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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281165

RESUMO

Thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD) is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Loss-of-function variants in LOX, encoding the extracellular matrix crosslinking enzyme lysyl oxidase, have been reported to cause familial TAAD. Using a next-generation TAAD gene panel, we identified five additional probands carrying LOX variants, including two missense variants affecting highly conserved amino acids in the LOX catalytic domain and three truncating variants. Connective tissue manifestations are apparent in a substantial fraction of the variant carriers. Some LOX variant carriers presented with TAAD early in life, while others had normal aortic diameters at an advanced age. Finally, we identified the first patient with spontaneous coronary artery dissection carrying a LOX variant. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that loss-of-function LOX variants cause a spectrum of aortic and arterial aneurysmal disease, often combined with connective tissue findings.

2.
EBioMedicine ; 70: 103485, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304048

RESUMO

Background Older age is the most powerful risk factor for adverse coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) outcomes. It is uncertain whether leucocyte telomere length (LTL), previously proposed as a marker of biological age, is also associated with COVID-19 outcomes. Methods We associated LTL values obtained from participants recruited into UK Biobank (UKB) during 2006-2010 with adverse COVID-19 outcomes recorded by 30 November 2020, defined as a composite of any of the following: hospital admission, need for critical care, respiratory support, or mortality. Using information on 130 LTL-associated genetic variants, we conducted exploratory Mendelian randomisation (MR) analyses in UKB to evaluate whether observational associations might reflect cause-and-effect relationships. Findings Of 6775 participants in UKB who tested positive for infection with SARS-CoV-2 in the community, there were 914 (13.5%) with adverse COVID-19 outcomes. The odds ratio (OR) for adverse COVID-19 outcomes was 1·17 (95% CI 1·05-1·30; P = 0·004) per 1-SD shorter usual LTL, after adjustment for age, sex and ethnicity. Similar ORs were observed in analyses that: adjusted for additional risk factors; disaggregated the composite outcome and reduced the scope for selection or collider bias. In MR analyses, the OR for adverse COVID-19 outcomes was directionally concordant but non-significant. Interpretation Shorter LTL is associated with higher risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes, independent of several major risk factors for COVID-19 including age. Further data are needed to determine whether this association reflects causality. Funding UK Medical Research Council, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council and British Heart Foundation.

3.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34164895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few data regarding the prevalence and prognostic impact of mitral regurgitation (MR) in patients with worsening chronic or new-onset acute heart failure (HF) are available. We investigated the role of MR in the BIOlogy Study to TAilored Treatment in Chronic Heart Failure (BIOSTAT-CHF). METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a retrospective post-hoc analysis including patients from both the index and validation BIOSTAT-CHF cohorts with data regarding MR status. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death or HF hospitalization. Among 4023 patients included, 1653 patients (41.1%) had moderate-severe MR. Compared to others, patients with moderate-severe MR were more likely to have atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease and had larger left ventricular (LV) dimensions, lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), worse QoL, and higher plasma concentrations of NT-proBNP. A primary outcome event occurred in 697 patients with, compared to 836 patients without, moderate-severe MR (Kaplan-Meier 2-year estimate: 42.2% vs. 35.3%; hazard ratio [HR], 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.41; log-rank p < 0.0001). The association between MR and the primary endpoint remained significant after adjusting for baseline variables and the previously validated BIOSTAT-CHF risk score (adjusted HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00-1.23; p = 0.041). Subgroup analyses showed a numerically larger impact of MR on primary endpoint in patients with lower LVEF, larger LV end-diastolic diameter, and higher plasma NT-proBNP. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-severe MR is common in patients with worsening chronic or new-onset acute HF and is strongly associated with outcome, independently of other features related to HF severity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Nat Genet ; 53(5): 630-637, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958779

RESUMO

The kidney is an organ of key relevance to blood pressure (BP) regulation, hypertension and antihypertensive treatment. However, genetically mediated renal mechanisms underlying susceptibility to hypertension remain poorly understood. We integrated genotype, gene expression, alternative splicing and DNA methylation profiles of up to 430 human kidneys to characterize the effects of BP index variants from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on renal transcriptome and epigenome. We uncovered kidney targets for 479 (58.3%) BP-GWAS variants and paired 49 BP-GWAS kidney genes with 210 licensed drugs. Our colocalization and Mendelian randomization analyses identified 179 unique kidney genes with evidence of putatively causal effects on BP. Through Mendelian randomization, we also uncovered effects of BP on renal outcomes commonly affecting patients with hypertension. Collectively, our studies identified genetic variants, kidney genes, molecular mechanisms and biological pathways of key relevance to the genetic regulation of BP and inherited susceptibility to hypertension.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genômica , Hipertensão/genética , Rim/patologia , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
5.
Heart ; 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) practice in an international cohort of patients with spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD). To explore factors associated with complications and study angiographic and longer term outcomes. METHODS: SCAD patients (n=215, 94% female) who underwent PCI from three national cohort studies were investigated and compared with a matched cohort of conservatively managed SCAD patients (n=221). RESULTS: SCAD-PCI patients were high risk at presentation with only 8.8% undergoing PCI outside the context of ST-elevation myocardial infarction/cardiac arrest, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) 0/1 flow or proximal dissections. PCI complications occurred in 38.6% (83/215), with 13.0% (28/215) serious complications. PCI-related complications were associated with more extensive dissections (multiple vs single American Heart Association coronary segments, OR 1.9 (95% CI: 1.06-3.39),p=0.030), more proximal dissections (proximal diameter per mm, OR 2.25 (1.38-3.67), p=0.001) and dissections with no contrast penetration of the false lumen (Yip-Saw 2 versus 1, OR 2.89 (1.12-7.43), p=0.028). SCAD-PCI involved long lengths of stent (median 46mm, IQR: 29-61mm). Despite these risks, SCAD-PCI led to angiographic improvements in those with reduced TIMI flow in 84.3% (118/140). Worsening TIMI flow was only seen in 7.0% (15/215) of SCAD-PCI patients. Post-PCI major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and left ventricular function outcomes were favourable. CONCLUSION: While a conservative approach to revascularisation is favoured, SCAD cases with higher risk presentations may require PCI. SCAD-PCI is associated with longer stent lengths and a higher risk of complications but leads to overall improvements in coronary flow and good medium-term outcomes in patients.

6.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048532

RESUMO

AIMS: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a cause of acute coronary syndromes and in rare cases sudden cardiac death (SCD). Connective tissue abnormalities, coronary inflammation, increased coronary vasa vasorum density and coronary fibromuscular dysplasia have all been implicated in the pathophysiology of SCAD but have not previously been systematically assessed. We designed a study to investigate the coronary histological and dermal collagen ultrastructural findings in SCAD. METHODS AND RESULTS: 36 autopsy SCAD cases were compared with 359 SCAD survivors. Coronary and myocardial histology and immunohistochemistry were undertaken. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of dermal extracellular matrix components (ECM) of n = 31 SCAD survivors and n = 16 healthy volunteers were compared. Autopsy cases were more likely male (19% versus 5%; p = 0.0004) with greater proximal left coronary involvement (56% versus 18%; p < 0.0001) compared to SCAD survivors. N = 24 (66%) of cases showed no myocardial infarction on macro- or microscopic examination consistent with arrhythmogenic death. There was significantly (p < 0.001) higher inflammation in cases with delayed-onset death vs sudden death and significantly more inflammation surrounding the dissected vs. non-dissected vessel segments. N = 17 (47%) cases showed limited intimal fibro-elastic thickening but no features of fibromuscular dysplasia and no endothelial or internal elastic lamina abnormalities. There were no differences in vasa vasorum density between SCAD and control cases. TEM revealed no general ultrastructural differences in ECM components or markers of fibroblast metabolic activity. CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of SCD requires careful exclusion of SCAD, particularly in cases without myocardial necrosis. Peri-coronary inflammation in SCAD is distinct from vasculitides and likely a reaction to, rather than a cause for SCAD. Coronary fibromuscular dysplasia or increased vasa vasorum density do not appear pathophysiologically important. Dermal connective tissue changes are not common in SCAD survivors. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: SCAD, especially of distal coronary territories should be carefully assessed at post mortem in SCD cases, even where there are no signs of myocardial infarction. The immediate cause of SCAD is likely to be the development of a spontaneous intramural haematoma rather than an intimal disruption or 'tear'. This does not seem to be directly related to increased vasa vasorum density, coronary fibromuscular dysplasia or local inflammation (except as a response to injury). Although SCAD is rarely associated with hereditary connective tissue disorders, there does not seem to be a more generalizable global connective tissue ultrastructural abnormality in most cases.

7.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33998162

RESUMO

AIMS: Inflammation is thought to play a role in heart failure (HF) pathophysiology. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a simple, routinely available measure of inflammation. Its relationship with other inflammatory biomarkers and its association with clinical outcomes in addition to other risk markers have not been comprehensively evaluated in HF patients. METHODS: We evaluated patients with worsening or new-onset HF from the BIOlogy Study to Tailored Treatment in Chronic Heart Failure (BIOSTAT-CHF) study who had available NLR at baseline. The primary outcome was time to all-cause mortality or HF hospitalization. Outcomes were validated in a separate HF population. RESULTS: 1622 patients were evaluated (including 523 ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] < 40% and 662 LVEF ≥ 40%). NLR was significantly correlated with biomarkers related to inflammation as well as NT-proBNP. NLR was significantly associated with the primary outcome in patients irrespective of LVEF (hazard ratio [HR] 1.18 per standard deviation increase; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-1.26, P < 0.001). Patients with NLR in the highest tertile had significantly worse outcome than those in the lowest independent of LVEF (<40%: HR 2.75; 95% CI 1.84-4.09, P < 0.001; LVEF ≥ 40%: HR 1.51; 95% CI 1.05-2.16, P = 0.026). When NLR was added to the BIOSTAT-CHF risk score, there were improvements in integrated discrimination index (IDI) and net reclassification index (NRI) for occurrence of the primary outcome (IDI + 0.009; 95% CI 0.00-0.019, P = 0.030; continuous NRI + 0.112, 95% CI 0.012-0.176, P = 0.040). Elevated NLR was similarly associated with adverse outcome in the validation cohort. Decrease in NLR at 6 months was associated with reduced incidence of the primary outcome (HR 0.75; 95% CI 0.57-0.98, P = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated NLR is significantly associated with elevated markers of inflammation in HF patients and is associated with worse outcome. Elevated NLR might potentially be useful in identifying high-risk HF patients and may represent a treatment target.

8.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(7): 1170-1181, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33998113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of neurohormonal inhibition in chronic heart failure (HF) is well established. There are limited data on the effect of up-titration of renin-angiotensin inhibitors (RASi) and beta-blockers (BBs) on clinical outcomes of patients with worsening HF across the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) spectrum. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed data from 2345 patients from BIOSTAT-CHF (80.9% LVEF <40%), who completed a 3-month up-titration period after recent worsening of HF. Patients were classified by achieved dose (% of recommended): ≥100%, 50-99%, 1-49%, and none. Recurrent event analysis using joint and shared frailty models was used to examine the association between RASi/BB dose and all-cause and HF hospitalizations. In the 21 months following up-titration, 512 patients died and 879 (37.5%) had ≥1 hospitalization. RASi up-titration was associated, incrementally, with reduced risk of all-cause hospitalization at all achieved dose levels compared to no treatment [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): ≥100%: 0.60 (0.49-0.74), P < 0.001; 50-99%: 0.56 (0.46-0.68), P < 0.001; 1-49%: 0.71 (0.59-0.86), P < 0.001]. This association was consistent up to an LVEF of 49% (P < 0.001), and when considering only HF hospitalizations. Up-titration of BBs was associated with fewer all-cause hospitalizations only when LVEF was <40% (overall P < 0.001), but with more HF hospitalizations when LVEF was ≥50%. Up-titration of both RASi/BBs was associated with lower mortality in LVEF up to 49%. CONCLUSION: After recent worsening of HF, up-titration of RASi and BBs was associated with a better prognosis in patients with LVEF ≤49%. Up-titration of BBs was associated with a greater risk of HF hospitalization when LVEF was ≥50%.

9.
Heart ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with heart failure have shorter mean leucocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of biological age, compared with healthy subjects, but it is unclear whether this is of prognostic significance. We therefore sought to determine whether LTL is associated with outcomes in patients with heart failure. METHODS: We measured LTL in patients with heart failure from the BIOSTAT-CHF Index (n=2260) and BIOSTAT-CHF Tayside (n=1413) cohorts. Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed individually in each cohort and the estimates combined using meta-analysis. Our co-primary endpoints were all-cause mortality and heart failure hospitalisation. RESULTS: In age-adjusted and sex-adjusted analyses, shorter LTL was associated with higher all-cause mortality in both cohorts individually and when combined (meta-analysis HR (per SD decrease in LTL)=1.16 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.24); p=2.66×10-5), an effect equivalent to that of being four years older. The association remained significant after adjustment for the BIOSTAT-CHF clinical risk score to account for known prognostic factors (HR=1.12 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.20); p=1.04×10-3). Shorter LTL was associated with both cardiovascular (HR=1.09 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.19); p=0.047) and non-cardiovascular deaths (HR=1.18 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.32); p=4.80×10-3). There was no association between LTL and heart failure hospitalisation (HR=0.99 (95% CI 0.92 to 1.07); p=0.855). CONCLUSION: In patients with heart failure, shorter mean LTL is independently associated with all-cause mortality.

10.
EBioMedicine ; 66: 103338, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection (SCAD) is an important cause of acute coronary syndromes, particularly in young to middle-aged women. Differentiating acute SCAD from coronary atherothrombosis remains a major clinical challenge. METHODS: A case-control study was used to explore the usefulness of circulating miRNAs to discriminate both clinical entities. The profile of miRNAs was evaluated using an unbiased human RT-PCR platform and confirmed using individual primers. miRNAs were evaluated in plasma samples from acute SCAD and atherothrombotic acute myocardial infarction (AT-AMI) from two independent cohorts; discovery cohort (SCAD n = 15, AT-AMI n = 15), and validation cohort (SCAD n = 11, AT-AMI n = 41) with 9 healthy control subjects. Plasma levels of IL-8, TGFB1, TGBR1, Endothelin-1 and MMP2 were analysed by ELISA assays. FINDINGS: From 15 differentially expressed miRNAs detected in cohort 1, we confirmed in cohort 2 the differential expression of 4 miRNAs: miR-let-7f-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR-151a-3p and miR-223-5p, whose expression was higher in SCAD compared to AT-AMI. The combined expression of these 4 miRNAs showed the best predictive value to distinguish between both entities (AUC: 0.879, 95% CI 0.72-1.0) compared to individual miRNAs. Functional profiling of target genes identified an association with blood vessel biology, TGF-beta pathway and cytoskeletal traction force. ELISA assays showed high plasma levels of IL-8, TGFB1, TGFBR1, Endothelin-1 and MMP2 in SCAD patients compared to AT-AMI. INTERPRETATION: We present a novel signature of plasma miRNAs in patients with SCAD. miR-let-7f-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR-151a-3p and miR-223-5p discriminate SCAD from AT-AMI patients and also shed light on the pathological mechanisms underlying this condition. FUNDING: Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO): Plan Nacional de Salud SAF2017-82886-R, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares (CIBERCV). Fundación BBVA a equipos de Investigación Científica 2018 and from Caixa Banking Foundation under the project code HR17-00016 to F.S.M. Instituto de Salud Carlos III (AES 2019): PI19/00565 to F.R, PI19/00545 to P.M. CAM (S2017/BMD-3671-INFLAMUNE-CM) from Comunidad de Madrid to FSM and PM. The UK SCAD study was supported by BeatSCAD, the British Heart Foundation (BHF) PG/13/96/30608 the NIHR rare disease translational collaboration and the Leicester NIHR Biomedical Research Centre.

11.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878186

RESUMO

AIMS: Coronary artery disease (CAD) has a strong genetic predisposition. However, despite substantial discoveries made by genome-wide association studies (GWAS), a large proportion of heritability awaits identification. Non-additive genetic-effects might be responsible for part of the unaccounted genetic variance. Here we attempted a proof-of-concept study to identify non-additive genetic effects, namely epistatic interactions, associated with CAD. METHODS AND RESULTS: We tested for epistatic interactions in ten CAD case-control studies and UK Biobank with focus on 8,068 SNPs at 56 loci with known associations with CAD risk. We identified a SNP pair located in cis at the LPA locus, rs1800769 and rs9458001, to be jointly associated with risk for CAD (odds ratio [OR]=1.37, p = 1.07 × 10-11), peripheral arterial disease (OR = 1.22, p = 2.32 × 10-4), aortic stenosis (OR = 1.47, p = 6.95 × 10-7), hepatic lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) transcript levels (beta = 0.39, p = 1.41 × 10-8), and Lp(a) serum levels (beta = 0.58, p = 8.7 × 10-32), while individual SNPs displayed no association. Further exploration of the LPA locus revealed a strong dependency of these associations on a rare variant, rs140570886, that was previously associated with Lp(a) levels. We confirmed increased CAD risk for heterozygous (relative OR = 1.46, p = 9.97 × 10-32) and individuals homozygous for the minor allele (relative OR = 1.77, p = 0.09) of rs140570886. Using forward model selection, we also show that epistatic interactions between rs140570886, rs9458001, and rs1800769 modulate the effects of the rs140570886 risk allele. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the feasibility of a large-scale knowledge-based epistasis scan and provide rare evidence of an epistatic interaction in a complex human disease. We were directed to a variant (rs140570886) influencing risk through additive genetic as well as epistatic effects. In summary, this study provides deeper insights into the genetic architecture of a locus important for cardiovascular diseases. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Genetic variants identified by GWAS studies explain about a quarter of the heritability of coronary artery disease by additive genetic effects. Our study demonstrates that non-additive effects contribute to the genetic architecture of the disease as well and identifies complex interaction patterns at the LPA locus, which affect LPA expression, Lp(a) plasma levels and risk of atherosclerosis. This proof-of-concept study encourages systematic searches for epistatic interactions in further studies to shed new light on the aetiology of the disease.

12.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(4): 567-577, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728762

RESUMO

AIMS: We sought to analyse quality of life (QoL) measures derived from two questionnaires widely used in clinical trials, the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) and the EuroQoL 5 dimensions (EQ-5D), and to compare their prognostic value in men and women with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: From the BIOlogy Study to TAilored Treatment in Chronic Heart Failure (BIOSTAT-CHF) we compared KCCQ and EQ-5D at baseline and after 9 months in 1276 men and 373 women with new-onset or worsening symptoms of HFrEF, who were sub-optimally treated and in whom there was an anticipated up-titration of guideline-derived medical therapies. Women had significantly worse baseline QoL (median) as compared with men, both when assessed with KCCQ overall score (KCCQ-OS, 44 vs. 53, P < 0.001) and EQ-5D utility score (0.62 vs. 0.73, P < 0.001). QoL improved equally in women and men at follow-up. All summary measures of QoL were independently associated with all-cause mortality, with KCCQ-OS showing the most remarkable association with mortality up to 1 year compared to the EQ-5D scores (C-statistic 0.650 for KCCQ-OS vs. 0.633 and 0.599 for EQ-5D utility score and EQ-5D visual analogue scale, respectively). QoL was associated with all outcomes analysed, both in men and women (all P for interaction with sex >0.2). CONCLUSION: Amongst patients with HFrEF, women reported significantly worse QoL than men. QoL was independently associated with subsequent outcome, similarly in men and women. The KCCQ in general, and the KCCQ-OS in particular, showed the strongest independent association with outcome.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Feminino , Humanos , Kansas , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Volume Sistólico , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(7): 1182-1190, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759308

RESUMO

AIMS: Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is an objective new technique to assess non-adherence to medications. We used this method to study the prevalence, predictors and outcomes of non-adherence in patients with heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: This study included 1296 patients with HFrEF from BIOSTAT-CHF, a study that aimed to optimise guideline-recommended therapies. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, ß-blockers and loop diuretics were measured in a single spot urine sample at 9 months using LC-MS/MS. The relationship between medication non-adherence and the composite endpoint of all-cause death or heart failure hospitalisation, over a median follow-up of 21 months, was evaluated. Non-adherence to at least one prescribed medication was observed in 45.9% of patients. The strongest predictor of non-adherence was non-adherence to any of the other medication classes (P < 0.0005). Regional differences within Europe were observed. On multivariable analyses, non-adherence to ACEi/ARBs and ß-blockers was associated with an increased risk of the composite endpoint [hazard ratio (HR) 1.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.95, P = 0.008 and HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.12-1.96, P = 0.006, respectively). Non-adherence to ß-blockers was also associated with an increased risk of death (HR 2.48, 95% CI 1.67-3.68, P < 0.0005). Patients who were non-adherent to loop diuretics were healthier and had a decreased risk of the composite endpoint (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.51-0.93, P = 0.014). Non-adherence to mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists was not related to any clinical outcome. CONCLUSION: Non-adherence to medications, assessed by a single urine test, is common and predicts clinical outcomes in patients with HFrEF.

14.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 12(3): 555-567, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Muscle wasting and unintentional weight loss (cachexia) have been associated with worse outcomes in heart failure (HF), but timely identification of these adverse phenomena is difficult. Spot urinary creatinine may be an easily accessible marker to assess muscle loss and cachexia. This study investigated the association of urinary creatinine with body composition changes and outcomes in patients with new-onset or worsening HF (WHF). METHODS: In BIOSTAT-CHF, baseline spot urinary creatinine measurements were available in 2315 patients with new-onset or WHF in an international cohort (index cohort) and a validation cohort of 1431 similar patients from Scotland. RESULTS: Median spot urinary creatinine concentrations were 5.2 [2.7-9.6] mmol/L in the index cohort. Median age was 69 ± 12 years and 73% were men. Lower spot urinary creatinine was associated with older age, lower height and weight, worse renal function, more severe HF, and a higher risk of >5% weight loss from baseline to 9 months (odds ratio = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.09-1.39 per log decrease; P = 0.001). Spot urinary creatinine was associated with Evans criteria of cachexia (OR = 1.26 per log decrease, 95% CI = 1.04-1.49; P = 0.016) and clustered with markers of heart failure severity in hierarchical cluster analyses. Lower urinary creatinine was associated with poorer exercise capacity and quality of life (both P < 0.001) and predicted a higher rate for all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.17-1.38 per log decrease; P < 0.001] and the combined endpoints HF hospitalization or all-cause mortality (HR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.15-1.31 per log decrease; P < 0.001). Significance was lost after addition of the BIOSTAT risk model. Analyses of the validation cohort yielded similar findings. CONCLUSIONS: Lower spot urinary creatinine is associated with smaller body dimensions, renal dysfunction, and more severe HF in patients with new-onset/WHF. Additionally, lower spot urinary creatinine is associated with an increased risk of weight loss and a poorer exercise capacity/quality of life. Urinary creatinine could therefore be a novel, easily obtainable marker to assess (risk of) muscle wasting in HF patients.

15.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246400, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529269

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is one of the markers of biological aging as shortening occurs over time. Shorter LTL has been associated with adiposity and a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases. The objective was to assess LTL and LTL shortening during the first 2 years of life in healthy, term-born infants and to associate LTL shortening with potential stressors and body composition. STUDY DESIGN: In 145 healthy, term-born infants (85 boys), we measured LTL in blood, expressed as telomere to single-gene copy ratio (T/S ratio), at 3 months and 2 years by quantitative PCR technique. Fat mass (FM) was assessed longitudinally by PEAPOD, DXA, and abdominal FM by ultrasound. RESULTS: LTL decreased by 8.5% from 3 months to 2 years (T/S ratio 4.10 vs 3.75, p<0.001). LTL shortening from 3 months to 2 years associated with FM%(R = 0.254), FM index(R = 0.243) and visceral FM(R = 0.287) at 2 years. LTL shortening tended to associate with gain in FM% from 3 to 6 months (R = 0.155, p = 0.11), in the critical window for adiposity programming. There was a trend to a shorter LTL in boys at 2 years(p = 0.056). LTL shortening from 3 months to 2 years was not different between sexes. CONCLUSION: We present longitudinal LTL values and show that LTL shortens considerably (8.5%) during the first 2 years of life. LTL shortening during first 2 years of life was associated with FM%, FMI and visceral FM at age 2 years, suggesting that adverse adiposity programming in early life could contribute to more LTL shortening.


Assuntos
Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Homeostase do Telômero , Encurtamento do Telômero , Gordura Abdominal/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
16.
Eur Heart J ; 42(15): 1455-1457, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417694
17.
PLoS Med ; 18(1): e1003498, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) can stratify populations into cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk groups. We aimed to quantify the potential advantage of adding information on PRSs to conventional risk factors in the primary prevention of CVD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data from UK Biobank on 306,654 individuals without a history of CVD and not on lipid-lowering treatments (mean age [SD]: 56.0 [8.0] years; females: 57%; median follow-up: 8.1 years), we calculated measures of risk discrimination and reclassification upon addition of PRSs to risk factors in a conventional risk prediction model (i.e., age, sex, systolic blood pressure, smoking status, history of diabetes, and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). We then modelled the implications of initiating guideline-recommended statin therapy in a primary care setting using incidence rates from 2.1 million individuals from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. The C-index, a measure of risk discrimination, was 0.710 (95% CI 0.703-0.717) for a CVD prediction model containing conventional risk predictors alone. Addition of information on PRSs increased the C-index by 0.012 (95% CI 0.009-0.015), and resulted in continuous net reclassification improvements of about 10% and 12% in cases and non-cases, respectively. If a PRS were assessed in the entire UK primary care population aged 40-75 years, assuming that statin therapy would be initiated in accordance with the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines (i.e., for persons with a predicted risk of ≥10% and for those with certain other risk factors, such as diabetes, irrespective of their 10-year predicted risk), then it could help prevent 1 additional CVD event for approximately every 5,750 individuals screened. By contrast, targeted assessment only among people at intermediate (i.e., 5% to <10%) 10-year CVD risk could help prevent 1 additional CVD event for approximately every 340 individuals screened. Such a targeted strategy could help prevent 7% more CVD events than conventional risk prediction alone. Potential gains afforded by assessment of PRSs on top of conventional risk factors would be about 1.5-fold greater than those provided by assessment of C-reactive protein, a plasma biomarker included in some risk prediction guidelines. Potential limitations of this study include its restriction to European ancestry participants and a lack of health economic evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that addition of PRSs to conventional risk factors can modestly enhance prediction of first-onset CVD and could translate into population health benefits if used at scale.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
18.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(3): 436-444, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216000

RESUMO

AIMS: Several studies have shown that older patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) are undertreated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of up-titration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and beta-blockers on outcome across the age spectrum in HFrEF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed HFrEF patients on sub-optimal doses of ACEI/ARB and/or beta-blockers from the BIOSTAT-CHF study stratified by age. Patients underwent a 3-month up-titration period. We used inverse probability weighting to adjust for the likelihood of successful up-titration to determine the association of achieved dose with mortality and/or heart failure hospitalisation, testing for an interaction with age. Over a median follow-up of 21 months in 1720 HFrEF patients (76.5% male, mean age 67 years), the primary outcome occurred in 558 patients. Increased percentage of target dose of ACEI/ARB and beta-blocker achieved at 3 months were both significantly associated with reduced incidence of the primary outcome, [ACEI-ARB: hazard ratio (HR) per 12.5% increase in dose: 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-0.94, P < 0.001; beta-blocker: HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-1.00, P = 0.046], with a significant interaction with age seen for beta-blockers but not ACEI/ARB (P = 0.034 and P = 0.22, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Achieving higher doses of ACEI/ARB was associated with improved outcome regardless of age. However, achieving higher doses of beta-blockers was only associated with improved outcome in younger, but not in older patients.

19.
Cardiovasc Res ; 117(4): 1154-1165, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531060

RESUMO

AIMS: Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) and spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) are related, non-atherosclerotic arterial diseases mainly affecting middle-aged women. Little is known about their physiopathological mechanisms. We aimed to identify rare genetic causes to elucidate molecular mechanisms implicated in FMD and SCAD. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed 29 exomes that included familial and sporadic FMD. We identified one rare loss-of-function variant (LoF) (frequencygnomAD = 0.000075) shared by two FMD sisters in the prostaglandin I2 receptor gene (PTGIR), a key player in vascular remodelling. Follow-up was conducted by targeted or Sanger sequencing (1071 FMD and 363 SCAD patients) or lookups in exome (264 FMD) or genome sequences (480 SCAD), all independent and unrelated. It revealed four additional LoF allele carriers, in addition to several rare missense variants, among FMD patients, and two LoF allele carriers among SCAD patients, including one carrying a rare splicing mutation (c.768 + 1C>G). We used burden test to test for enrichment in patients compared to gnomAD controls, which detected a putative enrichment in FMD (PTRAPD = 8 × 10-4), but not a significant enrichment (PTRAPD = 0.12) in SCAD. The biological effects of variants on human prostaclycin receptor (hIP) signalling and protein expression were characterized using transient overexpression in human cells. We confirmed the LoFs (Q163X and P17RfsX6) and one missense (L67P), identified in one FMD and one SCAD patient, to severely impair hIP function in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that rare genetic mutations in PTGIR are enriched among FMD patients and found in SCAD patients, suggesting a role for prostacyclin signalling in non-atherosclerotic stenosis and dissection.

20.
Diabetes Care ; 44(2): 556-562, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Observational studies have demonstrated that type 2 diabetes is a stronger risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) in women compared with men. However, it is not clear whether this reflects a sex differential in the causal effect of diabetes on CHD risk or results from sex-specific residual confounding. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using 270 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for type 2 diabetes identified in a type 2 diabetes genome-wide association study, we performed a sex-stratified Mendelian randomization (MR) study of type 2 diabetes and CHD using individual participant data in UK Biobank (251,420 women and 212,049 men). Weighted median, MR-Egger, MR-pleiotropy residual sum and outlier, and radial MR from summary-level analyses were used for pleiotropy assessment. RESULTS: MR analyses showed that genetic risk of type 2 diabetes increased the odds of CHD for women (odds ratio 1.13 [95% CI 1.08-1.18] per 1-log unit increase in odds of type 2 diabetes) and men (1.21 [1.17-1.26] per 1-log unit increase in odds of type 2 diabetes). Sensitivity analyses showed some evidence of directional pleiotropy; however, results were similar after correction for outlier SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: This MR analysis supports a causal effect of genetic liability to type 2 diabetes on risk of CHD that is not stronger for women than men. Assuming a lack of bias, these findings suggest that the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes for CHD risk reduction is of equal priority in both sexes.

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