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1.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 42(4): 375-386, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295573

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Irritability has both mood and behavioral manifestations. These frequently co-occur, and it is unclear to what extent they are dissociable domains. We used confirmatory factor analysis and external validators to investigate the independence of mood and behavioral components of irritability. METHODS: The sample comprised 246 patients (mean age 45 years; 63% female) from four outpatient programs (depression, anxiety, bipolar, and schizophrenia) at a tertiary hospital. A clinical instrument rated by trained clinicians was specifically designed to capture irritable mood and disruptive behavior dimensionally, as well as current categorical diagnoses i.e., intermittent explosive disorder (IED); oppositional defiant disorder (ODD); and an adaptation to diagnose disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) in adults. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the best fitting irritability models and regression analyses were used to investigate associations with external validators. RESULTS: Irritable mood and disruptive behavior were both frequent, but diagnoses of disruptive syndromes were rare (IED, 8%; ODD, 2%; DMDD, 2%). A correlated model with two dimensions, and a bifactor model with one general dimension and two specific dimensions (mood and behavior) both had good fit indices. The correlated model had root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.077, with 90% confidence interval (90%CI) = 0.071-0.083; comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.99; and Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.99, while the bifactor model had RMSEA = 0.041; CFI = 0.99; and TLI = 0.99 respectively). In the bifactor model, external validity for differentiation of the mood and behavioral components of irritability was also supported by associations between irritable mood and impairment and clinical measures of depression and mania, which were not associated with disruptive behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Psychometric and external validity data suggest both overlapping and specific features of the mood vs. disruptive behavior dimensions of irritability.

2.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 42(4): 375-386, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145189

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction Irritability has both mood and behavioral manifestations. These frequently co-occur, and it is unclear to what extent they are dissociable domains. We used confirmatory factor analysis and external validators to investigate the independence of mood and behavioral components of irritability. Methods The sample comprised 246 patients (mean age 45 years; 63% female) from four outpatient programs (depression, anxiety, bipolar, and schizophrenia) at a tertiary hospital. A clinical instrument rated by trained clinicians was specifically designed to capture irritable mood and disruptive behavior dimensionally, as well as current categorical diagnoses i.e., intermittent explosive disorder (IED); oppositional defiant disorder (ODD); and an adaptation to diagnose disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) in adults. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the best fitting irritability models and regression analyses were used to investigate associations with external validators. Results Irritable mood and disruptive behavior were both frequent, but diagnoses of disruptive syndromes were rare (IED, 8%; ODD, 2%; DMDD, 2%). A correlated model with two dimensions, and a bifactor model with one general dimension and two specific dimensions (mood and behavior) both had good fit indices. The correlated model had root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.077, with 90% confidence interval (90%CI) = 0.071-0.083; comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.99; and Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.99, while the bifactor model had RMSEA = 0.041; CFI = 0.99; and TLI = 0.99 respectively). In the bifactor model, external validity for differentiation of the mood and behavioral components of irritability was also supported by associations between irritable mood and impairment and clinical measures of depression and mania, which were not associated with disruptive behavior. Conclusions Psychometric and external validity data suggest both overlapping and specific features of the mood vs. disruptive behavior dimensions of irritability.

5.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756806

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether psychiatric and gaming pattern variables are associated with gaming disorder in a school-based sample. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Brazilian High-Risk Cohort for Psychiatric Disorders, a community sample aged 10 to 18, using questionnaires on gaming use patterns. We applied the Gaming Addiction Scale to diagnose gaming disorder and the Development and Well-Being Behavior Assessment for other diagnoses. RESULTS: Out of 407 subjects, 83 (20.4%) fulfilled the criteria for gaming disorder. More role-playing game players were diagnosed with gaming disorder that any other genre. Gaming disorder rates increased proportionally to the number of genres played. Playing online, being diagnosed with a mental disorder, and more hours of non-stop gaming were associated with higher rates of gaming disorder. When all variables (including age and gender) were considered in a logistic regression model, the number of genres played, the number of non-stop hours, the proportion of online games, and having a diagnosed mental disorder emerged as significant predictors of gaming disorder. CONCLUSION: Each variable seems to add further risk of gaming disorder among children and adolescents. Monitoring the length of gaming sessions, the number and type of genres played, time spent gaming online, and behavior changes may help parents or guardians identify unhealthy patterns of gaming behavior.

6.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While taxonomy segregates anxiety symptoms into diagnoses, patients typically present with multiple diagnoses; this poses major challenges, particularly for youth, where mixed presentation is particularly common. Anxiety comorbidity could reflect multivariate, cross-domain interactions insufficiently emphasized in current taxonomy. We utilize network analytic approaches that model these interactions by characterizing pediatric anxiety as involving distinct, inter-connected, symptom domains. Quantifying this network structure could inform views of pediatric anxiety that shape clinical practice and research. METHODS: Participants were 4964 youths (ages 5-17 years) from seven international sites. Participants completed standard symptom inventory assessing severity along distinct domains that follow pediatric anxiety diagnostic categories. We first applied network analytic tools to quantify the anxiety domain network structure. We then examined whether variation in the network structure related to age (3-year longitudinal assessments) and sex, key moderators of pediatric anxiety expression. RESULTS: The anxiety network featured a highly inter-connected structure; all domains correlated positively but to varying degrees. Anxiety patients and healthy youth differed in severity but demonstrated a comparable network structure. We noted specific sex differences in the network structure; longitudinal data indicated additional structural changes during childhood. Generalized-anxiety and panic symptoms consistently emerged as central domains. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric anxiety manifests along multiple, inter-connected symptom domains. By quantifying cross-domain associations and related moderation effects, the current study might shape views on the diagnosis, treatment, and study of pediatric anxiety.

8.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(4): 403-419, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132110

RESUMO

Current first-line treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD) include pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy. However, one-third of depressed patients do not achieve remission after multiple medication trials, and psychotherapy can be costly and time-consuming. Although non-implantable neuromodulation (NIN) techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, electroconvulsive therapy, and magnetic seizure therapy are gaining momentum for treating MDD, the efficacy of non-convulsive techniques is still modest, whereas use of convulsive modalities is limited by their cognitive side effects. In this context, we propose that NIN techniques could benefit from a precision-oriented approach. In this review, we discuss the challenges and opportunities in implementing such a framework, focusing on enhancing NIN effects via a combination of individualized cognitive interventions, using closed-loop approaches, identifying multimodal biomarkers, using computer electric field modeling to guide targeting and quantify dosage, and using machine learning algorithms to integrate data collected at multiple biological levels and identify clinical responders. Though promising, this framework is currently limited, as previous studies have employed small samples and did not sufficiently explore pathophysiological mechanisms associated with NIN response and side effects. Moreover, cost-effectiveness analyses have not been performed. Nevertheless, further advancements in clinical trials of NIN could shift the field toward a more "precision-oriented" practice.

9.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638919

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The causes of high rates of psychological distress among health professionals and students are largely unknown. Health professionals respond to those who are in distress with empathy (feeling what others feel) or compassion (caring about what others feel). This study aims to investigate whether empathy and compassion are distinct traits and how both traits are associated with negative affect (burnout, depression, anxiety and anger symptoms) in undergraduate students and professionals in medicine, psychology and nursing. METHODS: A sample of 464 students and professionals filled out an online protocol with a sociodemographic data questionnaire and self-report questionnaires covering the variables of interest. RESULTS: The findings indicate that empathy is associated with higher negative affect, while compassion is associate with lower negative affect, which suggests that they are different traits. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide new evidence that the well-being of health professionals might be affected differently depending on socioemotional traits relevant to emotional connection.

10.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596977

RESUMO

The ENIGMA group on Generalized Anxiety Disorder (ENIGMA-Anxiety/GAD) is part of a broader effort to investigate anxiety disorders using imaging and genetic data across multiple sites worldwide. The group is actively conducting a mega-analysis of a large number of brain structural scans. In this process, the group was confronted with many methodological challenges related to study planning and implementation, between-country transfer of subject-level data, quality control of a considerable amount of imaging data, and choices related to statistical methods and efficient use of resources. This report summarizes the background information and rationale for the various methodological decisions, as well as the approach taken to implement them. The goal is to document the approach and help guide other research groups working with large brain imaging data sets as they develop their own analytic pipelines for mega-analyses.

12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 252, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Problematic internet use (PIU) is an increasingly worrisome issue, as youth population studies are establishing links with internalizing and externalizing problems. There is a need for a better understanding of psychiatric diagnostic profiles associated with this issue, as well as its unique contributions to impairment. Here, we leveraged the ongoing, large-scale Child Mind Institute Healthy Brain Network, a transdiagnostic self-referred, community sample of children and adolescents (ages 5-21), to examine the associations between PIU and psychopathology, general impairment, physical health and sleep disturbances. METHODS: A total sample of 564 (190 female) participants between the ages of 7-15 (mean = 10.80, SD = 2.16), along with their parents/guardians, completed diagnostic interviews with clinicians, answered a wide range of self-report (SR) and parent-report (PR) questionnaires, including the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and underwent physical testing as part of the Healthy Brain Network protocol. RESULTS: PIU was positively associated with depressive disorders (SR: aOR = 2.43, CI: 1.22-4.74, p = .01; PR: aOR = 2.56, CI: 1.31-5.05, p = .01), the combined presentation of ADHD (SR: aOR = 1.91, CI: 1.14-3.22, p = .01; PR: n.s.), Autism Spectrum Disorder (SR: n.s.; PR: aOR = 2.24, CI: 1.34-3.73, p < .001), greater levels of impairment (SR: Standardized Beta = 4.63, CI: 3.06-6.20, p < .001; PR: Standardized Beta = 5.05, CI: 3.67-6.42, p < .001) and increased sleep disturbances (SR: Standardized Beta = 3.15, CI: 0.71-5.59, p = .01; PR: Standardized Beta = 3.55, CI: 1.34-5.75, p < .001), even when accounting for demographic covariates and psychiatric comorbidity. CONCLUSIONS: The association between PIU and psychopathology, as well as its impact on impairment and sleep disturbances, highlight the urgent need to gain an understanding of mechanisms in order to inform public health recommendations on internet use in U.S. youth.

13.
J Affect Disord ; 271: 39-48, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although low-grade inflammation is associated with onset and persistence of depression, most biomarkers display modest predictive effects. GlycA (glycoprotein acetylation) is a unique metabolomic composite of pro-inflammatory acute-phase glycoproteins. We hypothesized that GlycA levels would predict depression incidence, remission and persistence, with higher accuracy than high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hsCRP). We also explored the additive predictive value of GlycA above and beyond hsCRP. METHODS: Cohort design using the sample of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)'s São Paulo site. Baseline GlycA and hsCRP levels were measured in blood plasma. Depression incidence, remission, and persistence were assessed using the Clinical Interview Scheduled Revised (CIS-R) at two time points separated by a mean of 3.8 years. Multivariable Poisson, logistic and linear regression models were used for prediction. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical confounders, including age, gender, ethnicity, education, cardiovascular assessments, antidepressant and anti-inflammatory drug use, anxiety disorders, alcohol use, and body mass index. RESULTS: We included 4,364 participants (53.2% females, mean age 51.4 ± 8.9 years) with no autoimmune disorders. GlycA robustly predicted depression persistence (relative risk of 7.28, 95% confidence interval 1.33-45.57, p = 0.023 in the fully-adjusted model), but not depression onset. Although hsCRP also predicted depression persistence, its effects were fully explained by confounders and by GlycA levels. GlycA also predicted worsening of depressive symptoms in depressed patients and depression persistence vs. remission in fully-adjusted models. LIMITATIONS: Brief depressive episodes could not be measured by our assessments. CONCLUSIONS: GlycA might be a new inflammatory prognosis biomarker for depression.

14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(4): e202551, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275324

RESUMO

Importance: Nonverbal learning disability (NVLD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in visual-spatial processing but not in reading or verbal ability; in addition, problems in math calculation, visual executive functioning, fine-motor skills, and social skills are often present. To our knowledge, there are no population-based estimates of the prevalence of NVLD in community samples. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of the NVLD cognitive profile in 3 independent samples of children and adolescents from studies centered around brain imaging in the US and Canada. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from 2 samples recruited from the community and overselected for children with psychiatric disorders (Healthy Brain Network [HBN], January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2019, and Nathan Kline Institute-Rockland Sample [NKI], January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2018) and 1 community-ascertained population sample (Saguenay Youth Study [SYS], January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2012) overselected for active maternal smoking during pregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence of NVLD. Criteria for NVLD were based on clinical records of deficits in visual-spatial reasoning and impairment in 2 of 4 domains of function (fine-motor skills, math calculation, visual executive functioning, and social skills). Sample weighting procedures adjusted for demographic differences in sample frequencies compared with underlying target populations. Inflation factor weights accounted for overrepresentation of psychiatric disorders (HBN and NKI samples). Results: Across 3 independent samples, the prevalence of NVLD was estimated among 2596 children and adolescents aged 6 to 19 years (mean [SD] age, 12.5 [3.4] years; 1449 male [55.8%]). After sample and inflation weights were applied, the prevalence of NVLD was 2.78% (95% CI, 2.03%-3.52%) in the HBN sample and 3.9% (95% CI, 1.96%-5.78%) in the NKI sample. In the SYS sample, the prevalence of NVLD was 3.10% (95% CI, 1.93%-4.27%) after applying the sample weight. Across samples and estimation strategies, the population prevalence of NVLD was estimated to range from 3% to 4%. When applied to the US population younger than 18 years, 2.2 million to 2.9 million children and adolescents were estimated to have NVLD. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that the prevalence of NVLD in children and adolescents may be 3% to 4%. Given that few youths are diagnosed with NVLD and receive treatment, increased awareness, identification of the underlying neurobiological mechanisms, and development and testing interventions for the disorder are needed.


Assuntos
Deficiências da Aprendizagem/enzimologia , Adolescente , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(2): 214-217, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089244

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the association between childhood trauma (CT) and serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) during crack-cocaine withdrawal. Method: Thirty-three male crack-cocaine users were recruited at admission to a public addiction treatment unit. Serum BDNF and TBARS levels were evaluated at intake and discharge. Information about drug use was assessed by the Addiction Severity Index-6th Version (ASI-6); CT was reported throughout the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). CTQ scores were calculated based on a latent analysis model that divided the sample into low-, medium-, and high-level trauma groups. Results: There was a significant increase in BDNF levels from admission to discharge, which did not differ across CT subgroups. For TBARS levels, we found a significant time vs. trauma interaction (F2,28 = 6.357, p = 0.005,ηp 2 = 0.312). In participants with low trauma level, TBARS decreased, while in those with a high trauma level, TBARS increased during early withdrawal. Conclusion: TBARS levels showed opposite patterns of change in crack-cocaine withdrawal according to baseline CT. These results suggest that CT could be associated with more severe neurological impairment during withdrawal.

16.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 42(4): 403-419, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187319

RESUMO

Current first-line treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD) include pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy. However, one-third of depressed patients do not achieve remission after multiple medication trials, and psychotherapy can be costly and time-consuming. Although non-implantable neuromodulation (NIN) techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, electroconvulsive therapy, and magnetic seizure therapy are gaining momentum for treating MDD, the efficacy of non-convulsive techniques is still modest, whereas use of convulsive modalities is limited by their cognitive side effects. In this context, we propose that NIN techniques could benefit from a precision-oriented approach. In this review, we discuss the challenges and opportunities in implementing such a framework, focusing on enhancing NIN effects via a combination of individualized cognitive interventions, using closed-loop approaches, identifying multimodal biomarkers, using computer electric field modeling to guide targeting and quantify dosage, and using machine learning algorithms to integrate data collected at multiple biological levels and identify clinical responders. Though promising, this framework is currently limited, as previous studies have employed small samples and did not sufficiently explore pathophysiological mechanisms associated with NIN response and side effects. Moreover, cost-effectiveness analyses have not been performed. Nevertheless, further advancements in clinical trials of NIN could shift the field toward a more "precision-oriented" practice.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Depressão/reabilitação , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Eletroconvulsoterapia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Encéfalo , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 42(1): 86-91, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099407

RESUMO

Abstract Objectives To investigate the 5-year prevalence of patients admitted to public inpatient care units due to a mental disorder, stratifying them by age group and diagnosis, and to assess trends of admissions over this time period in Porto Alegre. Methods All admissions to the public mental health care system regulated by the city-owned electronic system Administração Geral dos Hospitais (AGHOS) were included in the analysis. The total population size was obtained by estimations of Fundação de Economia e Estatística (FEE). General information about 5-year prevalence of inpatient admissions, time-series trends e prevalence by age groups and diagnosis were presented. Results There were 32,608 admissions over the 5-year period analyzed. The overall prevalence of patients was 1.62% among the total population, 0.01% among children, 1.12% among adolescents, 2.28% among adults and 0.93% among the elderly. The most common diagnosis was drug-related, followed by mood, alcohol-related and psychotic disorders. There was a linear trend showing an increase in the number of admissions from 2013 to the midst of 2014, which dropped in 2015. Conclusions Admissions due to mental disorders are relatively common, mainly among adults and related to drug use and mood disorders. Time trends varied slightly over the 5 years. Prevalence rates in real-world settings might be useful for policymakers interested in planning the public mental health system in large Brazilian cities.


Resumo Objetivos Investigar a prevalência de 5 anos de pacientes internados no sistema público de saúde por motivo de saúde mental, estratificando-os por grupo etário e diagnóstico, e avaliar tendências temporais nas admissões nesse período em Porto Alegre. Métodos Todas as admissões no sistema público de saúde mental reguladas pelo sistema eletrônico da cidade, denominado Administração Geral dos Hospitais (AGHOS), foram incluídos na análise. A população total foi obtida a partir de estimativas da Fundação de Economia e Estatística (FEE). Informações gerais sobre a prevalência de 5 anos de admissões, tendências das séries temporais e prevalência por grupo etário e por diagnóstico foram apresentadas. Resultados Ocorreram 32.608 admissões no período de 5 anos analisado. A prevalência global de pacientes foi de 1,62% na população total, 0,01% em crianças, 1,12% em adolescentes, 2,28% em adultos e 0,93% em idosos. Os diagnósticos mais comuns foram relacionados ao uso de drogas, seguidos de transtornos de humor, relacionados ao álcool e transtornos psicóticos. Houve uma tendência linear mostrando um aumento no número de admissões de 2013 a meados de 2014, que caíram em 2015. Conclusões Admissões por transtornos mentais são relativamente comuns, principalmente entre adultos e relacionados ao uso de drogas e transtornos de humor. Tendências lineares variaram levemente nos últimos 5 anos. Estimativas de prevalência no mundo real podem ser úteis para formuladores de políticas interessados em planejar o sistema público de saúde mental em grandes cidades brasileiras.

18.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 33(3): 255-263, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049765

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mental health and substance use problems are among the most prevalent and challenging problems faced by both high-income and low-income countries worldwide. This review will focus on summarizing scattered evidence of school-based interventions to promote well-being and prevent mental health problems and substance use disorders in children and adolescents. RECENT FINDINGS: We focus on two main areas of research: promotion of healthy school climate and prevention of bullying. Choosing among available interventions might be challenging, both because of the difficulties in assessing their efficacy and tailoring interventions to specific needs, but also because of the scarcity of intervention in low-resource settings. We provide some guidance on principles encompassed by the available evidence that can be used for policymakers and local communities aiming to integrate mental health promotion and prevention into their schools. SUMMARY: Developing, implementing, scaling and sustaining school-based interventions is a necessity of our field if we want to move closer to sustainable development goals.

19.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 42(1): 86-91, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the 5-year prevalence of patients admitted to public inpatient care units due to a mental disorder, stratifying them by age group and diagnosis, and to assess trends of admissions over this time period in Porto Alegre. METHODS: All admissions to the public mental health care system regulated by the city-owned electronic system Administração Geral dos Hospitais (AGHOS) were included in the analysis. The total population size was obtained by estimations of Fundação de Economia e Estatística (FEE). General information about 5-year prevalence of inpatient admissions, time-series trends e prevalence by age groups and diagnosis were presented. RESULTS: There were 32,608 admissions over the 5-year period analyzed. The overall prevalence of patients was 1.62% among the total population, 0.01% among children, 1.12% among adolescents, 2.28% among adults and 0.93% among the elderly. The most common diagnosis was drug-related, followed by mood, alcohol-related and psychotic disorders. There was a linear trend showing an increase in the number of admissions from 2013 to the midst of 2014, which dropped in 2015. CONCLUSIONS: Admissions due to mental disorders are relatively common, mainly among adults and related to drug use and mood disorders. Time trends varied slightly over the 5 years. Prevalence rates in real-world settings might be useful for policymakers interested in planning the public mental health system in large Brazilian cities.

20.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 61(1): 40-50, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Extended Strengths and Weaknesses Assessment of Normal Behavior (E-SWAN) reconceptualizes each diagnostic criterion for selected DSM-5 disorders as a behavior, which can range from high (strengths) to low (weaknesses). Initial development focused on Panic Disorder, Social Anxiety, Major Depression, and Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder. METHODS: Data were collected from 523 participants (ages 6-17). Parents completed each of the four E-SWAN scales and traditional unidirectional scales addressing the same disorders. Distributional properties, Item Response Theory Analysis (IRT), and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess and compare the performance of E-SWAN and traditional scales. RESULTS: In contrast to the traditional scales, which exhibited truncated distributions, all four E-SWAN scales had symmetric distributions. IRT analyses indicate the E-SWAN subscales provided reliable information about respondents throughout the population distribution; traditional scales only provided reliable information about respondents at the high end of the distribution. Predictive value for DSM-5 diagnoses was comparable to prior scales. CONCLUSIONS: E-SWAN bidirectional scales can capture the full spectrum of the population distribution of behavior underlying DSM disorders. The additional information provided can better inform examination of inter-individual variation in population studies, as well as facilitate the identification of factors related to resiliency in clinical samples.

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