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1.
Mol Immunol ; 128: 33-40, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053462

RESUMO

The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1) is a pathogen with the capacity to modulate the interferon type I system. To further investigate the effects of BVDV-1 on the production of the immune response, the Madin-Darby bovine kidney cell line was infected with the cytopathic CH001 field isolate of BVDV-1, and the IFNbeta expression profiles were analyzed. The results showed that cpBVDV-1 was able to induce the production of IFNbeta in a way similar to polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, but with less intensity. Interestingly, all cpBVDV-1 activities were blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of the IRF-1, IRF-7, and NF-κB signaling pathway, and the level of IFNbeta decreased at the level of transcript and protein. These results, together with in silico analyses showing the presence of several regulatory consensus target motifs, suggest that cpBVDV-1 regulates IFNbeta expression in bovines through the activation of several key transcription factors. Collectively, the results suggest that during cpBVDV-1 infection, cross talk is evident between various signaling pathways involved in transcriptional activation of IFNbeta in cattle.

2.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933882

RESUMO

Obesity is one of the great challenges in healthcare nowadays with important implications for health so requiring comprehensive management. This document aims to establish practical and evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of in Spain, from the perspective of the clinical endocrinologist. A position statement has been made that can be consulted at www.seen.es, and that has been agreed by the Obesity Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (GOSEEN), together with the Nutrition Area (NutriSEEN) and the Working Group of Endocrinology, Nutrition and Physical Exercise (GENEFSEEN).

3.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887239

RESUMO

The prevalence of obesity is rapidly rising in Spain. The Awareness, Care and Treatment in Obesity Management-An International Observation (ACTION-IO) study (NCT03584191) was an international cross-sectional survey conducted to identify the perceptions, attitudes, behaviors, and barriers to obesity management for people with obesity (PwO) and healthcare professionals (HCPs); results from Spain are presented. In Spain, 1500 PwO (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 based on self-reported height and weight) and 306 HCPs (in direct patient care for ≥2 years) completed the survey. Fewer PwO (59%) than HCPs (93%) agreed that obesity is a chronic disease. Most PwO (80%) assumed complete responsibility for their own weight loss, whilst 19% of HCPs placed the responsibility on PwO. One-fifth of PwO stated they began struggling with weight before age 15. The mean delay in discussing weight for the first time with an HCP was 6 years. Only 24% of HCPs thought their patients were motivated to lose weight, whilst 45% of PwO reported being motivated. Of the 67% of PwO who had discussed their weight with an HCP in the last 5 years, 66% had been formally diagnosed with obesity. Our Spanish dataset reveals discrepancies in the perceptions and attitudes between PwO and HCPs, thus highlighting the need to improve education about obesity and its clinical management.

4.
FASEB J ; 34(9): 11816-11837, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666604

RESUMO

The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased drastically due to the global obesity pandemic but at present there are no approved therapies. Here, we aimed to revert high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and NAFLD in mice by enhancing liver fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Moreover, we searched for potential new lipid biomarkers for monitoring liver steatosis in humans. We used adeno-associated virus (AAV) to deliver a permanently active mutant form of human carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (hCPT1AM), the key enzyme in FAO, in the liver of a mouse model of HFD-induced obesity and NAFLD. Expression of hCPT1AM enhanced hepatic FAO and autophagy, reduced liver steatosis, and improved glucose homeostasis. Lipidomic analysis in mice and humans before and after therapeutic interventions, such as hepatic AAV9-hCPT1AM administration and RYGB surgery, respectively, led to the identification of specific triacylglyceride (TAG) specie (C50:1) as a potential biomarker to monitor NAFFLD disease. To sum up, here we show for the first time that liver hCPT1AM gene therapy in a mouse model of established obesity, diabetes, and NAFLD can reduce HFD-induced derangements. Moreover, our study highlights TAG (C50:1) as a potential noninvasive biomarker that might be useful to monitor NAFLD in mice and humans.

5.
Cells ; 9(6)2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512939

RESUMO

Aquaporin-11 (AQP11) is expressed in human adipocytes, but its functional role remains unknown. Since AQP11 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein that transports water, glycerol, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), we hypothesized that this superaquaporin is involved in ER stress induced by lipotoxicity and inflammation in human obesity. AQP11 expression was assessed in 67 paired visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples obtained from patients with morbid obesity and normal-weight individuals. We found that obesity and obesity-associated type 2 diabetes increased (p < 0.05) AQP11 mRNA and protein in visceral adipose tissue, but not subcutaneous fat. Accordingly, AQP11 mRNA was upregulated (p < 0.05) during adipocyte differentiation and lipolysis, two biological processes altered in the obese state. Subcellular fractionation and confocal microscopy studies confirmed its presence in the ER plasma membrane of visceral adipocytes. Proinflammatory factors TNF-α, and particularly TGF-ß1, downregulated (p < 0.05) AQP11 mRNA and protein expression and reinforced its subcellular distribution surrounding lipid droplets. Importantly, the AQP11 gene knockdown increased (p < 0.05) basal and TGF-ß1-induced expression of the ER markers ATF4 and CHOP. Together, the downregulation of AQP11 aggravates TGF-ß1-induced ER stress in visceral adipocytes. Owing to its "peroxiporin" properties, AQP11 overexpression in visceral fat might constitute a compensatory mechanism to alleviate ER stress in obesity.

6.
Educ. med. (Ed. impr.) ; 21(3): 207-211, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195109

RESUMO

Se describen el diseño y la puesta en marcha de un proyecto docente en la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Navarra dirigido a promover una fuerte identidad médica centrada en el paciente que armonice el desarrollo personal y el profesional de los futuros médicos. La acción educativa se lleva a cabo en 3 fases consecutivas. La primera consiste en unos talleres previos a las rotaciones clínicas en los que se reflexiona, de manera participativa, sobre un aspecto de identidad profesional seleccionado. En un segundo momento, el alumno identificará manifestaciones concretas de ese contenido en la práctica clínica: esa experiencia se recoge por escrito en un portafolio, no solo de manera descriptiva, sino también con una reflexión personal sobre lo que se ha vivido. Se cierra el proceso educativo con la evaluación razonada del portafolio y el contraste de su contenido con el tutor clínico


We describe the process of designing and implementation of a new teaching project in the University of Navarra. The aim of the project is to promote a patient-centered professional and personal identity for the future doctors. The educational process has 3 consecutive phases. First, workshops that take place prior to clerkships, where students actively reflect on a selected professional identity quality. Then, the student will identify real clinical scenarios during their clerkships where this professional behavior takes place. They should reflect on this, and they should learn through their own reactions and emotions and write a self-reflection. The educational process finishes with the formative and personal feedback from the clinical tutor


Assuntos
Humanos , Ego , Estudantes de Medicina , Educação Médica/métodos , Docentes/educação , Competência Profissional , Profissionalismo , Humanismo , Liderança , Empatia
7.
Metabolism ; 108: 154261, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibronectin type IIIdomain-containing protein 4 (FNDC4) constitutes a secreted factor showing a high homology in the fibronectin type III and transmembrane domains with the exercise-associated myokine irisin (FNDC5). We sought to evaluate whether FNDC4 mimics the anti-obesity effects of FNDC5/irisin in human adipose tissue. METHODS: Plasma and adipose tissue samples of 78 patients with morbid obesity undergoing bariatric surgery and 26 normal-weight individuals were used in the present study. RESULTS: Plasma FNDC4 was decreased in patients with morbid obesity, related to obesity-associated systemic inflammation and remained unchanged six months after bariatric surgery. Visceral adipose tissue from patients with morbid obesity showed higher expression of FNDC4 and its putative receptor GPR116 regardless of the degree of insulin resistance. FNDC4 content was regulated by lipogenic, lipolytic and proinflammatory stimuli in human visceral adipocytes. FNDC4 reduced intracytosolic lipid accumulation and stimulated a brown-like pattern in human adipocytes, as evidenced by an upregulated expression of UCP-1 and the brown/beige adipocyte markers PRDM16, TMEM26 and CD137. Moreover, FNDC4 treatment upregulated mitochondrial DNA content and factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (TFAM, NRF1 and NRF2). Human FNDC4-knockdown adipocytes exhibited an increase in lipogenesis and a reduction of brown/beige-specific fat markers as well as factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the novel adipokine FNDC4 reduces lipogenesis and increases fat browning in human visceral adipocytes. The upregulation of FNDC4 in human visceral fat might constitute an attempt to attenuate the adipocyte hypertrophy, inflammation and impaired beige adipogenesis in the obese state.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Lipogênese/fisiologia , Proteínas/metabolismo , Adipócitos Bege/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/fisiologia
8.
J Clin Med ; 9(4)2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283761

RESUMO

Compelling evidence suggests that dermatopontin (DPT) regulates collagen and fibronectin fibril formation, the induction of cell adhesion and the prompting of wound healing. We aimed to evaluate the role of DPT on obesity and its associated metabolic alterations as well as its impact in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) inflammation and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling. Samples obtained from 54 subjects were used in a case-control study. Circulating and VAT expression levels of DPT as well as key ECM remodelling- and inflammation-related genes were analysed. The effect of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators on the transcript levels of DPT in visceral adipocytes was explored. The impact of DPT on ECM remodelling and inflammation pathways was also evaluated in cultured adipocytes. We show that obesity and obesity-associated type 2 diabetes (T2D) increased (p < 0.05) circulating levels of DPT. In this line, DPT mRNA in VAT was increased (p < 0.05) in obese patients with and without T2D. Gene expression levels of DPT were enhanced (p < 0.05) in human visceral adipocytes after the treatment with lipopolysaccharide, tumour growth factor (TGF)- and palmitic acid, whereas a downregulation (p < 0.05) was detected after the stimulation with interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, critical cytokines mediating anti-inflammatory pathways. Additionally, we revealed that DPT increased (p < 0.05) the expression of ECM- (COL6A3, ELN, MMP9, TNMD) and inflammation-related factors (IL6, IL8, TNF) in human visceral adipocytes. These findings provide, for the first time, evidence of a novel role of DPT in obesity and its associated comorbidities by influencing AT remodelling and inflammation.

9.
Obes Facts ; 13(1): 29-39, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968341

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is a close relationship between excess adiposity and cardiovascular disease. Although body mass index (BMI) is the most used approach to estimate excess weight, other anthropometric indices have been developed to measure total body and abdominal adiposity. Here, our objective was to assess the usefulness of these anthropometric indices to detect subclinical atheromatous disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with 6,809 middle-aged subjects (mean age, 57 [53-63] years) with low to moderate cardiovascular risk from the ILERVAS project. Measures of total body fat (BMI, Clínica Universidad de Navarra - Body Adiposity Estimator [CUN-BAE], and Deurenberg's formula) and central adiposity (waist and neck circumferences, conicity index, waist-to-height ratio, Bonora's equation, the A body adiposity index, and body roundness index) were performed in all participants. Bilateral carotid and femoral ultrasound vascular studies allowed the identification of subjects with plaque. -Results: All measured indices were significantly higher in males with subclinical carotid or femoral plaques (p ≤ 0.021 for all). Also, a positive and significant correlation between all indices and the number of affected territories was found (p ≤ 0.013 for all). From the ROC analysis, all measurements identified patients with asymptomatic atheromatosis but none of them helped make clinical decisions. Regarding females, the results were less conclusive. CONCLUSION: Obesity indices are related to subclinical atheromatosis, especially in men, in a large cohort of middle-aged subjects. However, the indices could not detect the presence of arterial plaque, so, when used in isolation, are unlikely to be decisive.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Obesidade/etiologia , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Idoso , Doenças Assintomáticas , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Razão Cintura-Estatura
10.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(10): 654-662, dic. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184793

RESUMO

Las enfermedades endocrinas están experimentando un importante incremento de su prevalencia, debido a causas de diversa índole, entre ellas la epidemia de obesidad y de desnutrición, el envejecimiento de la población, pero también el efecto de los disruptores endocrinos, entre otros. Por otra parte, las nuevas tecnologías, tanto a nivel de analítica molecular y genética, de imagen y de nuevos dispositivos terapéuticos, obligan a que la comunidad profesional endocrina en España tenga que estar en constante formación. La conexión con los pacientes a través de sus asociaciones, cada vez más activas, y con la sociedad civil en general, el compromiso profesional y la demanda de diversos colectivos sociales de una atención moderna y equitativa, y a llevar a cabo investigación que facilite la consecución de avances para los pacientes, obligan al especialista en Endocrinología y Nutrición, y a la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición (SEEN), a posicionarse y dar respuesta a todos estos retos. En el presente documento, la SEEN expone sus propuestas y su estrategia hasta el 2022


Endocrine diseases are experiencing an important increase in their prevalence, due to causes of various kinds, including the epidemic of obesity and malnutrition, the aging of the population, but also the effect of endocrine disruptors, among others. On the other hand, new technologies, both in terms of molecular and genetic analysis, image and new therapeutic devices, require that the endocrine professional community in Spain must be in constant training. The connection with patients through their associations, increasingly active, and with the civil society in general, the professional commitment and demand of various social groups for a modern and equitable care, and to carry out research that facilitates the achievement of advances for patients, forces the specialist in endocrinology and nutrition and the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (SEEN) to position themselves and respond to all these challenges. In this document, the SEEN presents its proposals and its strategy until 2022


Assuntos
Endocrinologia/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/tendências , Estratégias , Endocrinologia/tendências , Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde , Medicina/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde , Espanha
11.
Nat Metab ; 1(8): 811-829, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579887

RESUMO

Dopamine signaling is a crucial part of the brain reward system and can affect feeding behavior. Dopamine receptors are also expressed in the hypothalamus, which is known to control energy metabolism in peripheral tissues. Here we show that pharmacological or chemogenetic stimulation of dopamine receptor 2 (D2R) expressing cells in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and the zona incerta (ZI) decreases body weight and stimulates brown fat activity in rodents in a feeding-independent manner. LHA/ZI D2R stimulation requires an intact sympathetic nervous system and orexin system to exert its action and involves inhibition of PI3K in the LHA/ZI. We further demonstrate that, as early as 3 months after onset of treatment, patients treated with the D2R agonist cabergoline experience an increase in energy expenditure that persists for one year, leading to total body weight and fat loss through a prolactin-independent mechanism. Our results may provide a mechanistic explanation for how clinically used D2R agonists act in the CNS to regulate energy balance.

12.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484347

RESUMO

Bariatric surgery remains the most effective option for achieving important and sustained weight loss. We explored the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on the circulating levels of adiponectin, leptin, and the adiponectin/leptin (Adpn/Lep) ratio in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Twenty-five T2D volunteers undergoing RYGB were included in the study, and further subclassified as patients that responded or not to RYBG, regarding remission of T2D. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were evaluated before and after RYGB. Obese patients with T2D exhibited an increase (p < 0.0001) in the Adpn/Lep ratio after RYGB. Changes in the Adpn/Lep ratio correlated better with changes in anthropometric data (p < 0.001) than with the variations of adiponectin or leptin alone. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the change in the Adpn/Lep ratio in patients with T2D was an independent predictor of the changes in body mass index (p < 0.001) and body fat percentage (p = 0.022). However, the Adpn/Lep ratio did not differ between individuals with or without T2D remission after RYGB. In summary, the current study demonstrated that after weight and body fat loss following RYGB, the Adpn/Lep ratio increased in patients with obesity and T2D.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Derivação Gástrica , Leptina/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Leptina/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/cirurgia
13.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551515

RESUMO

The NLRP3-IL-1ß pathway plays an important role in adipose tissue (AT)-induced inflammation and the development of obesity-associated comorbidities. We aimed to determine the impact of NLRP3 on obesity and its associated metabolic alterations as well as its role in adipocyte inflammation and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Samples obtained from 98 subjects were used in a case-control study. The expression of different components of the inflammasome as well as their main effectors and inflammation- and ECM remodeling-related genes were analyzed. The impact of blocking NLRP3 using siRNA in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation and ECM remodeling signaling pathways was evaluated. We demonstrated that obesity (P < 0.01), obesity-associated T2D (P < 0.01) and NAFLD (P < 0.05) increased the expression of different components of the inflammasome as well as the expression and release of IL-1ß and IL-18 in AT. We also found that obese patients with T2D exhibited increased (P < 0.05) hepatic gene expression levels of NLRP3, IL1B and IL18. We showed that NLRP3, but not NLRP1, is regulated by inflammation and hypoxia in visceral adipocytes. We revealed that the inhibition of NLRP3 in human visceral adipocytes significantly blocked (P < 0.01) LPS-induced inflammation by downregulating the mRNA levels of CCL2, IL1B, IL6, IL8, S100A8, S100A9, TLR4 and TNF as well as inhibiting (P < 0.01) the secretion of IL1-ß into the culture medium. Furthermore, blocking NLRP3 attenuated (P < 0.01) the LPS-induced expression of important molecules involved in AT fibrosis (COL1A1, COL4A3, COL6A3 and MMP2). These novel findings provide evidence that blocking the expression of NLRP3 reduces AT inflammation with significant fibrosis attenuation.

14.
J Infect ; 79(3): 206-211, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299411

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic stewardship programs (ASP) have already demonstrated clinical benefits. However, their effectiveness or safety in immunocompromised hosts needs to be proved. METHODS: An ecologic quasi-experimental study was performed from January 2009 to June 2017 in the Oncology department of a tertiary-care hospital. A stable program of Infectious Diseases consultation (IDC) already existed at this unit, and an educational ASP was added in 2011. Its main intervention consisted of face-to-face educational interviews. Antibiotic consumption was assessed through quarterly Defined Daily Doses (DDD) per 100 occupied bed-days. Mortality was evaluated in patients with bloodstream infections through the quarterly incidence density per 1000 admissions, and the annual mortality rates at 7 and 30-days. Time-trends were analysed through segmented-regression analysis, and the impact of the ASP was assessed through before-after interrupted time-series analysis. RESULTS: Mortality significantly decreased throughout the study period (-13.3% annual reduction for 7-day mortality rate, p < 0.01; -8.1% annual reduction for 30-day mortality, p = 0.03), parallel to a reduction in antibiotic consumption (quarterly reduction -0.4%, p = 0.01), especially for broader-spectrum antibiotics. The before-after study settled a significant inflexion point on the ASP implementation for the reduction of antibiotic consumption (change in level 0.95 DDD, p = 0.71; change in slope -1.98 DDD per quarter, p < 0.01). The decreasing trend for mortality before the ASP also continued after its implementation. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of an ASP with IDC improved antibiotic use among patients with cancer, and was accompanied by a reduction of mortality of bacteraemic infections. Implementation of the ASP was necessary to effectively change antibiotic use.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmissíveis/etiologia , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/complicações , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr ; 66(10): 654-662, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272927

RESUMO

Endocrine diseases are experiencing an important increase in their prevalence, due to causes of various kinds, including the epidemic of obesity and malnutrition, the aging of the population, but also the effect of endocrine disruptors, among others. On the other hand, new technologies, both in terms of molecular and genetic analysis, image and new therapeutic devices, require that the endocrine professional community in Spain must be in constant training. The connection with patients through their associations, increasingly active, and with the civil society in general, the professional commitment and demand of various social groups for a modern and equitable care, and to carry out research that facilitates the achievement of advances for patients, forces the specialist in endocrinology and nutrition and the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (SEEN) to position themselves and respond to all these challenges. In this document, the SEEN presents its proposals and its strategy until 2022.


Assuntos
Endocrinologia/tendências , Ciências da Nutrição/tendências , Sociedades Médicas , Previsões , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212934

RESUMO

There is a close relationship between lifestyle behaviors and excess adiposity. Although body mass index (BMI) is the most used approach to estimate excess weight, other anthropometric indices have been developed to measure total body and abdominal adiposity. However, little is known about the impact of physical activity and adherence to a Mediterranean diet on these indices. Here we report the results of a cross-sectional study with 6672 middle-aged subjects with low to moderate cardiovascular risk from the Ilerda Vascular (ILERVAS) project. The participants' adherence to physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form) and MedDiet (Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener) was evaluated. Measures of total adiposity (BMI, Clínica Universidad de Navarra-Body Adiposity Estimator (CUN-BAE), and Deurenberg's formula), central adiposity (waist and neck circumferences, conicity index, waist to height ratio, Bonora's equation, A body adiposity index, and body roundness index), and lean body mass (Hume formula) were assessed. Irrespective of sex, lower indices of physical activity were associated with higher values of total body fat and central adiposity. This result was constant regardless of the indices used to estimate adiposity. However, the association between MedDiet and obesity indices was much less marked and more dependent on sex than that observed for physical activity. Lean body mass was influenced by neither physical activity nor MedDiet adherence. No joint effect between physical activity and MedDiet to lower estimated total or central adiposity indices was shown. In conclusion, physical activity is related to lower obesity indices in a large cohort of middle-aged subjects. MedDiet showed a slight impact on estimated anthropometric indices, with no joint effect when considering both lifestyle variables. ClinTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03228459.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adiposidade , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/terapia , Obesidade Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Abdominal/terapia
17.
J Clin Med ; 8(6)2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248139

RESUMO

Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß superfamily which declines with age and has been proposed as an anti-aging factor with regenerative effects in skeletal muscle in mice. However, recent data in humans and mice are conflicting, casting doubts about its true functional actions. The aim of the present study was to analyze the potential involvement of GFD11 in energy homeostasis in particular in relation with thyroid hormones. Serum concentrations of GDF11 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 287 subjects. A highly significant positive correlation was found between GDF11 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations (r = 0.40, p < 0.001). Neither resting energy expenditure (REE) nor REE per unit of fat-free mass (REE/FFM) were significantly correlated (p > 0.05 for both) with GDF11 levels. In a multiple linear regression analysis, the model that best predicted logGDF11 included logTSH, leptin, body mass index (BMI), age, and C-reactive protein (logCRP). This model explained 37% of the total variability of logGDF11 concentrations (p < 0.001), with only logTSH being a significant predictor of logGDF11. After segregating subjects by TSH levels, those within the low TSH group exhibited significantly decreased (p < 0.05) GDF11 concentrations as compared to the normal TSH group or the high TSH group. A significant correlation of GDF11 levels with logCRP (r = 0.19, p = 0.025) was found. GDF11 levels were not related to the presence of hypertension or cardiopathy. In conclusion, our results show that circulating concentrations of GDF11 are closely associated with TSH concentrations and reduced in subjects with low TSH levels. However, GDF11 is not related to the regulation of energy expenditure. Our data also suggest that GDF11 may be involved in the regulation of inflammation, without relation to cardiac function. Further research is needed to elucidate the role of GDF11 in metabolism and its potential involvement in thyroid pathophysiology.

19.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(8): 1914-1924, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032548

RESUMO

AIMS: Despite increased recognition as a chronic disease, obesity remains greatly underdiagnosed and undertreated. We aimed to identify international perceptions, attitudes, behaviours and barriers to effective obesity care in people with obesity (PwO) and healthcare professionals (HCPs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: An online survey was conducted in 11 countries. Participants were adults with obesity and HCPs who were primarily concerned with direct patient care. RESULTS: A total of 14 502 PwO and 2785 HCPs completed the survey. Most PwO (68%) and HCPs (88%) agreed that obesity is a disease. However, 81% of PwO assumed complete responsibility for their own weight loss and only 44% of HCPs agreed that genetics were a barrier. There was a median of three (mean, six) years between the time PwO began struggling with excess weight or obesity and when they first discussed their weight with an HCP. Many PwO were concerned about the impact of excess weight on health (46%) and were motivated to lose weight (48%). Most PwO (68%) would like their HCP to initiate a conversation about weight and only 3% were offended by such a conversation. Among HCPs, belief that patients have little interest in or motivation for weight management may constitute a barrier for weight management conversations. When discussed, HCPs typically recommended lifestyle changes; however, more referrals and follow-up appointments are required. CONCLUSIONS: Our international dataset reveals a need to increase understanding of obesity and improve education concerning its physiological basis and clinical management. Realization that PwO are motivated to lose weight offers an opportunity for HCPs to initiate earlier weight management conversations.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Clin Med ; 8(4)2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970605

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 has been proposed as a key candidate in glucose improvements after bariatric surgery. Our aim was to explore the role of GLP-1 in surgically-induced type 2 diabetes (T2D) improvement and its capacity to regulate human adipocyte inflammation. METHODS: Basal circulating concentrations of GLP-1 as well as during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were measured in lean and obese volunteers with and without T2D (n = 93). In addition, GLP-1 levels were determined before and after weight loss achieved by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) (n = 77). The impact of GLP-1 on inflammation signalling pathways was also evaluated. RESULTS: We show that the reduced (p < 0.05) circulating levels of GLP-1 in obese T2D patients increased (p < 0.05) after RYGB. The area under the curve was significantly lower in obese patients with (p < 0.01) and without (p < 0.05) T2D compared to lean volunteers while obese patients with T2D exhibited decreased GLP-1 levels at baseline (p < 0.05) and 120 min (p < 0.01) after the OGTT. Importantly, higher (p < 0.05) pre-operative GLP-1 concentrations were found in patients with T2D remission after RYGB. We also revealed that exendin-4, a GLP-1 agonist, downregulated the expression of inflammation-related genes (IL1B, IL6, IL8, TNF) and, conversely, upregulated the mRNA levels of ADIPOQ in human visceral adipocytes. Furthermore, exendin-4 blocked (p < 0.05) LPS-induced inflammation in human adipocytes via downregulating the expression and secretion of key inflammatory markers. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that GLP-1 may contribute to glycemic control and exert a role in T2D remission after RYGB. GLP-1 is also involved in limiting inflammation in human visceral adipocytes.

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