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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5994, 2019 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979933

RESUMO

Constructed stormwater ponds mitigate runoff volumes and pollution, and provide other ecosystem services, such as supporting biodiversity, but these services attracted relatively less attention. The impacts of the pollution levels in the water column and sediments, the physical characteristics of ponds, and the presence of amphibians on the macroinvertebrate community composition and biodiversity were explored in twelve stormwater ponds in Norway. Also, the similarities between macroinvertebrate, zooplankton and plant communities were explored. Most of the taxa displayed in the ordination diagram were positively correlated with the pond size and the number of neighbouring ponds, and negatively correlated with the pollution levels in the water column and sediments. However, no statistically significant impacts on the number of taxa and Shannon index were observed. There were low similarities between the macroinvertebrate and zooplankton community compositions as well as between the plant and macroinvertebrate community compositions in the stormwater ponds. We observed a significant positive correlation between the number of plant and of zooplankton taxa, and a weak non-significant positive correlation between the number of plant and of macroinvertebrate taxa. Overall, the explanatory variables had a significant impact on the community composition, but not on the number of taxa nor Shannon index.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/classificação , Biodiversidade , Chuva , Filogenia , Chuva/microbiologia
2.
Ecol Evol ; 8(8): 4065-4073, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29721280

RESUMO

Interactions between birds and fish are often overlooked in aquatic ecosystems. We studied the influence of Atlantic salmon and brown trout on the breeding population size and reproductive output of the white-throated dipper in a Norwegian river. Acidic precipitation led to the extinction of salmon, but salmon recolonized after liming was initiated in 1991. We compared the dipper population size and reproductive output before (1978-1992) and after (1993-2014) salmon recolonization. Despite a rapid and substantial increase in juvenile salmon, the breeding dipper population size and reproductive output were not influenced by juvenile salmon, trout, or total salmonid density. This might be due to different feeding strategies in salmonids and dippers, where salmonids are mainly feeding on drift, while the dipper is a benthic feeder. The correlation between the size of the dipper population upstream and downstream of a salmonid migratory barrier was similar before and after recolonization, indicating that the downstream territories were not less attractive after the recolonization of salmon. Upstream dipper breeding success rates declined before the recolonization event and increased after, indicating improved water quality due to liming, and increasing invertebrate prey abundances and biodiversity. Surprisingly, upstream the migratory barrier, juvenile trout had a weak positive effect on the dipper population size, indicating that dippers may prey upon small trout. It is possible that wider downstream reaches might have higher abundances of alternative food, rending juvenile trout unimportant as prey. Abiotic factors such as winter temperatures and acidic precipitation with subsequent liming, potentially mediated by prey abundance, seem to play the most important role in the life history of the dipper.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 610-611: 1527-1535, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28645709

RESUMO

Recently, increased attention has been paid to biodiversity conservation provided by blue-green solutions such as engineered ponds that are primarily established for water treatment and flood control. However, little research has been done to analyse the factors that affect biodiversity in such ponds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on aquatic biodiversity, mainly macroinvertebrate communities, in road sedimentation ponds in order to provide a foundation for recommendations on aquatic biodiversity conservation. Multivariate statistical methods, including unconstrained and constrained analysis, were applied to examine the relationships between organisms and the water quality as well as physical factors (including plant cover). Stepwise multiple regressions indicated that the most important variables governing the variation in the biological community composition were pond size, average annual daily traffic, metals, chloride, distance to the closest pond from study pond, dissolved oxygen, hydrocarbons, and phosphorus. The presence of most taxa was positively correlated with pond size and negatively correlated with metals. Small ponds with high pollutant loadings were associated with a low diversity and dominated by a few pollution tolerant taxa such as oligochaetes. A comprehensive understanding of impacts of various environmental factors on aquatic biodiversity is important to effectively promote and conserve aquatic biodiversity in such sedimentation ponds. Our results indicate that road sedimentation ponds should be designed large enough, because large ponds are likely to provide a more heterogeneous habitat and thus contain a species rich fauna. In addition, larger ponds seem to be less contaminated due to dilution compared to smaller ponds, thereby maintaining a higher biodiversity. Finally, creating some additional ponds in the vicinity of the sedimentation ponds in areas with few water bodies would increase the connectivity that facilitates the movement of invertebrates between ponds.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 573: 1660-1672, 2016 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27720256

RESUMO

Alterations in hydrological and thermal regimes can potentially affect salmonid early life stages development and survival. The dewatering of salmon spawning redds due to hydropeaking can lead to mortality in early life stages, with higher impact on the alevins as they have lower tolerance to dewatering than the eggs. Flow-related mitigation measures can reduce early life stage mortality. We present a set of modelling tools to assess impacts and mitigation options to minimise the risk of mortality in early life stages in hydropeaking rivers. We successfully modelled long-term hydrological and thermal alterations and consequences for development rates. We estimated the risk of early life stages mortality and assessed the cost-effectiveness of implementing three release-related mitigation options (A,B,C). The economic cost of mitigation was low and ranged between 0.7% and 2.6% of the annual hydropower production. Options reducing the flow during spawning (B and C) in addition to only release minimum flows during development (A) were considered more effective for egg and alevin survival. Options B and C were however constraint by water availability in the system for certain years, and therefore only option A was always feasible. The set of modelling tools used in this study were satisfactory and their applications can be useful especially in systems where little field data is available. Targeted measures built on well-informed modelling tools can be tested on their effectiveness to mitigate dewatering effects vs. the hydropower system capacity to release or conserve water for power production. Environmental flow releases targeting specific ecological objectives can provide better cost-effective options than conventional operational rules complying with general legislation.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/economia , Centrais Elétricas , Rios , Salmo salar/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Movimentos da Água , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Hidrologia , Noruega , Temperatura
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