collected clinical and demographic data from 116 symptomatic C9ALS and 12 non-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) full expansion carriers across 7 institutions in the United States and the Netherlands. In addition, we collected blood samples for DNA repeat size assessment, CSF samples for biomarker identification, and autopsy samples for dipeptide repeat protein (DPR) size determination. Finally, we collected retrospective clinical data via chart review from 208 individuals with C9ALS and 450 individuals with singleton ALS. RESULTS: The mean age at onset in the symptomatic prospective cohort was 57.9 ± 8.3 years, and median duration of survival after onset was 36.9 months. The monthly change was -1.8 ± 1.7 for ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised and -1.4% ± 3.24% of predicted for slow vital capacity. In blood DNA, we found that G4C2 repeat size correlates positively with age. In CSF, we observed that concentrations of poly(GP) negatively correlate with DNA expansion size but do not correlate with measures of disease progression. Finally, we found that size of poly(GP) dipeptides in the brain can reach large sizes similar to that of their DNA repeat derivatives. CONCLUSIONS: We present a thorough investigation of C9ALS natural history, providing the basis for C9ALS clinical trial design. We found that clinical features of this genetic subset are less variant than in singleton ALS. In addition, we identified important correlations of C9ALS patient pathologies with clinical and demographic data.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Idade de Início , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Biomarcadores/urina , Expansão das Repetições de DNA , Feminino , Seguimentos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
HPB (Oxford) ; 21(12): 1697-1706, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be diagnosed using imaging criteria in patients at high-risk for HCC, according to Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) guidelines. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic performance and inter-rater reliability (IRR) of LI-RADS v2018 for differentiating HCC from non-HCC primary liver carcinoma (PLC), in patients who are at increased risk for HCC but not included in the LI-RADS 'high-risk' population. METHODS: This retrospective HIPAA-compliant study included a 10-year experience of pathologically-proven PLC at two liver transplant centers, and included patients with non-cirrhotic hepatitis C infection, non-cirrhotic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and fibrosis. Two readers evaluated each lesion and assigned an overall LI-RADS diagnostic category, additionally scoring all major, LR-M, and ancillary features. RESULTS: The final study cohort consisted of 27 HCCs and 104 non-HCC PLC in 131 patients. The specificity of a 'definite HCC' designation was 97% for reader 1 and 100% for reader 2. The IRR was fair for overall LI-RADS category and substantial for most major features. CONCLUSION: In a population at increased risk for HCC but not currently included in the LI-RADS 'high-risk' population, LI-RADS v2018 demonstrated very high specificity for distinguishing pathologically-proven HCC from non-HCC PLC.

17.
Vasc Med ; 24(5): 442-451, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354089

RESUMO

Few studies have documented relationships between endovascular therapy, duplex ultrasonography (DUS), post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS), and quality of life (QOL). The Acute Venous Thrombosis: Thrombus Removal with Adjunctive Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis (ATTRACT) trial randomized 692 patients with acute proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT) to receive anticoagulation or anticoagulation plus pharmacomechanical catheter-directed thrombolysis (PCDT). Compression DUS was obtained at baseline, 1 month and 12 months. Reflux DUS was obtained at 12 months in a subset of 126 patients. Clinical outcomes were collected over 24 months. At 1 month, patients who received PCDT had less residual thrombus compared to Control patients, evidenced by non-compressible common femoral vein (CFV) (21% vs 35%, p < 0.0001), femoral vein (51% vs 70%, p < 0.0001), and popliteal vein (61% vs 74%, p < 0.0001). At 12 months, in the ultrasound substudy, valvular reflux prevalence was similar between groups (85% vs 91%, p = 0.35). CFV non-compressibility at 1 month was associated with higher rates of any PTS (61% vs 46%, p < 0.001), a higher incidence of moderate-or-severe PTS (30% vs 19%, p = 0.003), and worse QOL (difference 8.2 VEINES-QOL (VEnous INsufficiency Epidemiological and Economic Study on Quality of Life) points; p = 0.004) at 24 months. Valvular reflux at 12 months was associated with moderate-or-severe PTS at 24 months (30% vs 0%, p = 0.01). In summary, PCDT results in less residual thrombus but does not reduce venous valvular reflux. CFV non-compressibility at 1 month is associated with more PTS, more severe PTS, and worse QOL at 24 months. Valvular reflux may predispose to moderate-or-severe PTS. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00790335.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Periférico , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Terapia Trombolítica , Ultrassonografia Doppler Dupla , Trombose Venosa/terapia , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Cateterismo Periférico/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte , Síndrome Pós-Trombótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome Pós-Trombótica/etiologia , Síndrome Pós-Trombótica/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/fisiopatologia
18.
Ther Adv Neurol Disord ; 12: 1756286419847095, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205492

RESUMO

Clinical trials of new treatments in multiple sclerosis (MS) currently require large sample sizes and long durations in order to yield reliable results. The differential responses of an already heterogeneous population of MS patients to individual disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) will further complicate future trials. MS trials with smaller samples and faster outcomes are conceivable through the substitution of current clinical and MRI outcomes with objectively measureable genomic and proteomic biomarkers. Currently, biomarkers that could be utilized for diagnosis and monitoring of MS disease activity are in the early validation phase. The power of single biomarkers or multiple correlated biomarkers to predict prognosis and response to treatment could initially be compared with currently accepted methods. These prospectively validated disease biomarkers could then be used to subcategorize the spectrum of MS patients into a finite number of endophenotypes with demonstrable different molecular pathogeneses and DMT response profiles. Newly developed DMT could potentially be assessed within specific endophenotypes and compared with pharmacogenomically relevant active comparator DMT. This approach may increase the efficiency of MS trials through homogenization of patient population and minimization of nonresponders in study groups, providing the potential for the development of targeted therapies.

19.
Mult Scler ; : 1352458519852722, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Researchers studying health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in multiple sclerosis (MS) can choose from many instruments, but findings from studies which use different instruments cannot be easily combined. We aimed to develop a crosswalk that associates scores from the RAND-12 to scores on the Health Utilities Index-Mark III (HUI3) in persons with MS. METHODS: In 2018, participants in the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) registry completed the RAND-12 and the HUI3 to assess HRQOL. We used item-response theory (IRT) and equipercentile linking approaches to develop a crosswalk between instruments. We compared predicted scores for the HUI3 from each crosswalk to observed scores using Pearson correlations, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS: Of 11,389 invited participants, 7129 (62.6%) responded. Predicted and observed values of the HUI3 from the IRT-linking method were moderately correlated (Pearson r = 0.76) with good concordance (ICC = 0.72). However, the Bland-Altman plots suggested biased prediction. Predicted and observed values from the equipercentile linking method were also moderately correlated (Pearson r = 0.78, ICC = 0.78). The Bland-Altman plots suggested no bias. CONCLUSION: We developed a crosswalk between the RAND-12 and the HUI3 in the MS population which will facilitate data harmonization efforts.

20.
Cell Metab ; 30(1): 212-224.e4, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230985

RESUMO

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a promising target for anti-obesity interventions. This prospective test-retest study assessed the repeatability of several important quantitative BAT metrics. After cold activation, 24 subjects underwent positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), utilizing 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose. Repeat imaging occurred within 14 days per an identical protocol. BAT volumes were strongly correlated between sessions for PET/CT (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.85) and PET/MRI (ICC, 0.82). BAT maximum lean-body-mass-adjusted standardized uptake values (SULmax) were also strongly correlated between sessions for both PET/CT (ICC, 0.74) and PET/MRI (ICC, 0.83). Much longitudinal variability in BAT metrics was likely due to biological factors intrinsic to BAT, whole-body metabolic fluctuations, or temporal differences in cold-activation efficacy, rather than imaging factors. Future studies utilizing these imaging metrics to track the response BAT to interventions should incorporate this variation into sample-size considerations and response criteria.

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