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1.
BMJ ; 367: l6131, 2019 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748223

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if induction of labour at 41 weeks improves perinatal and maternal outcomes in women with a low risk pregnancy compared with expectant management and induction of labour at 42 weeks. DESIGN: Multicentre, open label, randomised controlled superiority trial. SETTING: 14 hospitals in Sweden, 2016-18. PARTICIPANTS: 2760 women with a low risk uncomplicated singleton pregnancy randomised (1:1) by the Swedish Pregnancy Register. 1381 women were assigned to the induction group and 1379 were assigned to the expectant management group. INTERVENTIONS: Induction of labour at 41 weeks and expectant management and induction of labour at 42 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was a composite perinatal outcome including one or more of stillbirth, neonatal mortality, Apgar score less than 7 at five minutes, pH less than 7.00 or metabolic acidosis (pH <7.05 and base deficit >12 mmol/L) in the umbilical artery, hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy, intracranial haemorrhage, convulsions, meconium aspiration syndrome, mechanical ventilation within 72 hours, or obstetric brachial plexus injury. Primary analysis was by intention to treat. RESULTS: The study was stopped early owing to a significantly higher rate of perinatal mortality in the expectant management group. The composite primary perinatal outcome did not differ between the groups: 2.4% (33/1381) in the induction group and 2.2% (31/1379) in the expectant management group (relative risk 1.06, 95% confidence interval 0.65 to 1.73; P=0.90). No perinatal deaths occurred in the induction group but six (five stillbirths and one early neonatal death) occurred in the expectant management group (P=0.03). The proportion of caesarean delivery, instrumental vaginal delivery, or any major maternal morbidity did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study comparing induction of labour at 41 weeks with expectant management and induction at 42 weeks does not show any significant difference in the primary composite adverse perinatal outcome. However, a reduction of the secondary outcome perinatal mortality is observed without increasing adverse maternal outcomes. Although these results should be interpreted cautiously, induction of labour ought to be offered to women no later than at 41 weeks and could be one (of few) interventions that reduces the rate of stillbirths. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN26113652.


Assuntos
Idade Gestacional , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Conduta Expectante/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/etiologia , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia , Nascimento a Termo
2.
Midwifery ; 79: 102547, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610362

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare childbirth experiences between women having a waterbirth and women having an uncomplicated conventional birth. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study using the validated Childbirth Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) six weeks postpartum. The 22-item questionnaire assesses four domains of the childbirth experience; Own capacity, Professional support, Perceived safety and Participation. These four domains constituted the main outcome of the study. Further, supplementary questions about the second stage of labour were added to the web-questionnaire. SETTING: One city-located hospital in Stockholm and one small-town hospital in Southern Sweden offering waterbirth to low risk women. PARTICIPANTS: 215 women; 99 nulli- and 116 multiparas. 111 gave birth in water and 104 had an uncomplicated conventional birth. MEASUREMENTS AND FINDINGS: The total CEQ score did not differ between the groups, while women having a waterbirth scored significantly higher in the domain, "Own capacity" and lower in the domain, "Professional support". Women having a waterbirth rated less pain and higher scores of being in control in the second stage of labour. KEY CONCLUSIONS: A waterbirth seems to empower and enhance women's capacity for those who choose this alternative. Waterbirth can improve their birth experience and can possibly make women less dependent on the midwife. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: To provide waterbirth could be a way of empowering women and giving them a positive birth experience.

3.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573669

RESUMO

MM-ARG, the Swedish maternal maternity mortality group within SFOG (Swedish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology) has, since 2008, surveyed and analysed maternal deaths in Sweden with the aim to find and give feedback on lessons learned to the medical professions.  MM-ARG consists of obstetricians, midwives and anesthetists and the strength of the working model is that the profession itself takes responsibility for the scrutiny.  A summary of 67 known maternal deaths from 2007‒2017 is presented. Direct causes of death are dominated by hypertensive disease/preeclampsia, followed by thromboembolic disease, sepsis and obstetric bleeding. Indirect death, where a known or unknown underlying disease is exacerbated by pregnancy, is dominated by cardiovascular disease. This review shows that the diagnostics and clinical management could be improved. Besides obstetrics/gynecology, maternal mortality affects other specialties and thus holds important lessons to many.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Materna , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Morte Materna , Transtornos Mentais/mortalidade , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/mortalidade , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Pré-Eclâmpsia/mortalidade , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/mortalidade , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez/mortalidade , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Sociedades Médicas , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suécia/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/mortalidade , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle
4.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593290

RESUMO

Due to a low level of understanding of mechanisms involved in spontaneous preterm delivery there is a lack of reliable biomarkers. Existing biomarkers have a low positive predictive value but a high negative predictive value. Use of tests with high negative predictive value will reduce unnecessary interventions and hospitalization of women with threatening preterm delivery. When given to the right pregnant women, antenatal corticosteroid treatment are still the most important obstetrical intervention and reduces both neonatal mortality and short- and long-term morbidity.Several ongoing national Swedish multicenter studies may increase the understanding of the roles of cervical length, preeclampsia screening and magnesium sulfate dosage in the context of preterm delivery in a Nordic setting. Major development has been achieved in prediction and prevention of preterm preeclampsia at the cost of a 10% screen positive rate.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/análise , Cerclagem Cervical , Medida do Comprimento Cervical , Colo do Útero/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Fibronectinas/análise , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Sulfato de Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Pessários , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Nascimento Prematuro/terapia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Suécia , Tocolíticos/administração & dosagem
5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13101, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511586

RESUMO

To evaluate associations between maternal anxiety or depression and adverse pregnancy outcomes, taking possible familial confounding and interaction with asthma into account, we conducted a cohort study of all singleton births in Sweden 2001-2013. We retrieved information about pregnancy, diagnoses of anxiety/depression, asthma, and prescribed medication from the Swedish Medical Birth, National Patient, and Prescribed Drug Registers. We estimated associations with regression models, performed cousin and sibling comparisons, and calculated interactions. In 950 301 identified pregnancies; 5.9% had anxiety/depression and 4.0% had asthma. Anxiety/depression was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes (e.g. preeclampsia, adjusted Odds Ratio 1.17 (95% Confidence Interval 1.12, 1.22), instrumental delivery (1.14 (1.10, 1.18)), elective (1.62 (1.57, 1.68)) and emergency (1.32 (1.28, 1.35)) caesarean section (CS)). Their children had lower birth weight (-54 g (-59, -49)) and shorter gestational age (-0.29 weeks (-0.31, -0.28)). Associations were not confounded by familial factors and asthma did not modify the effect of anxiety/depression for outcomes other than elective CS, p < 0.001. In women with anxiety/depression diagnosis, untreated women had higher odds of elective CS compared to women on medication (1.30 (1.17, 1.43)). In conclusion, anxiety/depression should be considered when evaluating pregnant women's risk of complications such as preeclampsia and non-vaginal deliveries.

6.
Women Birth ; 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For women with low risk births, waterbirth is an alternative that is requested and provided in approximately a hundred countries. However, in some countries, including Sweden, waterbirth is not generally available. AIM: To explore the experiences, knowledge and attitudes regarding waterbirth among midwives, obstetricians/gynaecologists and neonatologists. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Sweden, using a web-based survey distributed via The Swedish Association of Midwives and the Heads of department of all Swedish maternity wards between April and June 2016. The respondents (n = 1609) answered a combination of Likert-scale and open-ended questions. The responses were analysed with descriptive statistics and quantitative content analyses. FINDINGS: Both midwives and physicians stated a lack of experience, knowledge and clinical guidelines related to attending and assisting waterbirths. Overall, midwives had more positive attitudes to waterbirth (38.8% vs 4.5%) as well as towards providing and implementing waterbirth, compared to physicians (71.0% vs 14.9%). Midwives stated significantly more benefits and fewer risks for women and babies, compared to physicians who requested more evidence. CONCLUSIONS: Opinions regarding waterbirth are to some extent based on attitudes rather than actual experience and knowledge. There are diverse interpretations of the strength of evidence and a lack of updating in the research field of waterbirth. As waterbirth is requested by women, health professionals need to update their knowledge in this topic in order to give coherent and evidence-based information and care to prospective parents.

7.
Midwifery ; 67: 26-31, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30223104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe women´s experiences and perceptions of giving birth in water. DESIGN: A qualitative study with in-depth interviews three to five months after the birth. A content analysis of the interviews was made. SETTING: One city-located hospital in Stockholm, offering waterbirth to low risk women. PARTICIPANTS: 20 women, 12 primiparas and 8 multiparas, aged 27-39. MEASUREMENTS AND FINDINGS: The overall theme emerging from the analysis was, "Like an empowering micro-home", which describes the effect of being strengthened, enabled and authorized in the birth process. Three categories were found: "Synergy between body and mind", "Privacy and discretion", and "Natural and pleasant". KEY CONCLUSIONS: The immersion in warm water provided the women with conditions that helped them to cope and feel confident during labour and birth. The homelike and limited space of a bathtub helped give a relaxed feeling of privacy, safety, control and focus for the women. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This study contributes to a deeper understanding of what waterbirth offers to women. For some women, waterbirth may be a way to accomplish an empowering and positive birth experience, and could work as a tool that preserves the normality of, and increases self-efficacy in, childbirth.


Assuntos
Mães/psicologia , Parto Normal , Adulto , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Gravidez , Suécia
8.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 97(12): 1524-1529, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30132803

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to consult women on best mode of delivery after a first cesarean section, more knowledge regarding risk for a repeat unplanned cesarean is needed. We investigated the association between indication of first cesarean and cervical dilation during labor preceding the first cesarean and risk of repeat cesarean in women undergoing trial of labor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A population-based cohort study using electronic medical records of all women delivering in the Stockholm-Gotland region, Sweden, between 2008 and 2014. The population consisted of 3116 women with a first cesarean undergoing a trial of labor with a singleton infant in cephalic presentation at ≥37 weeks of gestation. Relative risks (RR) with 95% CI were estimated using Poisson regression analyses. RESULTS: Women with a first unplanned cesarean had higher risk of repeat cesarean compared with women with elective first cesarean (35.7% vs 20.7%, adjusted RR 1.64, 95% CI 1.43-1.89). In women with a cesarean due to dystocia, increasing cervical dilation in first labor decreased the risk of repeat cesarean in second labor. The adjusted RR of repeat cesarean was 2.48 with dilation ≤5 cm, 1.98 with dilation 6-10 cm, and 1.46 if fully dilated. CONCLUSIONS: Almost 70% of all women eligible for trial of labor after cesarean had a vaginal birth, even women with a history of labor dystocia had a good chance of success. A greater cervical dilation in the first delivery ending with a cesarean was not in vain, since the chance of vaginal birth in the subsequent delivery increased with greater dilation.


Assuntos
Recesariana/estatística & dados numéricos , Prova de Trabalho de Parto , Nascimento Vaginal Após Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Primeira Fase do Trabalho de Parto , Distribuição de Poisson , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 6(3): 916-922.e6, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28988783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is associated with several adverse pregnancy and perinatal outcomes. Familial factors may confound these associations. OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of measured and unmeasured confounding by conducting a study that compared differentially exposed cousins and siblings from the same families. METHODS: We retrieved data on adverse pregnancy outcomes, prescribed drugs, and physician-diagnosed asthma from nationwide registers for all women in Sweden with singleton births between 2001 and 2013. Logistic and linear regression estimated the association between maternal asthma and several outcomes in the whole population and within differently exposed pregnant relatives. RESULTS: In total, 1,075,153 eligible pregnancies were included and 10.1% of the study population had asthma. We identified 475,200 cousin and 341,205 sister pregnancies. Women with asthma had increased risks for preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.17; 95% CI, 1.13-1.21), emergency cesarean section (aOR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.22-1.27), and having a child small for gestational age (aOR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.12-1.23). In the conditional regression analyses, after adjustment for familial factors, the associations remained: preeclampsia in cousins (aOR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.07-1.25) and siblings (aOR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.08-1.38), emergency cesarean section in cousins (aOR, 1.28) and siblings (aOR, 1.21), and small for gestational age in cousins (aOR, 1.17) and siblings (aOR, 1.13). CONCLUSIONS: Factors shared by siblings and cousins do not seem to explain the observed association between maternal asthma and adverse pregnancy outcomes. This implies that targeting the asthma disease will continue to be important in reducing risks for adverse outcomes in pregnancy.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Grupos Populacionais , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
10.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 97(3): 341-348, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29288489

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The literature describes advantages for mothers giving birth in water, but waterbirth is controversial in Sweden and has not been offered at hospitals until recently. This study aimed to describe and compare the characteristics and outcome of waterbirths with those of spontaneous vaginal births at the same clinics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on all waterbirths at two maternity units in Sweden from March 2014 to November 2015 (n = 306), and a consecutively selected comparison group of 306 women having conventional spontaneous vaginal births. Logistic regression was used to analyze the primary outcome; second-degree perineal tears. RESULTS: Women giving birth in water had a lower risk of second-degree perineal tears [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-0.9]). Their labor was shorter (6 h 3 min vs. 7 h 52 min) and there were significantly fewer interventions than in the comparison group; amniotomy (13.7 vs. 35.3%), internal cardiotocography (11.1 vs. 56.8%), and augmentation with oxytocin (5.2 vs. 31.3%). There were no differences in Apgar scores or admissions to neonatal intensive care unit. The experience of childbirth, measured with a numeric rating scale, was higher in the waterbirth group indicating a more positive birth experience. Three newborns born in water had an umbilical cord avulsion. CONCLUSIONS: In this low-risk population, waterbirth is associated with positive effects on perineal tears, the frequency of interventions, the duration of labor and women's birth experience. Midwives handling waterbirth should be aware of the risk of umbilical cord avulsion.


Assuntos
Imersão , Parto Normal/métodos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Períneo/lesões , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Parto Normal/psicologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/etiologia , Satisfação do Paciente , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suécia
11.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 96(9): 1112-1119, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28542709

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite the seriousness of the event, maternal deaths are substantially underreported. There is often a missed opportunity to learn from such tragedies. The aim of the study was to identify maternal deaths in the five Nordic countries, to classify causes of death based on internationally acknowledged criteria, and to identify areas that would benefit from further teaching, training or research to possibly reduce the number of maternal deaths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present data for the years 2005-2013. National audit groups collected data by linkage of registers and direct reporting from hospitals. Each case was then assessed to determine the cause of death, and level of care provided. Potential improvements to care were evaluated. RESULTS: We registered 168 maternal deaths, 90 direct and 78 indirect cases. The maternal mortality ratio was 7.2/100 000 live births ranging from 6.8 to 8.1 between the countries. Cardiac disease (n = 29) was the most frequent cause of death, followed by preeclampsia (n = 24), thromboembolism (n = 20) and suicide (n = 20). Improvements to care which could potentially have made a difference to the outcome were identified in one-third of the deaths, i.e. in as many as 60% of preeclamptic, 45% of thromboembolic, and 32% of the deaths from cardiac disease. CONCLUSION: Direct deaths exceeded indirect maternal deaths in the Nordic countries. To reduce maternal deaths, increased efforts to better implement existing clinical guidelines seem warranted, particularly for preeclampsia, thromboembolism and cardiac disease. More knowledge is also needed about what contributes to suicidal maternal deaths.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Materna , Complicações na Gravidez/mortalidade , Adulto , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Idade Materna , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos/epidemiologia
12.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 96(5): 597-606, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28222233

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cesarean section (CS) rate is a well-established indicator of performance in maternity care and is also related to resource use. Case mix adjustment of CS rates when performing comparisons between hospitals is important. The objective of this study was to estimate case mix adjusted variation in CS rate between hospitals in Sweden. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In total, 139 756 deliveries in 2011 and 2012 were identified in administrative systems in seven regions covering 67% of all deliveries in Sweden. Data were linked to the Medical birth register and population data. Twenty-three different sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were used for adjustment. Analyses were performed for the entire study population as well as for two subgroups. Logistic regression was used to analyze differences between hospitals. RESULTS: The overall CS rate was 16.9% (hospital minimum-maximum 12.1-22.6%). Significant variations in CS rate between hospitals were observed after case mix adjustment: hospital odds ratios for CS varied from 0.62 (95% CI 0.53-0.73) to 1.45 (95% CI 1.37-1.52). In nulliparous, cephalic, full-term, singletons the overall CS rate was 14.3% (hospital minimum-maximum: 9.0-19.0%), whereas it was 4.7% for multiparous, cephalic, full-term, singletons with no previous CS (hospital minimum-maximum: 3.2-6.7%). In both subgroups significant variations were observed in case mix adjusted CS rates. CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences in CS rate between Swedish hospitals were found after adjusting for differences in case mix. This indicates a potential for fewer interventions and lower resource use in Swedish childbirth care. Best practice sharing and continuous monitoring are important tools for improving childbirth care.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Suécia/epidemiologia
13.
J Perinat Med ; 45(3): 321-325, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27089399

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lactate Pro™ (LP1) is the only lactate meter evaluated for fetal scalp blood sampling (FBS) in intrapartum use. The reference values for this meter are: normal value <4.2 mmol/L, preacidemia 4.2-4.8 mmol/L, and acidemia >4.8 mmol/L. The production of this meter has been discontinued. An updated version, Lactate Pro 2TM (LP2), has been launched and is shown to be differently calibrated. The aims of the study were to retrieve a conversion equation to convert lactate values in FBS measured with LP2 to an estimated value if using LP1 and to define reference values for clinical management when using LP2. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted at a university hospital in Sweden. A total of 113 laboring women with fetal heart rate abnormalities on cardiotocography (CTG) had FBS carried out. Lactate concentration was measured bedside with both LP1 and LP2 from the same blood sample capillary. A linear regression model was constructed to retrieve a conversion equation to convert LP2 values to LP1 values. RESULTS: LP2 measured higher values than LP1 in all analyses. We found that 4.2 mmol/L with LP1 corresponded to 6.4 mmol/L with LP2. Likewise, 4.8 mmol/L with LP1 corresponded to 7.3 mmol/L with LP2. The correlation between the analyses was excellent (Spearman's rank correlation, r=0.97). CONCLUSION: We recommend the following guidelines when interpreting lactate concentration in FBS with LP2: <6.4 mmol/L to be interpreted as normal, 6.4-7.3 mmol/L as preacidemia indicating a follow-up FBS within 20-30 min, and >7.3 mmol/L as acidemia indicating intervention.


Assuntos
Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Trabalho de Parto/sangue , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Monitorização Fetal/instrumentação , Monitorização Fetal/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Gravidez , Valores de Referência , Couro Cabeludo/irrigação sanguínea , Suécia
14.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 16(1): 384, 2016 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27923344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retained placenta is associated with severe postpartum hemorrhage. Its etiology is unknown and its biochemistry has not been studied. We aimed to assess whether levels of the antioxidative enzyme Glutathione Peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and the transcription factor Nuclear Factor κß (NFκß), as markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, were affected in retained placentas compared to spontaneously released placentas from otherwise normal full term pregnancies. METHODS: In a pilot study we assessed concentrations of GPX1 by ELISA and gene (mRNA) expression of GPX1, NFκß and its inhibitor Iκßα, by quantitative real-time-PCR in periumbilical and peripheral samples from retained (n = 29) and non-retained (n = 31) placental tissue. RESULTS: Median periumbilical GPX1 concentrations were 13.32 ng/ml in retained placentas and 17.96 ng/ml in non-retained placentas (p = 0.22), peripheral concentrations were 13.27 ng/ml and 19.09 ng/ml (p = 0.08). Retained placental tissue was more likely to have a low GPX1 protein concentration (OR 3.82, p = 0.02 for periumbilical and OR 3.95, p = 0.02 for peripheral samples). Median periumbilical GPX1 gene expressions were 1.13 for retained placentas and 0.88 for non-retained placentas (p = 0.08), peripheral expression was 1.32 and 1.18 (p = 0.46). Gene expressions of NFκß and Iκßα were not significantly different between retained and non-retained placental tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Women with retained placenta were more likely to have a low level of GPX1 protein concentration in placental tissue compared to women without retained placenta and retained placental tissue showed a tendency of lower median concentrations of GPX1 protein expression. This may indicate decreased antioxidative capacity as a component in this disorder but requires a larger sample to corroborate results.


Assuntos
Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Placenta Retida/genética , Placenta Retida/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 16(1): 125, 2016 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27245845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unwarranted variation in care practice and outcomes has gained attention and inter-hospital comparisons are increasingly being used to highlight and understand differences between hospitals. Adjustment for case mix is a prerequisite for meaningful comparisons between hospitals with different patient populations. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify maternal characteristics that impact a set of important indicators of health outcomes, resource use and care process and which could be used for case mix adjustment of comparisons between hospitals. METHODS: In this register-based study, 139 756 deliveries in 2011 and 2012 were identified in regional administrative systems from seven Swedish regions, which together cover 67 % of all deliveries in Sweden. Data were linked to the Medical birth register and Statistics Sweden's population data. A number of important indicators in childbirth care were studied: Caesarean section (CS), induction of labour, length of stay, perineal tears, haemorrhage > 1000 ml and post-partum infections. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics deemed relevant for case mix adjustment of outcomes and resource use were identified based on previous literature and based on clinical expertise. Adjustment using logistic and ordinary least squares regression analysis was performed to quantify the impact of these characteristics on the studied indicators. RESULTS: Almost all case mix factors analysed had an impact on CS rate, induction rate and length of stay and the effect was highly statistically significant for most factors. Maternal age, parity, fetal presentation and multiple birth were strong predictors of all these indicators but a number of additional factors such as born outside the EU, body mass index (BMI) and several complications during pregnancy were also important risk factors. A number of maternal characteristics had a noticeable impact on risk of perineal tears, while the impact of case mix factors was less pronounced for risk of haemorrhage > 1000 ml and post-partum infections. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal characteristics have a large impact on care process, resource use and outcomes in childbirth care. For meaningful comparisons between hospitals and benchmarking, a broad spectrum of sociodemographic and clinical maternal characteristics should be accounted for.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Risco Ajustado/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Apresentação no Trabalho de Parto , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Idade Materna , Paridade , Gravidez , Gravidez Múltipla/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Suécia
17.
Sex Reprod Healthc ; 8: 94-9, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27179384

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this observational study was to describe the obstetric management in vacuum extraction (VE) deliveries and to compare these findings to instructions in clinical guidelines on VE. METHODS: In 2013, detailed data on management of 600 VE cases were consecutively collected from six different delivery units in Sweden. Each unit also contributed their own clinical VE guideline. RESULTS: In total, 93% of the VEs ended with a vaginal delivery while 7% failed and were converted to an emergency cesarean section. In 2.3% extraction time exceeded 20 minutes, and in 6% more than six pulls were used to deliver the fetus. Cup detachment occurred in 14.6%, and fundal pressure was used in 11% of the deliveries. In 2.3%, fetal station was assessed as above the level of the maternal ischial spines. The clinical guidelines on VE varied in scope and content between units, and were often incomplete according to best practice. CONCLUSION: The vast majority of the VEs were conducted in accordance with safety recommendations. However, in a few extractions, safety rules were disregarded and more than six pulls or an extraction time of more than 20 minutes were used to complete the delivery.


Assuntos
Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Vácuo-Extração/normas , Cesárea , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Emergências , Falha de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente , Gravidez , Pressão , Suécia , Vácuo , Vagina
18.
Placenta ; 41: 39-44, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27208406

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Retained placenta is a potentially fatal obstetric disorder due to postpartum hemorrhage, its pathophysiology is however unknown. We aimed to assess if retained placenta was associated with increased macroscopic and histological signs of placental maternal underperfusion, a pattern otherwise seen in preeclampsia and other disorders of defective placentation. METHODS: This was a case-control study of retained (n = 49) and non-retained (n = 47) placentas, collected from full-term singleton and otherwise healthy pregnancies, carried out at a tertiary level obstetric department. Macroscopic and histological analysis was performed. Signs of maternal placental underperfusion and signs of placental inflammation, fetal vascular thrombo-occlusive disease and increased placental attachment were recorded in a primary and secondary analysis respectively. Variables were compared groupwise using unconditional logistic regression or comparison of median or mean values. RESULTS: Compared to non-retained placentas retained placentas had a significantly smaller surface area (p = 0.05), were more oblong in shape (OR 5.24 95% CI:1.34-20.21) and showed overall more signs of maternal underperfusion (OR 2.52 95% CI: 1.07-5.87). There was no significant difference in signs of placental inflammation, fetal vascular thrombo-occlusive disease or placenta accreta but basal plate myometrial fibers were more common among retained placentas. CONCLUSION: In regard to shape, surface area and histological signs of maternal placental underperfusion, retained placentas showed a histological pattern similar to that seen in preeclamptic placentas.


Assuntos
Placenta Retida/patologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Masculino , Miométrio/patologia , Placenta/irrigação sanguínea , Placenta/patologia , Placenta Acreta/patologia , Doenças Placentárias/patologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/patologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 16: 49, 2016 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26951777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational data shows that postterm pregnancy (≥42 gestational weeks, GW) and late term pregnancy (≥41 GW), as compared to term pregnancy, is associated with an increased risk for adverse outcome for the mother and infant. Standard care in many countries is induction of labour at 42 GW. There is insufficient scientific support that induction of labour at 41 GW, as compared with expectant management and induction at 42 GW will reduce perinatal mortality and morbidity without an increase in operative deliveries, negative delivery experiences or higher costs. Large randomised studies are needed since important outcomes; such as perinatal mortality and hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy are rare events. METHODS/DESIGN: A total of 10 038 healthy women ≥18 years old with a normal live singleton pregnancy in cephalic presentation at 41 GW estimated with a first or second trimester ultrasound, who is able to understand oral and written information will be randomised to labour induction at 41 GW (early induction) or expectant management and induction at 42 GW (late induction). Women will be recruited at university clinics and county hospitals in Sweden comprising more than 65 000 deliveries per year. Primary outcome will be a composite of stillbirth, neonatal mortality and severe neonatal morbidity. Secondary outcomes will be other adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes, mode of delivery, women's experience, cost effectiveness and infant morbidity up to 3 months of age. Data on background variables, obstetric and neonatal outcomes will be obtained from the Swedish Pregnancy Register and the Swedish Neonatal Quality Register. Data on women's experiences will be collected by questionnaires after randomisation and 3 months after delivery. Primary analysis will be intention to treat. The statistician will be blinded to group and intervention. DISCUSSION: It is important to investigate if an intervention at 41 GW is superior to standard care in order to reduce death and lifelong disability for the children. The pregnant population, >41 GW, constitutes 15-20% of all pregnancies and the results of the study will thus have a great impact. The use of registries for randomisation and collection of outcome data represents a unique and new study design. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered in Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN26113652 the 30(th) of March 2015 (DOI 10.1186/ISRCTN26113652 ).


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Trabalho de Parto , Gravidez Prolongada , Adulto , Protocolos Clínicos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/etiologia , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Natimorto , Suécia , Nascimento a Termo , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 9(8): e104755, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25141021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases, and prevalence, severity and medication may have an effect on pregnancy. We examined maternal asthma, asthma severity and control in relation to pregnancy complications, labour characteristics and perinatal outcomes. METHODS: We retrieved data on all singleton births from July 1, 2006 to December 31, 2009, and prescribed drugs and physician-diagnosed asthma on the same women from multiple Swedish registers. The associations were estimated with logistic regression. RESULTS: In total, 266 045 women gave birth to 284 214 singletons during the study period. Maternal asthma was noted in 26 586 (9.4%) pregnancies. There was an association between maternal asthma and increased risks of pregnancy complications including preeclampsia or eclampsia (adjusted OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.06-1.24) and premature contractions (adj OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.29-1.80). There was also a significant association between maternal asthma and emergency caesarean section (adj OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.23-1.34), low birth weight, and small for gestational age (adj OR 1.23; 95% CI 1.13-1.33). The risk of adverse outcomes such as low birth weight increased with increasing asthma severity. For women with uncontrolled compared to those with controlled asthma the results for adverse outcomes were inconsistent displaying both increased and decreased OR for some outcomes. CONCLUSION: Maternal asthma is associated with a number of serious pregnancy complications and adverse perinatal outcomes. Some complications are even more likely with increased asthma severity. With greater awareness and proper management, outcomes would most likely improve.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Idade Materna , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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