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1.
Obes Facts ; : 1-11, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968341

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is a close relationship between excess adiposity and cardiovascular disease. Although body mass index (BMI) is the most used approach to estimate excess weight, other anthropometric indices have been developed to measure total body and abdominal adiposity. Here, our objective was to assess the usefulness of these anthropometric indices to detect subclinical atheromatous disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with 6,809 middle-aged subjects (mean age, 57 [53-63] years) with low to moderate cardiovascular risk from the ILERVAS project. Measures of total body fat (BMI, Clínica Universidad de Navarra - Body Adiposity Estimator [CUN-BAE], and Deurenberg's formula) and central adiposity (waist and neck circumferences, conicity index, waist-to-height ratio, Bonora's equation, the A body adiposity index, and body roundness index) were performed in all participants. Bilateral carotid and femoral ultrasound vascular studies allowed the identification of subjects with plaque. -Results: All measured indices were significantly higher in males with subclinical carotid or femoral plaques (p ≤ 0.021 for all). Also, a positive and significant correlation between all indices and the number of affected territories was found (p ≤ 0.013 for all). From the ROC analysis, all measurements identified patients with asymptomatic atheromatosis but none of them helped make clinical decisions. Regarding females, the results were less conclusive. CONCLUSION: Obesity indices are related to subclinical atheromatosis, especially in men, in a large cohort of middle-aged subjects. However, the indices could not detect the presence of arterial plaque, so, when used in isolation, are unlikely to be decisive.

2.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(10): 654-662, dic. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184793

RESUMO

Las enfermedades endocrinas están experimentando un importante incremento de su prevalencia, debido a causas de diversa índole, entre ellas la epidemia de obesidad y de desnutrición, el envejecimiento de la población, pero también el efecto de los disruptores endocrinos, entre otros. Por otra parte, las nuevas tecnologías, tanto a nivel de analítica molecular y genética, de imagen y de nuevos dispositivos terapéuticos, obligan a que la comunidad profesional endocrina en España tenga que estar en constante formación. La conexión con los pacientes a través de sus asociaciones, cada vez más activas, y con la sociedad civil en general, el compromiso profesional y la demanda de diversos colectivos sociales de una atención moderna y equitativa, y a llevar a cabo investigación que facilite la consecución de avances para los pacientes, obligan al especialista en Endocrinología y Nutrición, y a la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición (SEEN), a posicionarse y dar respuesta a todos estos retos. En el presente documento, la SEEN expone sus propuestas y su estrategia hasta el 2022


Endocrine diseases are experiencing an important increase in their prevalence, due to causes of various kinds, including the epidemic of obesity and malnutrition, the aging of the population, but also the effect of endocrine disruptors, among others. On the other hand, new technologies, both in terms of molecular and genetic analysis, image and new therapeutic devices, require that the endocrine professional community in Spain must be in constant training. The connection with patients through their associations, increasingly active, and with the civil society in general, the professional commitment and demand of various social groups for a modern and equitable care, and to carry out research that facilitates the achievement of advances for patients, forces the specialist in endocrinology and nutrition and the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (SEEN) to position themselves and respond to all these challenges. In this document, the SEEN presents its proposals and its strategy until 2022


Assuntos
Endocrinologia/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/tendências , Estratégias , Endocrinologia/tendências , Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde , Medicina/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde , Espanha
3.
Nat Metab ; 1(8): 811-829, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579887

RESUMO

Dopamine signaling is a crucial part of the brain reward system and can affect feeding behavior. Dopamine receptors are also expressed in the hypothalamus, which is known to control energy metabolism in peripheral tissues. Here we show that pharmacological or chemogenetic stimulation of dopamine receptor 2 (D2R) expressing cells in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and the zona incerta (ZI) decreases body weight and stimulates brown fat activity in rodents in a feeding-independent manner. LHA/ZI D2R stimulation requires an intact sympathetic nervous system and orexin system to exert its action and involves inhibition of PI3K in the LHA/ZI. We further demonstrate that, as early as 3 months after onset of treatment, patients treated with the D2R agonist cabergoline experience an increase in energy expenditure that persists for one year, leading to total body weight and fat loss through a prolactin-independent mechanism. Our results may provide a mechanistic explanation for how clinically used D2R agonists act in the CNS to regulate energy balance.

4.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551515

RESUMO

The NLRP3-IL-1ß pathway plays an important role in adipose tissue (AT)-induced inflammation and the development of obesity-associated comorbidities. We aimed to determine the impact of NLRP3 on obesity and its associated metabolic alterations as well as its role in adipocyte inflammation and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Samples obtained from 98 subjects were used in a case-control study. The expression of different components of the inflammasome as well as their main effectors and inflammation- and ECM remodeling-related genes were analyzed. The impact of blocking NLRP3 using siRNA in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation and ECM remodeling signaling pathways was evaluated. We demonstrated that obesity (P < 0.01), obesity-associated T2D (P < 0.01) and NAFLD (P < 0.05) increased the expression of different components of the inflammasome as well as the expression and release of IL-1ß and IL-18 in AT. We also found that obese patients with T2D exhibited increased (P < 0.05) hepatic gene expression levels of NLRP3, IL1B and IL18. We showed that NLRP3, but not NLRP1, is regulated by inflammation and hypoxia in visceral adipocytes. We revealed that the inhibition of NLRP3 in human visceral adipocytes significantly blocked (P < 0.01) LPS-induced inflammation by downregulating the mRNA levels of CCL2, IL1B, IL6, IL8, S100A8, S100A9, TLR4 and TNF as well as inhibiting (P < 0.01) the secretion of IL1-ß into the culture medium. Furthermore, blocking NLRP3 attenuated (P < 0.01) the LPS-induced expression of important molecules involved in AT fibrosis (COL1A1, COL4A3, COL6A3 and MMP2). These novel findings provide evidence that blocking the expression of NLRP3 reduces AT inflammation with significant fibrosis attenuation.

5.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484347

RESUMO

Bariatric surgery remains the most effective option for achieving important and sustained weight loss. We explored the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on the circulating levels of adiponectin, leptin, and the adiponectin/leptin (Adpn/Lep) ratio in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Twenty-five T2D volunteers undergoing RYGB were included in the study, and further subclassified as patients that responded or not to RYBG, regarding remission of T2D. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were evaluated before and after RYGB. Obese patients with T2D exhibited an increase (p < 0.0001) in the Adpn/Lep ratio after RYGB. Changes in the Adpn/Lep ratio correlated better with changes in anthropometric data (p < 0.001) than with the variations of adiponectin or leptin alone. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the change in the Adpn/Lep ratio in patients with T2D was an independent predictor of the changes in body mass index (p < 0.001) and body fat percentage (p = 0.022). However, the Adpn/Lep ratio did not differ between individuals with or without T2D remission after RYGB. In summary, the current study demonstrated that after weight and body fat loss following RYGB, the Adpn/Lep ratio increased in patients with obesity and T2D.

6.
Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr ; 66(10): 654-662, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272927

RESUMO

Endocrine diseases are experiencing an important increase in their prevalence, due to causes of various kinds, including the epidemic of obesity and malnutrition, the aging of the population, but also the effect of endocrine disruptors, among others. On the other hand, new technologies, both in terms of molecular and genetic analysis, image and new therapeutic devices, require that the endocrine professional community in Spain must be in constant training. The connection with patients through their associations, increasingly active, and with the civil society in general, the professional commitment and demand of various social groups for a modern and equitable care, and to carry out research that facilitates the achievement of advances for patients, forces the specialist in endocrinology and nutrition and the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (SEEN) to position themselves and respond to all these challenges. In this document, the SEEN presents its proposals and its strategy until 2022.

7.
J Infect ; 79(3): 206-211, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299411

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic stewardship programs (ASP) have already demonstrated clinical benefits. However, their effectiveness or safety in immunocompromised hosts needs to be proved. METHODS: An ecologic quasi-experimental study was performed from January 2009 to June 2017 in the Oncology department of a tertiary-care hospital. A stable program of Infectious Diseases consultation (IDC) already existed at this unit, and an educational ASP was added in 2011. Its main intervention consisted of face-to-face educational interviews. Antibiotic consumption was assessed through quarterly Defined Daily Doses (DDD) per 100 occupied bed-days. Mortality was evaluated in patients with bloodstream infections through the quarterly incidence density per 1000 admissions, and the annual mortality rates at 7 and 30-days. Time-trends were analysed through segmented-regression analysis, and the impact of the ASP was assessed through before-after interrupted time-series analysis. RESULTS: Mortality significantly decreased throughout the study period (-13.3% annual reduction for 7-day mortality rate, p < 0.01; -8.1% annual reduction for 30-day mortality, p = 0.03), parallel to a reduction in antibiotic consumption (quarterly reduction -0.4%, p = 0.01), especially for broader-spectrum antibiotics. The before-after study settled a significant inflexion point on the ASP implementation for the reduction of antibiotic consumption (change in level 0.95 DDD, p = 0.71; change in slope -1.98 DDD per quarter, p < 0.01). The decreasing trend for mortality before the ASP also continued after its implementation. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of an ASP with IDC improved antibiotic use among patients with cancer, and was accompanied by a reduction of mortality of bacteraemic infections. Implementation of the ASP was necessary to effectively change antibiotic use.

8.
J Clin Med ; 8(6)2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248139

RESUMO

Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß superfamily which declines with age and has been proposed as an anti-aging factor with regenerative effects in skeletal muscle in mice. However, recent data in humans and mice are conflicting, casting doubts about its true functional actions. The aim of the present study was to analyze the potential involvement of GFD11 in energy homeostasis in particular in relation with thyroid hormones. Serum concentrations of GDF11 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 287 subjects. A highly significant positive correlation was found between GDF11 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations (r = 0.40, p < 0.001). Neither resting energy expenditure (REE) nor REE per unit of fat-free mass (REE/FFM) were significantly correlated (p > 0.05 for both) with GDF11 levels. In a multiple linear regression analysis, the model that best predicted logGDF11 included logTSH, leptin, body mass index (BMI), age, and C-reactive protein (logCRP). This model explained 37% of the total variability of logGDF11 concentrations (p < 0.001), with only logTSH being a significant predictor of logGDF11. After segregating subjects by TSH levels, those within the low TSH group exhibited significantly decreased (p < 0.05) GDF11 concentrations as compared to the normal TSH group or the high TSH group. A significant correlation of GDF11 levels with logCRP (r = 0.19, p = 0.025) was found. GDF11 levels were not related to the presence of hypertension or cardiopathy. In conclusion, our results show that circulating concentrations of GDF11 are closely associated with TSH concentrations and reduced in subjects with low TSH levels. However, GDF11 is not related to the regulation of energy expenditure. Our data also suggest that GDF11 may be involved in the regulation of inflammation, without relation to cardiac function. Further research is needed to elucidate the role of GDF11 in metabolism and its potential involvement in thyroid pathophysiology.

9.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212934

RESUMO

There is a close relationship between lifestyle behaviors and excess adiposity. Although body mass index (BMI) is the most used approach to estimate excess weight, other anthropometric indices have been developed to measure total body and abdominal adiposity. However, little is known about the impact of physical activity and adherence to a Mediterranean diet on these indices. Here we report the results of a cross-sectional study with 6672 middle-aged subjects with low to moderate cardiovascular risk from the Ilerda Vascular (ILERVAS) project. The participants' adherence to physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form) and MedDiet (Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener) was evaluated. Measures of total adiposity (BMI, Clínica Universidad de Navarra-Body Adiposity Estimator (CUN-BAE), and Deurenberg's formula), central adiposity (waist and neck circumferences, conicity index, waist to height ratio, Bonora's equation, A body adiposity index, and body roundness index), and lean body mass (Hume formula) were assessed. Irrespective of sex, lower indices of physical activity were associated with higher values of total body fat and central adiposity. This result was constant regardless of the indices used to estimate adiposity. However, the association between MedDiet and obesity indices was much less marked and more dependent on sex than that observed for physical activity. Lean body mass was influenced by neither physical activity nor MedDiet adherence. No joint effect between physical activity and MedDiet to lower estimated total or central adiposity indices was shown. In conclusion, physical activity is related to lower obesity indices in a large cohort of middle-aged subjects. MedDiet showed a slight impact on estimated anthropometric indices, with no joint effect when considering both lifestyle variables. ClinTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03228459.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adiposidade , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/terapia , Obesidade Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Abdominal/terapia
11.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(8): 1914-1924, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032548

RESUMO

AIMS: Despite increased recognition as a chronic disease, obesity remains greatly underdiagnosed and undertreated. We aimed to identify international perceptions, attitudes, behaviours and barriers to effective obesity care in people with obesity (PwO) and healthcare professionals (HCPs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: An online survey was conducted in 11 countries. Participants were adults with obesity and HCPs who were primarily concerned with direct patient care. RESULTS: A total of 14 502 PwO and 2785 HCPs completed the survey. Most PwO (68%) and HCPs (88%) agreed that obesity is a disease. However, 81% of PwO assumed complete responsibility for their own weight loss and only 44% of HCPs agreed that genetics were a barrier. There was a median of three (mean, six) years between the time PwO began struggling with excess weight or obesity and when they first discussed their weight with an HCP. Many PwO were concerned about the impact of excess weight on health (46%) and were motivated to lose weight (48%). Most PwO (68%) would like their HCP to initiate a conversation about weight and only 3% were offended by such a conversation. Among HCPs, belief that patients have little interest in or motivation for weight management may constitute a barrier for weight management conversations. When discussed, HCPs typically recommended lifestyle changes; however, more referrals and follow-up appointments are required. CONCLUSIONS: Our international dataset reveals a need to increase understanding of obesity and improve education concerning its physiological basis and clinical management. Realization that PwO are motivated to lose weight offers an opportunity for HCPs to initiate earlier weight management conversations.

12.
J Clin Med ; 8(4)2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970605

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 has been proposed as a key candidate in glucose improvements after bariatric surgery. Our aim was to explore the role of GLP-1 in surgically-induced type 2 diabetes (T2D) improvement and its capacity to regulate human adipocyte inflammation. METHODS: Basal circulating concentrations of GLP-1 as well as during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were measured in lean and obese volunteers with and without T2D (n = 93). In addition, GLP-1 levels were determined before and after weight loss achieved by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) (n = 77). The impact of GLP-1 on inflammation signalling pathways was also evaluated. RESULTS: We show that the reduced (p < 0.05) circulating levels of GLP-1 in obese T2D patients increased (p < 0.05) after RYGB. The area under the curve was significantly lower in obese patients with (p < 0.01) and without (p < 0.05) T2D compared to lean volunteers while obese patients with T2D exhibited decreased GLP-1 levels at baseline (p < 0.05) and 120 min (p < 0.01) after the OGTT. Importantly, higher (p < 0.05) pre-operative GLP-1 concentrations were found in patients with T2D remission after RYGB. We also revealed that exendin-4, a GLP-1 agonist, downregulated the expression of inflammation-related genes (IL1B, IL6, IL8, TNF) and, conversely, upregulated the mRNA levels of ADIPOQ in human visceral adipocytes. Furthermore, exendin-4 blocked (p < 0.05) LPS-induced inflammation in human adipocytes via downregulating the expression and secretion of key inflammatory markers. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that GLP-1 may contribute to glycemic control and exert a role in T2D remission after RYGB. GLP-1 is also involved in limiting inflammation in human visceral adipocytes.

14.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813240

RESUMO

Obesity favors the development of cardiometabolic alterations such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the metabolic syndrome (MS). Obesity and the MS are distinguished by an increase in circulating leptin concentrations, in parallel to a drop in the levels of adiponectin. Consequently, the Adpn/Lep ratio has been suggested as a maker of dysfunctional adipose tissue. We aimed to investigate in humans (n = 292) the reliability of the Adpn/Lep ratio as a biomarker of adipose tissue dysfunction. We considered that an Adpn/Lep ratio of ≥1.0 can be considered normal, a ratio of ≥0.5 <1.0 suggests moderate-medium increased risk, and a ratio of <0.5 indicates a severe increase in cardiometabolic risk. Using these cut-offs, 5%, 54% and 48% of the lean, normoglycemic and without-MS subjects, respectively, fall within the group with an Adpn/Lep ratio below 0.5; while 89%, 86% and 90% of the obese, with T2D and with MS patients fall within the same group (p < 0.001). A significant negative correlation (r = -0.21, p = 0.005) between the Adpn/Lep ratio and serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations, a marker of adipose tissue dysfunction, was found. We concluded that the Adpn/Lep ratio is a good indicator of a dysfunctional adipose tissue that may be a useful estimator of obesity- and MS-associated cardiometabolic risk, allowing the identification of a higher number of subjects at risk.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(6): 1733-1744, 2019 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897065

RESUMO

Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a member of the transforming growth factor ß (TGFß) superfamily which declines with age and exerts anti-aging regenerative effects in skeletal muscle in mice. However, recent data in humans and mice are conflicting casting doubts about its true functional actions. The aim of the present study was to compare the circulating concentrations of GDF11 in individuals of different ages as well as body weight and glycemic status. Serum concentrations of GDF11 were measured by ELISA in 319 subjects. There was a significant increase in GDF11 concentrations in people in the 41-50 y group and a decline in the elder groups (61-70 and 71-80 y groups, P=0.008 for the comparison between all age groups). However, no significant correlation between fat-free mass index (FFMI), a formula used to estimate the amount of muscle mass in relation to height, and logGDF11 was observed (r=0.08, P=0.197). Moreover, no significant differences in circulating concentrations of GDF11 regarding obesity or glycemic status were found. Serum GDF11 concentrations in humans decrease in older ages being unaltered in obesity and T2D. Further studies should determine the exact pathophysiological role of GDF11 in aging.

16.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 48, 2019 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity is associated with impaired glucose tolerance which is a risk factor for cardiovascular risk. However, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is not usually performed in patients with normal fasting glycaemia, thus offering false reassurance to patients with overweight or obesity who may have post-prandial hyperglycaemia. As an alternative to resource demanding OGTTs, we aimed to examine the predictive value of anthropometric measures of total and central fat distribution for post-prandial hyperglycaemia in patients with overweight and obesity with normal fasting glycaemia enrolled in the DICAMANO study. METHODS: We studied 447 subjects with overweight/obesity with a fasting glucose value ≤ 5.5 mmol l-1 (99 mg dl-1) and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 who underwent a 75-g OGTT. Post-prandial hyperglycaemia was defined as a glucose level ≥ 7.8 mmol l-1 (140 mg dl-1) 2-h after the OGTT. The anthropometric measurements included body mass index, body adiposity index, waist circumference, neck circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio. RESULTS: The prevalence of post-prandial hyperglycaemia was 26%. Mean 1-h OGTT glucose levels, insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction was higher in those subjects in the highest tertile for each anthropometric measurement, irrespective of fasting glucose level. Central fat depot anthropometric measurements were strongly and independently associated with an increased risk of post-prandial hyperglycaemia. After multivariable-adjustment for fasting plasma glucose level, smoking, and physical activity level, the odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for the presence of post-prandial hyperglycaemia for neck circumference, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio were 3.3 (1.4, 7.7), 2.4 (1.4, 4.4) and 2.5 (1.4, 4.5), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this large and comprehensively phenotyped cohort, one in four subjects had post-prandial hyperglycaemia despite normal fasting glycaemia. Anthropometric indices of central fat distribution were strongly and independently associated with an increased risk of post-prandial hyperglycaemia. These results support the association between central adiposity and glucose derangements and demonstrate the clinical usefulness of anthropometric measurements as screening tools for the selection of patients who are most likely to benefit from an OGTT. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03506581. Registered 24 April 2018-Retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03506581.

17.
J Med Syst ; 43(4): 80, 2019 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information and communications technologies are transforming our social interactions and life-styles. One of the most promising applications of information technology is healthcare and wellness management that characterized by early detection of conditions, prevention, and long-term healthcare management. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this document is to do a study, first about the actual literature about mobile phone applications to measure and control heart-rate and second a study about these applications themselves, analyzing the different app stores more popular nowadays, Google Play Store and iTunes (for Android and iOS devices respectively). METHODS: The Web portals and databases that were used to perform the searches are IEEE Xplore, National Center for Biotechnology Information, Springer, ResearchGate, Science Direct and Scopus, taking into account the date of publication from 2010 to 2018, publications in English and Spanish. RESULTS: 40 relevant papers have been found related to mobile phone apps to measure and control heart rate. The results show that of a total of 400 applications found 61.25% of them are in the Play Store (Android systems) and the remaining 38.75% were found in the iTunes Store (iOS systems). CONCLUSIONS: From the review of the research articles analyzed, it can be said that the most applications found are for Android devices. They occupy 76.53% of the world mobile phone market, while iOS only owns 18.97%.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Aplicativos Móveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitorização Ambulatorial/métodos , Smartphone/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina/métodos , Humanos , Aplicativos Móveis/economia , Monitorização Ambulatorial/economia , Monitorização Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Smartphone/economia , Telemedicina/economia , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(1): 21-37, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137403

RESUMO

Context: Human obesity is associated with increased circulating TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine that induces hepatocyte cell death. Objective: The potential beneficial effects of acylated and desacyl ghrelin in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in obesity via the inhibition of TNF-α-induced hepatocyte apoptosis, autophagic cell death, and pyroptosis were investigated. Design, Settings, and Participants: Plasma ghrelin isoforms and TNF-α were measured in 158 participants, and hepatocyte cell death was evaluated in liver biopsies from 76 patients with morbid obesity undergoing bariatric surgery with available liver echography and pathology analysis. The effect of acylated and desacyl ghrelin on basal and TNF-α-induced cell death was determined in vitro in human HepG2 hepatocytes. Results: Circulating TNF-α and the acylated/desacyl ghrelin ratio were increased, whereas desacyl ghrelin levels were decreased in patients with obesity and NAFLD. Six months after bariatric surgery, decreased acylated/desacyl ghrelin levels, and improved hepatic function were found. Patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes showed increased hepatic ghrelin O-acyltransferase transcripts as well as an increased hepatic apoptosis, pyroptosis, and compromised autophagy. In HepG2 hepatocytes, acylated and desacyl ghrelin treatment reduced TNF-α-induced apoptosis, evidenced by lower caspase-8 and caspase-3 cleavage, as well as TUNEL-positive cells and pyroptosis, revealed by decreased caspase-1 activation and lower high-mobility group box 1 expression. Moreover, acylated ghrelin suppressed TNF-α-activated hepatocyte autophagy, as evidenced by a decreased LC3B-II/I ratio and increased p62 accumulation via AMPK/mTOR. Conclusions: Ghrelin constitutes a protective factor against hepatocyte cell death. The increased acylated/desacyl ghrelin ratio in patients with obesity and NAFLD might constitute a compensatory mechanism to overcome TNF-α-induced hepatocyte apoptosis, autophagy, and pyroptosis.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Grelina/farmacologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Obesidade Mórbida/patologia , Piroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Adulto , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Grelina/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Metabolism ; 87: 123-135, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29679615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Kallistatin plays an important role in the inhibition of inflammation, oxidative stress, fibrosis and angiogenesis. We aimed to determine the impact of kallistatin on obesity and its associated metabolic alterations as well as its role in adipocyte inflammation and oxidative stress. METHODS: Samples obtained from 95 subjects were used in a case-control study. Circulating concentrations and expression levels of kallistatin as well as key inflammation, oxidative stress and extracellular matrix remodelling-related genes were analyzed. Circulating kallistatin concentrations were measured before and after weight loss achieved by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The impact of kallistatin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α-mediated inflammatory as well as oxidative stress signalling pathways was evaluated. RESULTS: We show that the reduced (P < 0.00001) circulating levels of kallistatin in obese patients increased (P < 0.00001) after RYGB. Moreover, gene expression levels of SERPINA4, the gene coding for kallistatin, were downregulated (P < 0.01) in the liver from obese subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Additionally, we revealed that kallistatin reduced (P < 0.05) the expression of inflammation-related genes (CCL2, IL1B, IL6, IL8, TNFA, TGFB) and, conversely, upregulated (P < 0.05) mRNA levels of ADIPOQ and KLF4 in human adipocytes in culture. Kallistatin inhibited (P < 0.05) LPS- and TNF-α-induced inflammation in human adipocytes via downregulating the expression and secretion of key inflammatory markers. Furthermore, kallistatin also blocked (P < 0.05) TNF-α-mediated lipid peroxidation as well as NOX2 and HIF1A expression while stimulating (P < 0.05) the expression of SIRT1 and FOXO1. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide, for the first time, evidence of a novel role of kallistatin in obesity and its associated comorbidities by limiting adipose tissue inflammation and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Serpinas/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipócitos/patologia , Adulto , Anastomose em-Y de Roux , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citocinas/biossíntese , Citocinas/genética , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Obesidade/genética , Serpinas/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
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