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1.
Int J STD AIDS ; : 9564624211043711, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565234

RESUMO

This study aimed to document the dermatoses and their relationships with CD4+ T lymphocyte counts and clinical stages of disease among people living with HIV followed by our Clinical Department, to investigate the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on findings and to compare with real-world data. Medical records of people living with HIV were analyzed retrospectively in our outpatient clinic from January 2005 to June 2017. A total of 500 patient files were examined. 179 patients with dermatoses were included in the study. Demographic data, clinical and laboratory findings, dermatological findings, type and distribution of lesions, serological and histopathological examinations, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients were transferred to data forms. 84.4% of the patients were male and the mean age was 38.65 ± 11.6 years. The median CD4+ T lymphocyte count was 253/mm3 (range:0-1067). At least one dermatosis was present in 69.3% of the patients. Compared with their median CD4+ T lymphocyte counts, the ratio of CD4+ T lymphocytes was significantly lower in the group with three or more dermatoses (p = 0.019). Condyloma acuminatum (15.1%), drug eruption (13.4%), seborrheic dermatitis (11.7%), oral candidiasis (11.2%), dermatophytoses (11.2%), syphilis (8.4%), Kaposi's sarcoma (8.4%), and telogen effluvium (8.4%) were the most common dermatoses. Kaposi sarcoma (KS), oral candidiasis, onychomycosis, and molluscum contagiosum were significantly higher in the CD4+ T lymphocyte <200/mm³ group when CD4+ T lymphocyte threshold value was determined as 200/mm³. Compared with other TDF/FTC-containing regimens, a significantly higher proportion of alopecia was reported in patients receiving TDF/FTC/EVG/c (p = 0.007). Dermatoses may be a good clinical marker for detecting clinical stage and diagnosing HIV infection; also, there may be a significant increase in the number of dermatoses in advanced stages. Although there are only a few studies in the literature, it should be kept in mind that ART-associated alopecia rates may increase nowadays when ART is targeted at everyone.

2.
Microb Drug Resist ; 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348037

RESUMO

Citrobacter freundii has acquired resistance to several antimicrobial drugs, including last-resort antibiotics affecting, therefore, clinical efficacy and causing high rates of mortality. In this study, we investigate the whole genome sequence of a carbapenem-resistant C. freundii strain isolated from the hospital environment in Tunisia. A total of 210 samples were taken using sterile swabs, from inanimate surfaces, medical devices, and care staff, during the period extended between March and April 2019. After the microbiological analysis of samples and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, only one strain identified as C. freundii showing resistance to carbapenems was selected for the whole genome sequencing. The genome analysis revealed a high-level resistance to most antibiotics. Interestingly, we have noted the coexistence of blaNDM-1 and blaVIM-48 metallo-ß-lactamase (MBL) encoding genes conferring resistance to carbapenems. Other ß-lactamases encoding genes have also been detected, including blaTEM-1, blaCMY-48, and blaOXA-1. Moreover, genes conferring resistance to aminoglycoside [aac(3)-IId, ant(3″)-Ia, aadA, aac(6')-Ib], macrolide [mph(A)], sulfonamide (sul1), trimethoprim (dfrA1), tetracycline [tet(D)], chloramphenicol [cat(B3)], rifamycin (arr-3), and quinolone (qnrB) have been revealed. The multi-locus sequence typing analysis showed that this isolate could not be assigned to an existing sequence type (ST), but it is almost identical to ST22. The plasmid investigation revealed the presence of five plasmids belonging to diverse incompatibility groups (IncFII, IncHI1A, IncHI1B, IncN, and IncX3). To the best of our knowledge, our findings report the first detection of NDM-1 and VIM-48 coproducing C. freundii in Tunisia and the second detection in the world of the blaVIM-48.

3.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 55(3): 342-356, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416801

RESUMO

Limited data exists to date on the predictors for the development of pneumonia in patients with mild and moderate coronavirus (COVID-19). In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the demographic characteristics and clinical findings of mild and moderate COVID-19 and to determine the risk factors for the development of COVID-19 pneumonia in patients admitted to the pandemic outpatient clinic of a university hospital. A total of 414 patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 were included. Of these, 220 (53.1%) were male, the mean age was 38.3 ± 12.7. Median duration of hospital admission from the onset of symptoms was three days (0-11). Of the confirmed COVID-19 cases, 154 (37.2%) had a history of family contact and the most common symptoms were weakness (68.4%), myalgia (61.8%), headache (56.5%), loss of smell (45.2%), loss of taste (43.2%) and anorexia (42.8%). Among females, weakness (p= 0.016), headache (p= 0.008), sore throat (p= 0.032), nausea (p= 0.003), anorexia (p= 0.045), loss of taste (p= 0.005) and loss of smell (p<0.001) were more common. Loss of taste (47.6% vs. 25%, p<0.001) and loss of smell (50% vs. 26.3%, p<0.001) were more common in patients with under the age of 50 and cough (43.4% vs. 29.3%, p= 0.003) was more common in patients with above the age of 40. Among 46 (11.1%) patients with asymptomatic COVID-19, there was no significant difference (p= 0.500) between the genders. Pneumonia was detected in 150 (43.8%) of 339 patients who underwent thorax computed tomography. In the univariate analysis; advanced age (p<0.001, odds ratio (OR)= 1.44), obesity (p<0.001 OR= 2.5), not being actively smoking (p<0.001, OR= 6.19), fever at first admission (p= 0.002, OR= 2.02), cough (p<0.001, OR= 3.26), shortness of breath (p<0.001, OR= 23.37), weakness (p= 0.042, OR= 1.63), anorexia (p= 0.009, OR= 1.79) and elevation of D-dimer (p= 0.014, OR= 1.92) were associated with the development of pneumonia. In multivariate analysis, obesity (p= 0.005, OR= 2.69), not being actively smoking (p<0.001, OR= 5.43), cough at first admission p= 0.017, OR= 2.16) and shortness of breath (p= 0.008, OR= 16.22) was determined as an independent risk factor for the development of pneumonia. CRP (p<0.001), D-dimer (p<0.001), ferritin (p<0.001) values among 108 (26.1%) patients with a body-mass index(BMI) >30 were high, and 60.9% of the patients had pneumonia (p<0.001) . CRP (p<0.001), D-dimer (p= 0.010) values were low, lymphocyte count (p= 0.001) was high among 106 (25.6%) active smokers, and 15.6% of the patients had pneumonia (p<0.001). Of the patients reported with persistent symptoms, 25.9% had loss of smell, 25% had weakness, and 23.1% had loss of taste on the seventh day; 21.1% had loss of smell, 21.1% had myalgia, and 19.7% had loss of taste on the 14th day. During their follow-up, the COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was studied in 286 patients for control purposes. The median time of being negative for COVID-19 PCR test was eight days (3-56). In conclusion, symptoms may last longer than 14 days in 20- 30% of patients presenting with mild-moderate clinical findings. In addition, obesity should be considered as an important risk factor for COVID-19 pneumonia.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156968

RESUMO

We investigated the cases with Aeromonas bacteremia in terms of clinical and microbiological characteristics, underlying disease and mortality rates. Patients with positive blood cultures were included in this research. Aeromonas bacteremia was diagnosed as at least one positive blood culture for Aeromonas species. The bacteremia was defined as community origin if the onset was in the community or within 72 hours of hospital admission. The others were considered as nosocomial. All bacteria were defined as Aeromonas with conventional method. Species identification was verified by VITEK system. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were analyzed with the disc diffusion, E-test method or VITEK system. Thirty-three patients were diagnosed with bacteremia due to Aeromonas spp. Hematologic and solid tumors were the leading underlying conditions, followed by cirrhosis. Two patients (6%) had community-acquired infections. Aeromonas hydrophila was the most common isolated bacterium. The crude mortality rate was 36%. 12 patients died and 6 deaths and 4 deaths were detected in patients with bacteremia caused by A. hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria respectively. All strains were resistant to ampicillin and more than 90% of the strains were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolone, third generation cephalosporins, and carbapenems. Aeromonas sp. is not a frequent cause of bacteremia however, it may lead to high mortality rates, especially in the immunocompromised hosts and patients with liver cirrhosis. Nosocomial Aeromonas bacteremia is not uncommon in these populations. Broad-spectrum cephalosporins, piperacillin-tazobactam, fluoroquinolones, and carbapenems remain as effective antimicrobial agents for therapy of Aeromonas bacteremia.

5.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(8): 1429-1440, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109466

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess antibody response to inactivated COVID-19 vaccine in patients with immune-mediated diseases (IMD) among hospital workers and people aged 65 and older. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we studied 82 hospital workers with IMD (mean age: 42.2 ± 10.0 years) and 300 (mean age: 41.7 ± 9.9 years) controls. Among + 65 aged population, we studied 22 (mean age: 71.4 ± 4.5 years) patients and 47 controls (mean age: 70.9 ± 4.8 years). All study subjects had a negative history for COVID-19. Sera were obtained after at least 21 days following the second vaccination. Anti-spike IgG antibody titers were measured quantitatively using a commercially available immunoassay method. RESULTS: Patients with IMD were significantly less likely to have detectable antibodies than healthy controls both among the hospital workers (92.7% vs 99.7%, p < 0.001) and elderly population (77.3% vs 97.9%, p = 0.011). Among patients with IMD, those using immunosuppressive or immune-modulating drugs (64/75, 85.3%) were significantly less likely to have detectable antibodies compared to those off treatment (29/29, 100%) (p = 0.029). Additionally, a negative association between age and the antibody titer categories among patients (r = - 0.352; p < 0.001) and controls (r = - 0.258; p < 0.001) were demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospital workers, the vast majority of patients with IMD and immunocompetent controls developed a significant humoral response following the administration of the second dose of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. This was also true for the elderly population, albeit with lower antibody titers. Immunosuppressive use, particularly rituximab significantly reduced antibody titers. Antibody titers were significantly lower among those aged ≥ 60 years both in patient and control populations. Whether these individuals should get a booster dose warrants further studies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Vacinação em Massa , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/sangue , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/diagnóstico , Esquemas de Imunização , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Turquia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
6.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(10): 2161-2170, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963928

RESUMO

Mortality due to K. pneumoniae bacteremia is on rise, particularly in regions with high rates of carbapenem and colistin resistance. We aimed to define risk factors for colistin resistance and its impact on mortality. Patients diagnosed with "carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKp)" bacteremia between 2014 and 2018 were divided into two groups as "colistin susceptible (ColS)" and "colistin resistant (ColR)" based on broth microdilution method. Retrospective case-control study was conducted to compare characteristics and outcomes. Multiple logistic regression model was used to define independent risk factors for acquired colistin resistance and Cox proportional hazard model for 28-day mortality. A total of 82 patients (39 ColS and 43 ColR) were included. Mean age was 61.5 years, and 50 (61%) were male. Colistin resistance was significantly increased with duration of hospital stay (p = 0.007) and prior colistin use (p = 0.007). Overall, the 28-day mortality rate was 66%. Age (p = 0.014) and colistin resistance significantly increased 28-day (p = 0.009) mortality. Microbiological response to treatment within 7 days favors survival. PFGE analysis revealed an outbreak with K. pneumoniae ST78 and ST45 clones. Patients treated with combined antimicrobials had significantly lower 28-day mortality (p = 0.045) in comparison to monotherapy. However, types of combinations did not show significant superiority on each other. Colistin resistance increases 28-day mortality in CRKp bacteremia. Although combined regimens are more effective than monotherapy, existing antibacterial combinations have no apparent superiority to each other. New treatment options are pivotal.

7.
Turk J Gastroenterol ; 32(2): 155-163, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir-based therapies in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in real-world clinical practice. METHODS: Data from patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with SOF/LDV ± RBV or SOF/RBV in 31 centers across Turkey between April 1, 2017, and August 31, 2018, were recorded in a nationwide database among infectious disease specialists. Demographics, clinical, and virological outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 552 patients were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 51.28 ± 14.2, and 293 (55.8%) were female. The majority had HCV genotype 1b infection (65%), 75.04% of the patients underwent treatment, and non-cirrhosis was present at baseline in 381 patients (72.6%). SOF/LDV ± RBV treatment was given to 477 patients and 48 patients received SOF/RBV according to HCV genotype. The total SVR12 rate was 99% in all patients. Five patients experienced disease relapse during the study and all of them were genotype 2. In patients infected with HCV GT2, SVR12 was 77.3%. SVR was 100% in all patients infected with other HCV genotypes. All treatments were well tolerated by patients without causing severe adverse events. Side effects and side effects-associated treatment discontinuation rates were 28.2% and 0.4%, respectively. Weakness (13.7%) was the common side effect. CONCLUSION: The present real-world data of 525 patients with HCV genotypes 1, 1a, 1b, 3, 4, and 5 who underwent SOF/LDV ± RBV treatment in Turkey demonstrated a high efficacy and safety profile. HCV GT2 patients should be treated with more efficacious treatment.

8.
Int J Low Extrem Wounds ; : 15347346211004141, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856261

RESUMO

We aimed to determine pathogen microorganisms, their antimicrobial resistance patterns, and the effect of initial treatment on clinical outcomes in patients with diabetic foot infection (DFI). Patients with DFI from 5 centers were included in this multicenter observational prospective study between June 2018 and June 2019. Multivariate analysis was performed for the predictors of reinfection/death and major amputation. A total of 284 patients were recorded. Of whom, 193 (68%) were male and the median age was 59.9 ± 11.3 years. One hundred nineteen (41.9%) patients had amputations, as the minor (n = 83, 29.2%) or major (n = 36, 12.7%). The mortality rate was 1.7% with 4 deaths. A total of 247 microorganisms were isolated from 200 patients. The most common microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus (n = 36, 14.6%) and Escherichia coli (n = 32, 13.0%). Methicillin resistance rates were 19.4% and 69.6% in S aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., respectively. Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected in 4 of 22 (18.2%) isolates. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacteria were detected in 20 (38.5%) isolates of E coli (14 of 32) and Klebsiella spp. (6 of 20). When the initial treatment was inappropriate, Klebsiella spp. related reinfection within 1 to 3 months was observed more frequently. Polymicrobial infection (p = .043) and vancomycin treatment (p = .007) were independent predictors of reinfection/death. Multivariate analysis revealed vascular insufficiency (p = .004), hospital readmission (p = .009), C-reactive protein > 130 mg/dL (p = .007), and receiving carbapenems (p = .005) as independent predictors of major amputation. Our results justify the importance of using appropriate narrow-spectrum empirical antimicrobials because higher rates of reinfection and major amputation were found even in the use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials.

9.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 133(13-14): 647-653, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914152

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to determine the contribution of quantitative HBsAg in differentiating chronic infections from chronic hepatitis in HBeAg negative patients with HBV DNA 2000-20,000 IU/ml. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 79 untreated HBeAg negative patients were included. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on HBV DNA levels: group 1 (HBV DNA ≤ 2000 IU/ml), group 2 (HBV DNA: 2000-20,000 IU/ml) and group 3 (HBV DNA > 20,000 IU/ml). We collected serum from all patients for quantitative HBsAg analysis. We compared serum quantitative HBsAg levels with biochemical parameters, HBV DNA and liver biopsy results. RESULTS: In this study 46 patients were female and the mean age was 42 years. Serum quantitative HBsAg levels were found to be significantly lower in chronic infections compared with chronic hepatitis. There was a positive correlation between quantitative HBsAg and HBV DNA, ALT (alanine aminotransferase), HAI score (histological activity index), fibrosis score and disease stage. The cut-off level of quantitative HBsAg was determined as 4425 IU/ml to differentiate chronic infection from chronic hepatitis. With the test specificity of 95%, we found quantitative HBsAg cut-off values 1026 IU/ml and 20,346 IU/ml for the diagnosis of chronic infection and chronic hepatitis, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that the quantitative HBsAg ≤ 1000 IU/ml limit value might be used for the diagnosis of chronic infection not only in HBV DNA ≤ 2000 IU/ml but also in patients with HBV DNA between 2000-20,000 IU/ml. In addition, antiviral treatment could be considered in patients with quantitative HBsAg > 20,000 IU/ml and HBV DNA > 2000 IU/ml without further examinations such as liver biopsy.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Antígenos E da Hepatite B , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos
10.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(2): 325-333, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935158

RESUMO

Candidemia is a nosocomial infection mostly found in critically ill patients. Our objectives were to evaluate the change in distribution and resistance profile of Candida spp. isolated from candidemic patients in our intensive care unit over two 5-year periods spanning 15 years and to evaluate the risk factors. Records from the microbiology laboratory were obtained, from January 2004 to December 2008 and from January 2013 to December 2017, retrospectively. Antifungal susceptibility was performed by E-test and evaluated according to EUCAST breakpoints. A total of 210 candidemia cases occurred; 238 Candida spp. were isolated in 197 patients (58.8% male; mean age, 59.2 ± 19.6 years). The most predominant risk factor was central venous catheter use. Species distribution rates were 32%, 28%, 17%, and 11% for C. albicans (n = 76), C. parapsilosis (n = 67), C. glabrata (n = 40), and C. tropicalis (n = 27), respectively. Resistance rate to anidulafungin was high in C. parapsilosis over both periods and increased to 73% in the second period. Fluconazole showed a remarkable decrease for susceptibility in C. parapsilosis (94 to 49%). The prevalence of MDR C. parapsilosis (6%/33%) and C. glabrata (0%/44%) increased in the second period. We observed a predominance of non-albicans Candida spp., with C. parapsilosis being the most frequent and C. glabrata infections presenting with the highest mortality. High level of echinocandin resistance in C. parapsilosis and increasing prevalences of MDR C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata seem emerging challenges in our institution.

11.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 133(9-10): 478-483, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910333

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to determine the proportion of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) colonized patients among all inpatients who later developed VRE bacteremia during hospital stay and to identify the risk factors for VRE bacteremia at a tertiary hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with positive rectal screening or any clinically significant positive culture results for VRE were included in 1­year follow-up. Colonization with VRE was defined as a positive culture (rectal, stool, urinary) for VRE without infection and VRE bacteremia was defined as positive blood culture if the signs and symptoms were compatible with infection. To determine the risk factors for VRE bacteremia among VRE colonized patients, a retrospective case control study was performed. The two groups were compared in terms of variables previously defined as risk factors in the literature. RESULTS: Of 947 positive samples, 17 VRE bacteremia were included in the analysis. Cephalosporin use for more than 3 days within 3 months was a significant risk factor for bacteremia (p = 0.008). Prior use of carbapenems was found to be statistically significant for bacteremia (p = 0.007). In multivariate analyses the use of carbapenems and cephalosporins was an independent risk factor for developing bacteremia among VRE colonizers (odds ratio, OR, 6.67; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.30-34; p = 0.022 and OR 4.32, 95% CI 1.23-15; p = 0.022, respectively). CONCLUSION: A VRE colonization in patients receiving broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics including carbapenems and cephalosporins may result in bacteremia. It is possible to keep mortality at very low levels in VRE bacteremia with effective infection control measures, rapid infectious diseases consultation and rational antimicrobial treatment based on current epidemiological data.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Vancomicina , Resistência a Vancomicina
12.
Tuberk Toraks ; 68(3): 305-320, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295729

RESUMO

Pneumococcal infections are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in Chronic Lung Diseases. However, exacerbations, which make the treatment of diseases very difficult, and corticosteroids used during treatment carry a great risk of pneumococcal infection and adversely affect the treatment. The most rational way to reduce the negative impact of pneumococcal infections on the clinical and economic burden of Chronic Lung Diseases is vaccination of the risky population. Although, vaccination recommendations are well defined, recommended by national and international guidelines and are paid by health authorities, in Turkey, vaccination rates in adults with chronic lung disease is far below the expected. Since physicians are considered to be the most important and reliable resource that can guide their patients in vaccination, applying pneumococcal vaccination routinely in all patients with chronic lung diagnosis and making it a part of daily practice will greatly contribute to reducing the clinical and economic burden of pneumococcal infections in these patients. In this review, the effects of pneumococcal diseases on chronic lung diseases, the risk and clinical burden of pneumococcal diseases in chronic lung diseases are discussed in the light of guidelines and current literature, and the importance of protection from pneumonia in these patients is emphasized. In addition to general information and efficacy data about pneumococcal vaccines available in our country, application methods and access routes to vaccines are also described.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/normas , Médicos de Atenção Primária/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Turquia
13.
Ann Hematol ; 99(8): 1925-1932, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564194

RESUMO

Antimicrobial stewardship is of major importance in patients with febrile neutropenia (FN). In this study, we aimed to investigate the trends in resistance and the relationship with mortality rates in patients with FN. The single-center surveillance data of inpatients with FN and diagnosed as microbiologically confirmed bloodstream infections (BSIs) between 2006 and 2016 were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 950 episodes in 552 patients with BSIs were analyzed. Of whom, 55.9% were male, the median age was 43 years, and 35.6% had acute myeloid leukemia. In total, 1016 microorganisms were isolated from blood cultures. Gram-negatives accounted for 42.4% (n = 403) of the episodes. Among Gram-negatives, Enterobacteriaceae accounted for 346 (86%) (E. coli, n = 197; 34% extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBL) producers, and Klebsiella spp., n = 120; 48.3% ESBL producers). Also, 24 (20.0%) of Klebsiella spp. had carbapenemase activity. There were 6 (5.0%) colistin-resistant Klebsiella spp. Thirteen (26.5%) of Pseudomonas spp. and 17 (60.7%) of Acinetobacter spp. had carbapenemase activity. There were 2 (5.6%) colistin-resistant Acinetobacter spp. The 30-day mortality rates were 12.0%, 21.5%, 34.6%, and 29.0% in BSIs due to Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacterial, fungal, and polymicrobial etiology respectively (p = 0.001). BSIs with ESBL-producing (p = 0.001) isolates, carbapenem (p < 0.001), and colistin-resistant isolates (p < 0.001) were associated with increased mortality risk. The tremendous rise in resistance rates among Gram-negatives is dreadfully related to increasing mortality and leads to sharp shifts toward extreme restrictions of unnecessary antibiotic uses. Antimicrobial stewardship in patients with FN requires vigilance and tailoring of treatment upon local surveillance data.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Neutropenia Febril , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Neutropenia Febril/sangue , Neutropenia Febril/tratamento farmacológico , Neutropenia Febril/microbiologia , Neutropenia Febril/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/classificação , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/sangue , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/mortalidade , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/sangue , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/microbiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 13(6): 515-520, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307915

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess diabetic patients' knowledge and practices regarding foot care. METHODS: This study was conducted as a cross-sectional study in 1030 patients between November 2017 and February 2018.The descriptive survey instrument was developed by the investigators. Survey content and format were based on prior surveys and guidelines. The survey sought socio-demographic characteristics of the patients and the level of knowledge about diabetic foot care practice. RESULTS: 29.5% of patients had bad foot care, 49.6% of patients had moderate foot care and 20.8% of patients had good foot care. There were no significant differences between patient groups in regard to age, gender, foot infection history and having undergone amputation surgery. We found that patients who good at foot care had higher education status (p<0.001), were more likely live in a city (p<0.001), had higher income (p<0.001), had been trained about foot care (p<0.001) and were more likely to have type I DM (p=0.015). Disease duration was longer in those who had good foot care compared to the other groups (p=0.010). CONCLUSIONS: The mean knowledge and practice scores of our patients were moderate, indicating that much is to be done for the education of patients on this matter. We also found that knowledge about the importance of this practice, education status and disease duration had significant influence on the practice of foot-care in patients with DM.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Pé Diabético/terapia , Autocuidado/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Pé Diabético/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 13(7): 649-655, 2019 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065823

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The frequency, causality, severity, preventability and risk factors of ADRs (adverse drug reactions) in infectious disease units are not well defined in the literature. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of the ADRs encountered in an infectious disease unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. METHODOLOGY: The patients who were admitted to the infectious disease unit of a tertiary teaching hospital longer than 24 hours between January and December of 2016 were followed prospectively. Patients were observed and questioned for any sign of ADRs. The proportion of ADRs and patient characteristics were investigated. Causality was evaluated by the Naranjo algorithm, severity was determined using the Hartwig classification, and preventability was assessed using the Schumock and Thornton scale. RESULTS: 210 patients were admitted to the unit during the study period, of whom 44 patients (20.9%) experienced 51 ADRs. 5.9% of ADRs were found to be serious according to the Hartwig severity classification. In addition, 88.1% of ADRs were not preventable. The most frequently detected ADR was skin and subcutaneous tissue reactions (33.3%), and systemic antimicrobials were the most common type of drugs that caused an ADR. Prolonged hospitalization (p < 0.001) and usage of an increased number of drugs (p < 0.001) were found to be significant risk factors for ADR development. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged hospital stay and polypharmacy are significant risk factors that increase the incidence of ADRs in infectious disease units. The likelihood of unavoidable ADRs should arouse the attention of clinicians when prescribing antimicrobials.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Farmacovigilância , Adulto , Idoso , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 70: 10-14, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476898

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We described the clinical outcomes of the diabetic patients who had foot infections with multidrug resistant organisms. METHODS: We included the patients with diabetic foot infections (DFI) from 19 centers, between May 2011 and December 2015. Infection was defined according to IDSA DFI guidelines. Patients with severe infection, complicated moderate infection were hospitalized. The patients were followed-up for 6 months after discharge. RESULTS: In total, 791 patients with DFI were included, 531(67%) were male, median age was 62 (19-90). Severe infection was diagnosed in 85 (11%) patients. Osteomyelitis was diagnosed in 291(36.8%) patients. 536 microorganisms were isolated, the most common microorganisms were S. aureus (20%), P. aeruginosa (19%) and E. coli (12%). Methicillin resistance (MR) rate among Staphylococcus aureus isolates was 31%. Multidrug resistant bacteria were detected in 21% of P. aeruginosa isolates. ESBL (+) Gram negative bacteria (GNB) was detected in 38% of E. coli and Klebsiella isolates. Sixty three patients (8%) were re-hospitalized. Of the 791 patiens, 127 (16%) had major amputation, and 24 (3%) patients died. In multivariate analysis, significant predictors for fatality were; dialysis (OR: 8.3, CI: 1.82-38.15, p=0.006), isolation of Klebsiella spp. (OR:7.7, CI: 1.24-47.96, p=0.028), and chronic heart failure (OR: 3, CI: 1.01-9.04, p=0.05). MR Staphylococcus was detected in 21% of the rehospitalized patients, as the most common microorganism (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Among rehospitalized patients, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus infections was detected as the most common agent, and Klebsiella spp. infections were found to be significantly associated with fatality.


Assuntos
Amputação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pé Diabético/microbiologia , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/fisiologia , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Pé Diabético/fisiopatologia , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteomielite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteomielite/fisiopatologia , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Int J Clin Pract ; 72(3): e13060, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29381248

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to determine significant risk factors for biofilm production and to investigate the association between antimicrobial resistance profile and biofilm formation in the bacterial isolates obtained from patients with diabetic foot infection (DFI). METHODS: Demographic, clinical, laboratory and outcome data of 165 patients, prospectively recorded and followed between January 2008 and December 2015 by a multidisciplinary committee, were analysed. Standard microbiological methods were adopted. Risk factors associated with biofilm were determined by univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The overall rate of biofilm production among 339 wound isolates was 34%. The biofilm production rate was significantly higher in Gram-negative micro-organisms (39%) in comparison with Gram positives (21%) (P = .01). A. baumannii presented the highest biofilm production (62%), followed by P. aeruginosa (52%) and Klebsiella spp. (40%). On univariate analysis, significant factors associated with biofilm were antibiotic use within last 3 months (OR:2.94, CI: 1.5-5.75, P = .002), recurrent DFI within last 6 months (OR:2.35, CI: 1.23-4.53, P = .01), hospitalisation within last 3 months due to ipsilateral recurrent DFI (OR:2.44, CI: 1.06-5.58, P = .03), presence of amputation history (OR: 2.20, CI: 1.14-4.24, P = .01), multidrug-resistant (MDR) micro-organism (OR: 7.76, CI: 4.53-13.35, P<.001) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) micro-organism (OR:11.33, CI:4.97-26.55, P<.001). Multivariate regression analysis revealed two variables to be significant factors associated with biofilm: MDR micro-organism (OR: 3.63, CI: 1.58-8.33, P = .002) and XDR micro-organism (OR:4.06, CI: 1.25-13.1, P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Multi/extensive drug resistance and previous recurrent DFIs were significantly associated with biofilm formation in patients with diabetic foot.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Pé Diabético/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 6: 44-49, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27530838

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological and molecular features of clinical meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates in Turkey. MRSA isolates were collected from six regions of Turkey. The mecA and nuc genes were detected by PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by the disk diffusion method. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing were performed by the sequencing method for 270 randomly selected MRSA isolates. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definition was used for epidemiological diagnosis of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). Resistance rates of MRSA to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, clindamycin, erythromycin, rifampicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline were 93.4%, 81.2%, 38.5%, 57.8%, 93.9%, 1.1% and 93.1%, respectively. The most frequent SCCmec type was SCCmec III (91.1%). SCCmec type IV was found in 5.2% of the isolates. The most frequent spa type was t030 (81.1%). Five isolates were CA-MRSA if only the epidemiological definition was used (5/725; 0.7%). Two isolates were defined as CA-MRSA both by epidemiological features and SCCmec typing (2/270; 0.7%). Of 14 SCCmec type IV isolates, 12 were not defined as CA-MRSA by epidemiological features. In conclusion, this is the most comprehensive multicentre study in Turkey investigating MRSA using both epidemiological and genotypic features. The CA-MRSA rate is low in Turkey. Combined use of epidemiological and genotypic methods is the most accurate approach for the diagnosis of CA-MRSA.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Infecção Hospitalar , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Turquia
19.
Balkan Med J ; 33(1): 18-26, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26966614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Before the introduction of direct-acting antivirals in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C patients, the combination of peginterferon alpha and ribavirin was the standard therapy. Observational studies that investigated sustained virological response (SVR) rates by these drugs yielded different outcomes. AIMS: The goal of the study was to demonstrate real life data concerning SVR rate achieved by peginterferon alpha plus ribavirin in patients who were treatment-naïve. STUDY DESIGN: A multicenter, retrospective observational study. METHODS: The study was conducted retrospectively on 1214 treatment naïve-patients, being treated with peginterferon alpha-2a or 2b plus ribavirin in respect of the current guidelines between 2005 and 2013. The patients' data were collected from 22 centers via a standard form, which has been prepared for this study. The data included demographic and clinical characteristics (gender, age, body weight, initial Hepatitis C virus RNA (HCV RNA) level, disease staging) as well as course of treatment (duration of treatment, outcomes, discontinuations and adverse events). Renal insufficiency, decompensated liver disease, history of transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy or autoimmune liver disease were exclusion criteria for the study. Treatment efficacy was assessed according to the patient's demographic characteristics, baseline viral load, genotype, and fibrosis scores. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 50.74 (±0.64) years. Most of them were infected with genotype 1 (91.8%). SVR was achieved in 761 (62.7%) patients. SVR rate was 59.1% in genotype 1, 89.4% in genotype 2, 93.8% in genotype 3, and 33.3% in genotype 4 patients. Patients with lower viral load yielded higher SVR (65.8% vs. 58.4%, p=0.09). SVR rates according to histologic severity were found to be 69.3%, 66.3%, 59.9%, 47.3%, and 45.5% in patients with fibrosis stage 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The predictors of SVR were male gender, genotype 2/3, age less than 45 years, low fibrosis stage, low baseline viral load and presence of early virological response. SVR rates to each peginterferon were found to be similar in genotype 1/4 although SVR rates were found to be higher for peginterferon alpha-2b in patients with genotype 2/3. The number of patients who failed to complete treatment due to adverse effects was 33 (2.7%). The number of patients failed to complete treatment due to adverse effects was 33 (2.7%). CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that the rate of SVR to dual therapy was higher in treatment-naïve Turkish patients than that reported in randomized controlled trials. Also peginterferon alpha-2a and alpha-2b were found to be similar in terms of SVR in genotype 1 patients.

20.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 49(2): 289-94, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23751767

RESUMO

Simultaneous central nervous system (CNS) infection with Cryptococcus and tuberculosis (TB) is very rare. Despite improved therapeutic options, treatment of CNS cryptococcosis is still difficult and needs invasive treatment modalities, such as intrathecal or intraventricular amphotericin B, in refractory cases. We describe a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus diagnosed with simultaneous cryptococcal and TB meningitis who had a poor response to intravenous liposomal amphotericin B and fluconazole, but was successfully treated with intraventricular amphotericin B, in addition to anti-TB therapy.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Meningite Criptocócica/complicações , Meningite Criptocócica/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Meníngea/complicações , Tuberculose Meníngea/diagnóstico , Administração Intravenosa , Anfotericina B/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Fluconazol/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Infusões Intraventriculares , Meningite Criptocócica/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Meníngea/patologia
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