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J Pers Med ; 11(9)2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575676


Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is progressively being used in clinical practice. However, several barriers preclude using this technology for precision oncology in most Latin American countries. To overcome some of these barriers, we have designed a 25-gene panel that contains predictive biomarkers for most current and near-future available therapies in Chile and Latin America. Library preparation was optimized to account for low DNA integrity observed in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. The workflow includes an automated bioinformatic pipeline that accounts for the underrepresentation of Latin Americans in genome databases. The panel detected small insertions, deletions, and single nucleotide variants down to allelic frequencies of 0.05 with high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility. The workflow was validated in 272 clinical samples from several solid tumor types, including gallbladder (GBC). More than 50 biomarkers were detected in these samples, mainly in BRCA1/2, KRAS, and PIK3CA genes. In GBC, biomarkers for PARP, EGFR, PIK3CA, mTOR, and Hedgehog signaling inhibitors were found. Thus, this small NGS panel is an accurate and sensitive method that may constitute a more cost-efficient alternative to multiple non-NGS assays and costly, large NGS panels. This kind of streamlined assay with automated bioinformatics analysis may facilitate the implementation of precision medicine in Latin America.

EClinicalMedicine ; 40: 101099, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490415


Background: Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there has been increasing urgency to identify pathophysiological characteristics leading to severe clinical course in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Human leukocyte antigen alleles (HLA) have been suggested as potential genetic host factors that affect individual immune response to SARS-CoV-2. We sought to evaluate this hypothesis by conducting a multicenter study using HLA sequencing. Methods: We analyzed the association between COVID-19 severity and HLAs in 435 individuals from Germany (n = 135), Spain (n = 133), Switzerland (n = 20) and the United States (n = 147), who had been enrolled from March 2020 to August 2020. This study included patients older than 18 years, diagnosed with COVID-19 and representing the full spectrum of the disease. Finally, we tested our results by meta-analysing data from prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Findings: We describe a potential association of HLA-C*04:01 with severe clinical course of COVID-19. Carriers of HLA-C*04:01 had twice the risk of intubation when infected with SARS-CoV-2 (risk ratio 1.5 [95% CI 1.1-2.1], odds ratio 3.5 [95% CI 1.9-6.6], adjusted p-value = 0.0074). These findings are based on data from four countries and corroborated by independent results from GWAS. Our findings are biologically plausible, as HLA-C*04:01 has fewer predicted bindings sites for relevant SARS-CoV-2 peptides compared to other HLA alleles. Interpretation: HLA-C*04:01 carrier state is associated with severe clinical course in SARS-CoV-2. Our findings suggest that HLA class I alleles have a relevant role in immune defense against SARS-CoV-2. Funding: Funded by Roche Sequencing Solutions, Inc.

PLoS One ; 14(3): e0212947, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845200


Dengue virus (DENV) is a flavivirus responsible for the most common and burdensome arthropod-borne viral disease of humans[1]. DENV evolution has been extensively studied on broad geographic and time scales, using sequences from a single gene[2,3]. It is believed that DENV evolution in humans is dominated primarily by purifying selection due to the constraint of maintaining fitness in both humans and mosquitoes[4,5]. Few studies have explored DENV evolutionary dynamics using whole genome sequences, nor have they explored changes in viral diversity that occur during intra-epidemic periods. We used deep sequencing of the viral coding region to characterize DENV-1 evolution in a Colombian population sampled during two high-prevalence dengue seasons in which serotype dominance shifted. Our data demonstrate patterns of strain extinction and replacement within DENV-1 as its prevalence waned and DENV-3 became established. A comparison of whole-genome versus single-gene-based phylogenetic analyses highlights an important difference in evolutionary patterns. We report a trend of higher nonsynonymous to synonymous diversity ratios among non-structural (NS) genes, and statistically significantly higher values among these ratios in the NS1 gene after DENV-1 strain replacement. These results suggest that positive selection could be driving DENV evolution within individual communities. Signals of positive selection coming from distinct samples may be drowned out when combining multiple regions with differing patterns of endemic transmission as commonly done by large-scale geo-temporal assessments. Here, we frame our findings within a small, local transmission history which aids significance. Moreover, these data suggest that the NS1 gene, rather than the E gene, may be a target of positive selection, although not mutually exclusive, and potentially useful sentinel of adaptive changes at the population level.

Vírus da Dengue/genética , Dengue/virologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/transmissão , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Seleção Genética , Sorogrupo , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(2): e0006210, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29401460


Mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) typically causes a mild and self-limiting illness known as Zika fever. Since its recent emergence in 2014 in the American continent, ZIKV infection during pregnancy has been closely associated with a wide range of congenital abnormalities. To date, no vaccines or antivirals are publicly available. We developed Zika virus-like particles (VLPs) and evaluated their immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mouse models. ZIKV VLPs (ZIKVLPs) formulated with alum were injected into 6-8-week-old interferon deficient AG129 mice as well as wild type BALB/c mice. Control mice received PBS/alum. Animals were challenged with 200 PFU (>1000 AG129 LD50s) of ZIKV strain H/PF/2013. All vaccinated mice survived with no morbidity or weight loss while control animals either died at 9 days post challenge (AG129) or had increased viremia (BALB/c). Neutralizing antibodies were observed in all ZIKVLP vaccinated mice. The role of neutralizing antibodies in protecting mice was demonstrated by passive transfer. Our findings demonstrate the protective efficacy of the ZIKVLP vaccine and highlight the important role that neutralizing antibodies play in protection against ZIKV infection.

Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Zika virus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Técnicas In Vitro , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout , Morbidade , Vacinação , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/genética , Células Vero , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/genética , Viremia/virologia , Perda de Peso , Zika virus/efeitos dos fármacos , Zika virus/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/genética