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1.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(3): 553-564, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746764

RESUMO

SLC35A2-CDG is caused by mutations in the X-linked SLC35A2 gene encoding the UDP-galactose transporter. SLC35A2 mutations lead to hypogalactosylation of N-glycans. SLC35A2-CDG is characterized by severe neurological symptoms and, in many patients, early-onset epileptic encephalopathy. In view of the diagnostic challenges, we studied the clinical, neuroradiological, and biochemical features of 15 patients (11 females and 4 males) with SLC35A2-CDG from various centers. We describe nine novel pathogenic variations in SLC35A2. All affected individuals presented with a global developmental delay, and hypotonia, while 70% were nonambulatory. Epilepsy was present in 80% of the patients, and in EEG hypsarrhythmia and findings consistent with epileptic encephalopathy were frequently seen. The most common brain MRI abnormality was cerebral atrophy with delayed myelination and multifocal inhomogeneous abnormal patchy white matter hyperintensities, which seemed to be nonprogressive. Thin corpus callosum was also common, and all the patients had a corpus callosum shorter than normal for their age. Variable dysmorphic features and growth deficiency were noted. Biochemically, normal mucin type O-glycosylation and lipid glycosylation were found, while transferrin mass spectrometry was found to be more specific in the identification of SLC35A2-CDG, as compared to routine screening tests. Although normal glycosylation studies together with clinical variability and genetic results complicate the diagnosis of SLC35A2-CDG, our data indicate that the combination of these three elements can support the pathogenicity of mutations in SLC35A2.

2.
Genet Med ; 21(7): 1621-1628, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542205

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The presentation and etiology of cerebral palsy (CP) are heterogeneous. Diagnostic evaluation can be a prolonged and expensive process that might remain inconclusive. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic yield and impact on management of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in 50 individuals with atypical CP (ACP). METHODS: Patient eligibility criteria included impaired motor function with onset at birth or within the first year of life, and one or more of the following: severe intellectual disability, progressive neurological deterioration, other abnormalities on neurological examination, multiorgan disease, congenital anomalies outside of the central nervous system, an abnormal neurotransmitter profile, family history, brain imaging findings not typical for cerebral palsy. Previous assessment by a neurologist and/or clinical geneticist, including biochemical testing, neuroimaging, and chromosomal microarray, did not yield an etiologic diagnosis. RESULTS: A precise molecular diagnosis was established in 65% of the 50 patients. We also identified candidate disease genes without a current OMIM disease designation. Targeted intervention was enabled in eight families (~15%). CONCLUSION: NGS enabled a molecular diagnosis in ACP cases, ending the diagnostic odyssey, improving genetic counseling and personalized management, all in all enhancing precision medicine practices.

3.
Mol Genet Metab ; 123(1): 28-42, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29331171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial diseases, a group of multi-systemic disorders often characterized by tissue-specific phenotypes, are usually progressive and fatal disorders resulting from defects in oxidative phosphorylation. MTO1 (Mitochondrial tRNA Translation Optimization 1), an evolutionarily conserved protein expressed in high-energy demand tissues has been linked to human early-onset combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, often referred to as combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-10 (COXPD10). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty five cases of MTO1 deficiency were identified and reviewed through international collaboration. The cases of two female siblings, who presented at 1 and 2years of life with seizures, global developmental delay, hypotonia, elevated lactate and complex I and IV deficiency on muscle biopsy but without cardiomyopathy, are presented in detail. RESULTS: For the description of phenotypic features, the denominator varies as the literature was insufficient to allow for complete ascertainment of all data for the 35 cases. An extensive review of all known MTO1 deficiency cases revealed the most common features at presentation to be lactic acidosis (LA) (21/34; 62% cases) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (15/34; 44% cases). Eventually lactic acidosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are described in 35/35 (100%) and 27/34 (79%) of patients with MTO1 deficiency, respectively; with global developmental delay/intellectual disability present in 28/29 (97%), feeding difficulties in 17/35 (49%), failure to thrive in 12/35 (34%), seizures in 12/35 (34%), optic atrophy in 11/21 (52%) and ataxia in 7/34 (21%). There are 19 different pathogenic MTO1 variants identified in these 35 cases: one splice-site, 3 frameshift and 15 missense variants. None have bi-allelic variants that completely inactivate MTO1; however, patients where one variant is truncating (i.e. frameshift) while the second one is a missense appear to have a more severe, even fatal, phenotype. These data suggest that complete loss of MTO1 is not viable. A ketogenic diet may have exerted a favourable effect on seizures in 2/5 patients. CONCLUSION: MTO1 deficiency is lethal in some but not all cases, and a genotype-phenotype relation is suggested. Aside from lactic acidosis and cardiomyopathy, developmental delay and other phenotypic features affecting multiple organ systems are often present in these patients, suggesting a broader spectrum than hitherto reported. The diagnosis should be suspected on clinical features and the presence of markers of mitochondrial dysfunction in body fluids, especially low residual complex I, III and IV activity in muscle. Molecular confirmation is required and targeted genomic testing may be the most efficient approach. Although subjective clinical improvement was observed in a small number of patients on therapies such as ketogenic diet and dichloroacetate, no evidence-based effective therapy exists.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(1): 65-74, 2017 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28669405

RESUMO

KCNQ5 is a highly conserved gene encoding an important channel for neuronal function; it is widely expressed in the brain and generates M-type current. Exome sequencing identified de novo heterozygous missense mutations in four probands with intellectual disability, abnormal neurological findings, and treatment-resistant epilepsy (in two of four). Comprehensive analysis of this potassium channel for the four variants expressed in frog oocytes revealed shifts in the voltage dependence of activation, including altered activation and deactivation kinetics. Specifically, both loss-of-function and gain-of-function KCNQ5 mutations, associated with increased excitability and decreased repolarization reserve, lead to pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Canais de Potássio KCNQ/genética , Mutação/genética , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Ativação do Canal Iônico , Canais de Potássio KCNQ/química , Proteínas Mutantes/química , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Fenótipo , Alinhamento de Sequência
6.
Genet Med ; 19(12)2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28749475

RESUMO

The purpose of this statement is to provide consensus-based recommendations for optimal management and care for patients with primary mitochondrial disease. This statement is intended for physicians who are engaged in the diagnosis and management of these patients. Working group members were appointed by the Mitochondrial Medicine Society. The panel included members with several different areas of expertise. The panel members utilized surveys and the Delphi method to reach consensus. We anticipate that this statement will need to be updated as the field continues to evolve. Consensus-based recommendations are provided for the routine care and management of patients with primary genetic mitochondrial disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Mitocondriais/diagnóstico , Doenças Mitocondriais/terapia , Padrão de Cuidado , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos
7.
J Nutr ; 147(2): 211-217, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28053173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phenylketonuria is characterized by mutations in the Phe hydroxylase gene that leads to the accumulation of Phe in plasma and the brain. The standard of care for phenylketonuria is nutritional management with dietary restriction of Phe and the provision of sufficient protein and energy for growth and health maintenance. The protein requirement in children with phenylketonuria is empirically determined based upon phenylketonuria nutritional guidelines that are adjusted individually in response to biochemical markers and growth. OBJECTIVE: We determined dietary protein requirements in children with phenylketonuria with the use of the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique, with l-[1-13C]Leu as the indicator amino acid. METHODS: Four children (2 males; 2 females) aged 9-18 y with phenylketonuria [mild hyperphenylalanemia (mHPA); 6-10 mg/dL (360-600 µmol/L)] were recruited to participate in ≥7 separate test protein intakes (range: 0.2-3.2 g ⋅ kg-1 ⋅ d-1) with the IAAO protocol with the use of l-[1-13C]Leu followed by the collection of breath and urine samples over 8 h. The diets were isocaloric and provided energy at 1.7 times the resting energy expenditure. Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acid mixture based on an egg protein pattern, except Phe and Leu, which were maintained at a constant across intakes. Protein requirement was determined with the use of a 2-phase linear-regression crossover analysis of the rate of l-[1-13C]Leu tracer oxidation. RESULTS: The mean protein requirement was determined to be 1.85 g ⋅ kg-1 ⋅ d-1 (R2 = 0.66; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.33). This result is substantially higher than the 2014 phenylketonuria recommendations (1.14-1.33 g ⋅ kg-1 ⋅ d-1; based on 120-140% above the current RDA for age). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly define a quantitative requirement for protein intake in children with mHPA and indicates that current protein recommendations in children with phenylketonuria may be insufficient. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01965691.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta , Leucina/metabolismo , Necessidades Nutricionais , Fenilcetonúrias/metabolismo , Adolescente , Isótopos de Carbono , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Marcação por Isótopo , Leucina/química , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Oxirredução
8.
J Child Neurol ; 32(4): 403-407, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28056632

RESUMO

Glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (QARS) deficiency has been described to be a cause of a neurodegenerative disorder associated with severe developmental delay, microcephaly, delayed myelination, and intractable epilepsy. The epilepsy is thought to be more severe than other tRNA synthetase disorders. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature and there is little information about response to different treatment options. The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that is used in treatment resistant epilepsy of various etiologies. There are reports that the diet can also improve neuro-cognitive parameters. The authors report a case of a patient with glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase deficiency and treatment resistant seizures where there was a marked and early favorable response in terms of seizures, alertness and behavior to the ketogenic diet.


Assuntos
Aminoacil-tRNA Sintetases/deficiência , Dieta Cetogênica , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/dietoterapia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/psicologia , Convulsões/dietoterapia , Convulsões/psicologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/enzimologia , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Masculino , Convulsões/enzimologia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
N Engl J Med ; 374(23): 2246-55, 2016 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27276562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whole-exome sequencing has transformed gene discovery and diagnosis in rare diseases. Translation into disease-modifying treatments is challenging, particularly for intellectual developmental disorder. However, the exception is inborn errors of metabolism, since many of these disorders are responsive to therapy that targets pathophysiological features at the molecular or cellular level. METHODS: To uncover the genetic basis of potentially treatable inborn errors of metabolism, we combined deep clinical phenotyping (the comprehensive characterization of the discrete components of a patient's clinical and biochemical phenotype) with whole-exome sequencing analysis through a semiautomated bioinformatics pipeline in consecutively enrolled patients with intellectual developmental disorder and unexplained metabolic phenotypes. RESULTS: We performed whole-exome sequencing on samples obtained from 47 probands. Of these patients, 6 were excluded, including 1 who withdrew from the study. The remaining 41 probands had been born to predominantly nonconsanguineous parents of European descent. In 37 probands, we identified variants in 2 genes newly implicated in disease, 9 candidate genes, 22 known genes with newly identified phenotypes, and 9 genes with expected phenotypes; in most of the genes, the variants were classified as either pathogenic or probably pathogenic. Complex phenotypes of patients in five families were explained by coexisting monogenic conditions. We obtained a diagnosis in 28 of 41 probands (68%) who were evaluated. A test of a targeted intervention was performed in 18 patients (44%). CONCLUSIONS: Deep phenotyping and whole-exome sequencing in 41 probands with intellectual developmental disorder and unexplained metabolic abnormalities led to a diagnosis in 68%, the identification of 11 candidate genes newly implicated in neurometabolic disease, and a change in treatment beyond genetic counseling in 44%. (Funded by BC Children's Hospital Foundation and others.).


Assuntos
Exoma , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Ann Neurol ; 78(4): 649-58, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26224535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the etiology of a novel, heritable encephalopathy in a small group of patients. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pattern analysis was used to select patients with the same pattern. Homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing (WES) were performed to find the causal gene mutations. RESULTS: Seven patients from 4 families (2 consanguineous) were identified with a similar MRI pattern characterized by T2 signal abnormalities and diffusion restriction in the posterior limb of the internal capsule, often also optic radiation, brainstem tracts, and cerebellar white matter, in combination with delayed myelination and progressive brain atrophy. Patients presented with early infantile onset encephalopathy characterized by progressive microcephaly, seizures, variable cardiac defects, and early death. Metabolic testing was unrevealing. Single nucleotide polymorphism array revealed 1 overlapping homozygous region on chromosome 20 in the consanguineous families. In all patients, WES subsequently revealed recessive predicted loss of function mutations in ITPA, encoding inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPase). ITPase activity in patients' erythrocytes and fibroblasts was severely reduced. INTERPRETATION: Until now ITPA variants have only been associated with adverse reactions to specific drugs. This is the first report associating ITPA mutations with a human disorder. ITPase is important in purine metabolism because it removes noncanonical nucleotides from the cellular nucleotide pool. Toxicity of accumulated noncanonical nucleotides, leading to neuronal apoptosis and interference with proteins normally using adenosine triphosphate/guanosine triphosphate, probably explains the disease. This study confirms that combining MRI pattern recognition to define small, homogeneous patient groups with WES is a powerful approach for providing a fast diagnosis in patients with an unclassified genetic encephalopathy.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/diagnóstico , Encefalopatias/genética , Genes Recessivos/genética , Mutação/genética , Pirofosfatases/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Pirofosfatases/química
11.
Neurogenetics ; 16(2): 145-9, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25432320

RESUMO

We describe a family with QARS deficiency due to compound heterozygous QARS mutations, including c.1387G > A (p.R463*) in the catalytic core domain and c.2226C > G (p.Q742H) in the anticodon domain, both previously unreported and predicted damaging. The phenotype of the male index further confirms this specific aminoacyl-transfer RNA (tRNA) synthetase disorder as a novel genetic cause of progressive microcephaly with diffuse cerebral atrophy, severely deficient myelination, intractable seizures, and developmental arrest. However, in contrast to the two hitherto published families, the cerebellum and its myelination are not affected. An awareness that QARS mutations may cause isolated supratentorial changes is crucial for properly directing genetic analysis.


Assuntos
Aminoacil-tRNA Sintetases/genética , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação , Anticódon , Criança , Família , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Microcefalia/patologia , Fenótipo
12.
Mol Genet Metab ; 114(3): 409-14, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25497838

RESUMO

We analyzed long-term sustainability of improved blood Phenylalanine (Phe) control and changes to dietary Phe tolerance in 11 patients (1 month to 16 years), with various forms of primary PAH deficiency (classic, moderate, severe phenylketonuria [PKU], mild hyperphenylalaninemia [HPA]), who were treated with 15-20mg/kg/d Sapropterin-dihydrochloride during a period of 13-44 months. 7/11 patients had a sustainable, significant reduction of baseline blood Phe concentrations and 6 of them also had an increase in mg/kg/day Phe tolerance. In 2 patients with mild HPA, blood Phe concentrations remained in the physiologic range even after a 22 and 36% increase in mg/kg/day Phe tolerance and an achieved Phe intake at 105% and 268% of the dietary reference intake (DRI) for protein. 2 of these responders had classic PKU. 1 patient with mild HPA who started treatment at 2 months of life, had a significant and sustainable reduction in pretreatment blood Phe concentrations, but no increase in the mg/kg/day Phe tolerance. An increase in Phe tolerance could only be demonstrated when expressing the patient's daily Phe tolerance with the DRI for protein showing an increase from 58% at baseline to 78% of normal DRI at the end of the observation. Long-term follow-up of patients with an initial response to treatment with Sapropterin is essential to determine clinically meaningful outcomes. Phenylalanine tolerance should be expressed in mg/kg/day and/or % of normal DRI to differentiate medical therapy related from physiologic growth related increase in daily Phe intake.


Assuntos
Biopterina/análogos & derivados , Fenilalanina/administração & dosagem , Fenilalanina/sangue , Fenilcetonúrias/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Biopterina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Fenilcetonúrias/sangue , Recomendações Nutricionais , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 94(3): 453-61, 2014 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24530203

RESUMO

Four children in three unrelated families (one consanguineous) presented with lethargy, hyperlactatemia, and hyperammonemia of unexplained origin during the neonatal period and early childhood. We identified and validated three different CA5A alterations, including a homozygous missense mutation (c.697T>C) in two siblings, a homozygous splice site mutation (c.555G>A) leading to skipping of exon 4, and a homozygous 4 kb deletion of exon 6. The deleterious nature of the homozygous mutation c.697T>C (p.Ser233Pro) was demonstrated by reduced enzymatic activity and increased temperature sensitivity. Carbonic anhydrase VA (CA-VA) was absent in liver in the child with the homozygous exon 6 deletion. The metabolite profiles in the affected individuals fit CA-VA deficiency, showing evidence of impaired provision of bicarbonate to the four enzymes that participate in key pathways in intermediary metabolism: carbamoylphosphate synthetase 1 (urea cycle), pyruvate carboxylase (anaplerosis, gluconeogenesis), propionyl-CoA carboxylase, and 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (branched chain amino acids catabolism). In the three children who were administered carglumic acid, hyperammonemia resolved. CA-VA deficiency should therefore be added to urea cycle defects, organic acidurias, and pyruvate carboxylase deficiency as a treatable condition in the differential diagnosis of hyperammonemia in the neonate and young child.


Assuntos
Anidrase Carbônica V/deficiência , Anidrase Carbônica V/genética , Hiperamonemia/genética , Adolescente , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Éxons , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Variação Genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Hiperamonemia/terapia , Lactente , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Temperatura Ambiente
14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 21(11): 1232-9, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23443029

RESUMO

Inflammation is an important contributor to pediatric and adult neurodegeneration. Understanding the genetic determinants of neuroinflammation provides valuable insight into disease mechanism. We characterize a disorder of recurrent immune-mediated neurodegeneration. We report two sisters who presented with neurodegeneration triggered by infections. The proband, a previously healthy girl, presented at 22.5 months with ataxia and dysarthria following mild gastroenteritis. MRI at onset showed a symmetric signal abnormality of the cerebellar and peritrigonal white matter. Following a progressive course of partial remissions and relapses, she died at 5 years of age. Her older sister had a similar course following varicella infection, she died within 13 months. Both sisters had unremarkable routine laboratory testing, with exception of a transient mild cytopenia in the proband 19 months after presentation. Exome sequencing identified a biallelic perforin1 mutation (PRF1; p.R225W) previously associated with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL). In contrast to FHL, these girls did not have hematopathology or cytokine overproduction. However, 3 years after disease onset, the proband had markedly deficient interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß) production. These observations extend the spectrum of disease associated with perforin mutations to immune-mediated neurodegeneration triggered by infection and possibly due to primary immunodeficiency.


Assuntos
Ataxia/genética , Ataxia/virologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Mutação/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exoma/genética , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/biossíntese , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Linhagem , Recidiva , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Gene ; 497(2): 320-2, 2012 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22336178

RESUMO

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is genetically heterogeneous, and largely caused by mutations in genes encoding sarcomere proteins. However, GLA mutations causing Fabry disease, an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder, may also present with isolated HCM. As HCM genetic testing panels are increasingly being used clinically, variants of unknown significance (VUS) are encountered, leading to challenges in interpretation. We present an illustrative case: a 10-year-old girl with isolated HCM who, on testing with a HCM multi-gene panel, was found to carry a maternally inherited p.W24R variant in GLA. Attempts to evaluate the significance of this variant, by direct biochemical testing of patient specimens, gave inconclusive results. Subsequent in vitro protein expression studies suggested that the variant is unlikely to be pathogenic. This case highlights diagnostic dilemmas that can be provoked by VUS in general, and specifically raises a question whether GLA sequencing should be included in first-line diagnostic testing for female children with isolated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Mutação , Criança , Doença de Fabry/diagnóstico , Doença de Fabry/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Sarcômeros/genética , Incerteza
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