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1.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 20: 100139, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418567

RESUMO

Proteomics methodology has expanded to include protein structural analysis, primarily through cross-linking mass spectrometry (XL-MS) and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HX-MS). However, while the structural proteomics community has effective tools for primary data analysis, there is a need for structure modeling pipelines that are accessible to the proteomics specialist. Integrative structural biology requires the aggregation of multiple distinct types of data to generate models that satisfy all inputs. Here, we describe IMProv, an app in the Mass Spec Studio that combines XL-MS data with other structural data, such as cryo-EM densities and crystallographic structures, for integrative structure modeling on high-performance computing platforms. The resource provides an easily deployed bundle that includes the open-source Integrative Modeling Platform program (IMP) and its dependencies. IMProv also provides functionality to adjust cross-link distance restraints according to the underlying dynamics of cross-linked sites, as characterized by HX-MS. A dynamics-driven conditioning of restraint values can improve structure modeling precision, as illustrated by an integrative structure of the five-membered Polycomb Repressive Complex 2. IMProv is extensible to additional types of data.

2.
Structure ; 29(5): 467-478.e6, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412091

RESUMO

In the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) of a DNA double-strand break, DNA ends are bound and protected by DNA-PK, which synapses across the break to tether the broken ends and initiate repair. There is little clarity surrounding the nature of the synaptic complex and the mechanism governing the transition to repair. We report an integrative structure of the synaptic complex at a precision of 13.5 Å, revealing a symmetric head-to-head arrangement with a large offset in the DNA ends and an extensive end-protection mechanism involving a previously uncharacterized plug domain. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry identifies an allosteric pathway connecting DNA end-binding with the kinase domain that places DNA-PK under tension in the kinase-active state. We present a model for the transition from end-protection to repair, where the synaptic complex supports hierarchical processing of the ends and scaffold assembly, requiring displacement of the catalytic subunit and tension release through kinase activity.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase Ativada por DNA/química , Complexo Sinaptonêmico/química , Sítios de Ligação , Reparo do DNA por Junção de Extremidades , Proteína Quinase Ativada por DNA/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Holoenzimas , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Complexo Sinaptonêmico/metabolismo
3.
Protein Sci ; 30(1): 250-261, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166013

RESUMO

Biology is advanced by producing structural models of biological systems, such as protein complexes. Some systems are recalcitrant to traditional structure determination methods. In such cases, it may still be possible to produce useful models by integrative structure determination that depends on simultaneous use of multiple types of data. An ensemble of models that are sufficiently consistent with the data is produced by a structural sampling method guided by a data-dependent scoring function. The variation in the ensemble of models quantified the uncertainty of the structure, generally resulting from the uncertainty in the input information and actual structural heterogeneity in the samples used to produce the data. Here, we describe how to generate, assess, and interpret ensembles of integrative structural models using our open source Integrative Modeling Platform program (https://integrativemodeling.org).


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Modelos Moleculares , Complexos Multiproteicos/química , Software , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína
4.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511329

RESUMO

An outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19 respiratory disease, has infected over 290,000 people since the end of 2019, killed over 12,000, and caused worldwide social and economic disruption1,2. There are currently no antiviral drugs with proven efficacy nor are there vaccines for its prevention. Unfortunately, the scientific community has little knowledge of the molecular details of SARS-CoV-2 infection. To illuminate this, we cloned, tagged and expressed 26 of the 29 viral proteins in human cells and identified the human proteins physically associated with each using affinity- purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS), which identified 332 high confidence SARS-CoV-2-human protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Among these, we identify 66 druggable human proteins or host factors targeted by 69 existing FDA-approved drugs, drugs in clinical trials and/or preclinical compounds, that we are currently evaluating for efficacy in live SARS-CoV-2 infection assays. The identification of host dependency factors mediating virus infection may provide key insights into effective molecular targets for developing broadly acting antiviral therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 and other deadly coronavirus strains.

5.
Prog Biophys Mol Biol ; 147: 92-102, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570166

RESUMO

X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy maps resolved to 3-8 Šare generally sufficient for tracing the path of the polypeptide chain in space, while often insufficient for unambiguously registering the sequence on the path (i.e., threading). Frequently, however, additional information is available from other biophysical experiments, physical principles, statistical analyses, and other prior models. Here, we formulate an integrative approach for sequence assignment to a partial backbone model as an optimization problem, which requires three main components: the representation of the system, the scoring function, and the optimization method. The method is implemented in the open source Integrative Modeling Platform (IMP) (https://integrativemodeling.org), allowing a number of different terms in the scoring function. We apply this method to localizing the sequence assignment within a 199-residue disordered region of three structured and sequence unassigned helices in the DNA-PKcs crystallographic structure, using chemical crosslinks, hydrogen deuterium exchange, and sequence connectivity. The resulting ensemble of threading models provides two major solutions, one of which suggests that the crucial ABCDE cluster of phosphorylation sites cannot undergo intra-molecular autophosphorylation without a conformational rearrangement. The ensemble of solutions embodies the most accurate and precise sequence threading given the available information.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase Ativada por DNA/química , Proteína Quinase Ativada por DNA/metabolismo , Medição da Troca de Deutério , Cristalografia por Raios X , Fosforilação , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2022: 353-377, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396911

RESUMO

Integrative structure modeling provides 3D models of macromolecular systems that are based on information from multiple types of experiments, physical principles, statistical inferences, and prior structural models. Here, we provide a hands-on realistic example of integrative structure modeling of the quaternary structure of the actin, tropomyosin, and gelsolin protein assembly based on electron microscopy, solution X-ray scattering, and chemical crosslinking data for the complex as well as excluded volume, sequence connectivity, and rigid atomic X-ray structures of the individual subunits. We follow the general four-stage process for integrative modeling, including gathering the input information, converting the input information into a representation of the system and a scoring function, sampling alternative model configurations guided by the scoring function, and analyzing the results. The computational aspects of this approach are implemented in our open-source Integrative Modeling Platform (IMP), a comprehensive and extensible software package for integrative modeling ( https://integrativemodeling.org ). In particular, we rely on the Python Modeling Interface (PMI) module of IMP that provides facile mixing and matching of macromolecular representations, restraints based on different types of information, sampling algorithms, and analysis including validations of the input data and output models. Finally, we also outline how to deposit an integrative structure and corresponding experimental data into PDB-Dev, the nascent worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) resource for archiving and disseminating integrative structures ( https://pdb-dev.wwpdb.org ). The example application provides a starting point for a user interested in using IMP for integrative modeling of other biomolecular systems.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Software
7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(18): 7320-7326, 2019 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998340

RESUMO

Infrared (IR) spectroscopy has provided considerable insight into the structures, dynamics, and formation mechanisms of amyloid fibrils. IR probes, such as main chain 13C═18O, have been widely employed to obtain site-specific structural information, yet only secondary structures and strand-to-strand arrangements can be probed. Very few nonperturbative IR probes are available to report on the side-chain conformation and environments, which are critical to determining sheet-to-sheet arrangements in steric zippers within amyloids. Polar residues, such as glutamine, contribute significantly to the stability of amyloids and thus are frequently found in core regions of amyloid peptides/proteins. Furthermore, polyglutamine (polyQ) repeats form toxic aggregates in several neurodegenerative diseases. Here we report the synthesis and application of a new nonperturbative IR probe-glutamine side chain 13C═18O. We use side chain 13C═18O labeling and isotope dilution to detect the presence of intermolecularly hydrogen-bonded arrays of glutamine side chains (Gln ladders) in amyloid-forming peptides. Moreover, the line width of the 13C═18O peak is highly sensitive to its local hydration environment. The IR data from side chain labeling allows us to unambiguously determine the sheet-to-sheet arrangement in a short amyloid-forming peptide, GNNQQNY, providing insight that was otherwise inaccessible through main chain labeling. With several different fibril samples, we also show the versatility of this IR probe in studying the structures and aggregation kinetics of amyloids. Finally, we demonstrate the capability of modeling amyloid structures with IR data using the integrative modeling platform (IMP) and the potential of integrating IR with other biophysical methods for more accurate structural modeling. Together, we believe that side chain 13C═18O will complement main chain isotope labeling in future IR studies of amyloids and integrative modeling using IR data will significantly expand the power of IR spectroscopy to elucidate amyloid assemblies.


Assuntos
Amiloide/síntese química , Glutamina/química , Marcação por Isótopo , Sondas Moleculares/química , Amiloide/química , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho
8.
Cell ; 173(3): 693-705.e22, 2018 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29677513

RESUMO

Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) is believed to underlie formation of biomolecular condensates, cellular compartments that concentrate macromolecules without surrounding membranes. Physical mechanisms that control condensate formation/dissolution are poorly understood. The RNA-binding protein fused in sarcoma (FUS) undergoes LLPS in vitro and associates with condensates in cells. We show that the importin karyopherin-ß2/transportin-1 inhibits LLPS of FUS. This activity depends on tight binding of karyopherin-ß2 to the C-terminal proline-tyrosine nuclear localization signal (PY-NLS) of FUS. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses reveal weak interactions of karyopherin-ß2 with sequence elements and structural domains distributed throughout the entirety of FUS. Biochemical analyses demonstrate that most of these same regions also contribute to LLPS of FUS. The data lead to a model where high-affinity binding of karyopherin-ß2 to the FUS PY-NLS tethers the proteins together, allowing multiple, distributed weak intermolecular contacts to disrupt FUS self-association, blocking LLPS. Karyopherin-ß2 may act analogously to control condensates in diverse cellular contexts.


Assuntos
Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Sinais de Localização Nuclear , Proteína FUS de Ligação a RNA/química , beta Carioferinas/química , Sítios de Ligação , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/metabolismo , Humanos , Carioferinas/metabolismo , Luz , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Substâncias Macromoleculares , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Mutação , Nefelometria e Turbidimetria , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , RNA/química , Espalhamento de Radiação , Temperatura
9.
Protein Sci ; 27(1): 245-258, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28960548

RESUMO

Building models of a biological system that are consistent with the myriad data available is one of the key challenges in biology. Modeling the structure and dynamics of macromolecular assemblies, for example, can give insights into how biological systems work, evolved, might be controlled, and even designed. Integrative structure modeling casts the building of structural models as a computational optimization problem, for which information about the assembly is encoded into a scoring function that evaluates candidate models. Here, we describe our open source software suite for integrative structure modeling, Integrative Modeling Platform (https://integrativemodeling.org), and demonstrate its use.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Moleculares , Software
10.
J Phys Chem B ; 121(15): 3493-3501, 2017 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27807976

RESUMO

Characterization of interactions between proteins and other molecules is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of action of biological systems and, thus, drug discovery. An increasingly useful approach to mapping these interactions is measurement of hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) using mass spectrometry (HDX-MS), which measures the time-resolved deuterium incorporation of peptides obtained by enzymatic digestion of the protein. Comparison of exchange rates between apo- and ligand-bound conditions results in a mapping of the differential HDX (ΔHDX) of the ligand. Residue-level analysis of these data, however, must account for experimental error, sparseness, and ambiguity due to overlapping peptides. Here, we propose a Bayesian method consisting of a forward model, noise model, prior probabilities, and a Monte Carlo sampling scheme. This method exploits a residue-resolved exponential rate model of HDX-MS data obtained from all peptides simultaneously, and explicitly models experimental error. The result is the best possible estimate of ΔHDX magnitude and significance for each residue given the data. We demonstrate the method by revealing richer structural interpretation of ΔHDX data on two nuclear receptors: vitamin D-receptor (VDR) and retinoic acid receptor gamma (RORγ). The method is implemented in HDX Workbench and as a standalone module of the open source Integrative Modeling Platform.


Assuntos
Medição da Troca de Deutério , Espectrometria de Massas , Proteínas/química , Teorema de Bayes , Ligantes , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Método de Monte Carlo
11.
J Virol ; 90(21): 9558-9569, 2016 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27440899

RESUMO

The biochemical and neuropathological properties of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) prions are faithfully maintained upon transmission to guinea pigs. However, primary and secondary transmissions of BSE and vCJD in guinea pigs result in long incubation periods of ∼450 and ∼350 days, respectively. To determine if the incubation periods of BSE and vCJD prions could be shortened, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing guinea pig prion protein (GPPrP). Inoculation of Tg(GPPrP) mice with BSE and vCJD prions resulted in mean incubation periods of 210 and 199 days, respectively, which shortened to 137 and 122 days upon serial transmission. In contrast, three different isolates of sporadic CJD prions failed to transmit disease to Tg(GPPrP) mice. Many of the strain-specified biochemical and neuropathological properties of BSE and vCJD prions, including the presence of type 2 protease-resistant PrPSc, were preserved upon propagation in Tg(GPPrP) mice. Structural modeling revealed that two residues near the N-terminal region of α-helix 1 in GPPrP might mediate its susceptibility to BSE and vCJD prions. Our results demonstrate that expression of GPPrP in Tg mice supports the rapid propagation of BSE and vCJD prions and suggest that Tg(GPPrP) mice may serve as a useful paradigm for bioassaying these prion isolates. IMPORTANCE: Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions are two of the prion strains most relevant to human health. However, propagating these strains in mice expressing human or bovine prion protein has been difficult because of prolonged incubation periods or inefficient transmission. Here, we show that transgenic mice expressing guinea pig prion protein are fully susceptible to vCJD and BSE prions but not to sporadic CJD prions. Our results suggest that the guinea pig prion protein is a better, more rapid substrate than either bovine or human prion protein for propagating BSE and vCJD prions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Síndrome de Creutzfeldt-Jakob/patologia , Encefalopatia Espongiforme Bovina/patologia , Proteínas Priônicas/metabolismo , Príons/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Síndrome de Creutzfeldt-Jakob/metabolismo , Síndrome de Creutzfeldt-Jakob/transmissão , Encefalopatia Espongiforme Bovina/metabolismo , Encefalopatia Espongiforme Bovina/transmissão , Cobaias , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos
12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(43): 13876-86, 2015 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26440863

RESUMO

Substrate recognition is one of the hallmarks of enzyme catalysis. Enzyme conformational changes have been linked to selectivity between substrates with little direct evidence. Aldolase, a glycolytic enzyme, must distinguish between two physiologically important substrates, fructose 1-phosphate and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, and provides an excellent model system for the study of this question. Previous work has shown that isozyme specific residues (ISRs) distant from the active site are responsible for kinetic distinction between these substrates. Notably, most of the ISRs reside in a cluster of five surface α-helices, and the carboxyl-terminal region (CTR), and cooperative interactions among these helices have been demonstrated. To test the hypothesis that conformational changes are at the root of these changes, single surface-cysteine variants were created with the cysteine located on helices of the cluster and CTR. This allowed for site-specific labeling with an environmentally sensitive fluorophore, and subsequent monitoring of conformational changes by fluorescence emission spectrophotometry. These labeled variants revealed different spectra in the presence of saturating amounts of each substrate, which suggested the occurrence of different conformations. Emission spectra collected at various substrate concentrations showed a concentration dependence of the fluorescence spectra, consistent with binding events. Lastly, stopped-flow fluorescence spectrophotometry showed that the rate of these fluorescence changes was on the same time-scale as catalysis, thus suggesting a link between the different fluorescence changes and events during catalysis. On the basis of these results, we propose that different conformational changes may be a common mechanism for dictating substrate specificity in other enzymes with multiple substrates.


Assuntos
Frutose-Bifosfato Aldolase/química , Frutose-Bifosfato Aldolase/metabolismo , Frutosedifosfatos/química , Frutosedifosfatos/metabolismo , Frutosefosfatos/química , Frutosefosfatos/metabolismo , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Especificidade por Substrato
13.
PLoS Pathog ; 10(7): e1004245, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24992307

RESUMO

Parasitic nematodes are responsible for devastating illnesses that plague many of the world's poorest populations indigenous to the tropical areas of developing nations. Among these diseases is lymphatic filariasis, a major cause of permanent and long-term disability. Proteins essential to nematodes that do not have mammalian counterparts represent targets for therapeutic inhibitor discovery. One promising target is trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (T6PP) from Brugia malayi. In the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, T6PP is essential for survival due to the toxic effect(s) of the accumulation of trehalose 6-phosphate. T6PP has also been shown to be essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of T6PP from B. malayi. The protein structure revealed a stabilizing N-terminal MIT-like domain and a catalytic C-terminal C2B-type HAD phosphatase fold. Structure-guided mutagenesis, combined with kinetic analyses using a designed competitive inhibitor, trehalose 6-sulfate, identified five residues important for binding and catalysis. This structure-function analysis along with computational mapping provided the basis for the proposed model of the T6PP-trehalose 6-phosphate complex. The model indicates a substrate-binding mode wherein shape complementarity and van der Waals interactions drive recognition. The mode of binding is in sharp contrast to the homolog sucrose-6-phosphate phosphatase where extensive hydrogen-bond interactions are made to the substrate. Together these results suggest that high-affinity inhibitors will be bi-dentate, taking advantage of substrate-like binding to the phosphoryl-binding pocket while simultaneously utilizing non-native binding to the trehalose pocket. The conservation of the key residues that enforce the shape of the substrate pocket in T6PP enzymes suggest that development of broad-range anthelmintic and antibacterial therapeutics employing this platform may be possible.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Brugia Malayi/enzimologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Proteínas de Helminto/química , Modelos Moleculares , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/química , Animais , Filariose/tratamento farmacológico , Filariose/enzimologia , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína
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