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1.
JCI Insight ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of an early repolarization pattern (ERP) on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) is associated with risk of ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Family studies have shown that ERP is a highly heritable trait but molecular genetic determinants are unknown. METHODS: To identify genetic susceptibility loci for ERP, we performed a GWAS and meta-analysis in 2,181 cases and 23,641 controls of European ancestry. RESULTS: We identified a genome-wide significant (p<5E-8) locus in the KCND3 (potassium voltage gated channel subfamily D member 3) gene that was successfully replicated in additional 1,124 cases and 12,510 controls. A subsequent joint meta-analysis of the discovery and replication cohorts identified rs1545300 as the lead SNP at the KCND3 locus (OR 0.82 per minor T allele, p=7.7E-12), but did not reveal additional loci. Co-localization analyses indicate causal effects of KCND3 gene expression levels on ERP in both cardiac left ventricle and tibial artery. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we identified for the first time a genome-wide significant association of a genetic variant with ERP. Our findings of a locus in the KCND3 gene not only provide insights into the genetic determinants but also into the pathophysiological mechanism of ERP, discovering a promising candidate for functional studies. FUNDING: For detailed information per study, see Acknowledgments.

2.
Stroke ; 50(10): 2651-2660, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500558

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Genome-wide association studies have identified the HDAC9 (histone deacetylase 9) gene region as a major risk locus for atherosclerotic stroke and coronary artery disease in humans. Previous results suggest a role of altered HDAC9 expression levels as the underlying disease mechanism. rs2107595, the lead single nucleotide polymorphism for stroke and coronary artery disease resides in noncoding DNA and colocalizes with histone modification marks suggestive of enhancer elements. Methods- To determine the mechanisms by which genetic variation at rs2107595 regulates HDAC9 expression and thus vascular risk we employed targeted resequencing, proteome-wide search for allele-specific nuclear binding partners, chromatin immunoprecipitation, genome-editing, reporter assays, circularized chromosome conformation capture, and gain- and loss-of-function experiments in cultured human cell lines and primary immune cells. Results- Targeted resequencing of the HDAC9 locus in patients with atherosclerotic stroke and controls supported candidacy of rs2107595 as the causative single nucleotide polymorphism. A proteomic search for nuclear binding partners revealed preferential binding of the E2F3/TFDP1/Rb1 complex (E2F transcription factor 3/transcription factor Dp-1/Retinoblastoma 1) to the rs2107595 common allele, consistent with the disruption of an E2F3 consensus site by the risk allele. Gain- and loss-of-function studies showed a regulatory effect of E2F/Rb proteins on HDAC9 expression. Compared with the common allele, the rs2107595 risk allele exhibited higher transcriptional capacity in luciferase assays and was associated with higher HDAC9 mRNA levels in primary macrophages and genome-edited Jurkat cells. Circularized chromosome conformation capture revealed a genomic interaction of the rs2107595 region with the HDAC9 promoter, which was stronger for the common allele as was the in vivo interaction with E2F3 and Rb1 determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Gain-of-function experiments in isogenic Jurkat cells demonstrated a key role of E2F3 in mediating rs2107595-dependent transcriptional regulation of HDAC9. Conclusions- Collectively, our findings imply allele-specific transcriptional regulation of HDAC9 via E2F3 and Rb1 as a major mechanism mediating vascular risk at rs2107595.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11623, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406173

RESUMO

Telomere shortening has been associated with multiple age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dementia. However, the biological mechanisms responsible for these associations remain largely unknown. In order to gain insight into the metabolic processes driving the association of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with age-related diseases, we investigated the association between LTL and serum metabolite levels in 7,853 individuals from seven independent cohorts. LTL was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the levels of 131 serum metabolites were measured with mass spectrometry in biological samples from the same blood draw. With partial correlation analysis, we identified six metabolites that were significantly associated with LTL after adjustment for multiple testing: lysophosphatidylcholine acyl C17:0 (lysoPC a C17:0, p-value = 7.1 × 10-6), methionine (p-value = 9.2 × 10-5), tyrosine (p-value = 2.1 × 10-4), phosphatidylcholine diacyl C32:1 (PC aa C32:1, p-value = 2.4 × 10-4), hydroxypropionylcarnitine (C3-OH, p-value = 2.6 × 10-4), and phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C38:4 (PC ae C38:4, p-value = 9.0 × 10-4). Pathway analysis showed that the three phosphatidylcholines and methionine are involved in homocysteine metabolism and we found supporting evidence for an association of lipid metabolism with LTL. In conclusion, we found longer LTL associated with higher levels of lysoPC a C17:0 and PC ae C38:4, and with lower levels of methionine, tyrosine, PC aa C32:1, and C3-OH. These metabolites have been implicated in inflammation, oxidative stress, homocysteine metabolism, and in cardiovascular disease and diabetes, two major drivers of morbidity and mortality.

4.
Lancet ; 394(10205): 1254-1263, 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guideline-recommended doses of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs), and ß blockers are similar for men and women with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), even though there are known sex differences in pharmacokinetics of these drugs. We hypothesised that there might be sex differences in the optimal dose of ACE inhibitors or ARBs and ß blockers in patients with HFrEF. METHODS: We did a post-hoc analysis of BIOSTAT-CHF, a prospective study in 11 European countries of patients with heart failure in whom initiation and up-titration of ACE inhibitors or ARBs and ß blockers was encouraged by protocol. We included only patients with left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40%, and excluded those who died within the first 3 months. Primary outcome was a composite of time to all-cause mortality or hospitalisation for heart failure. Findings were validated in ASIAN-HF, an independent cohort of 3539 men and 961 women with HFrEF. FINDINGS: Among 1308 men and 402 women with HFrEF from BIOSTAT-CHF, women were older (74 [12] years vs 70 [12] years, p<0·0001) and had lower bodyweights (72 [16] kg vs 85 [18] kg, p<0·0001) and heights (162 [7] cm vs 174 [8] cm, p<0·0001) than did men, although body-mass index did not differ significantly. A similar number of men and women reached guideline-recommended target doses of ACE inhibitors or ARBs (99 [25%] vs 304 [23%], p=0·61) and ß blockers (57 [14%] vs 168 [13%], p=0·54). In men, the lowest hazards of death or hospitalisation for heart failure occurred at 100% of the recommended dose of ACE inhibitors or ARBs and ß blockers, but women showed approximately 30% lower risk at only 50% of the recommended doses, with no further decrease in risk at higher dose levels. These sex differences were still present after adjusting for clinical covariates, including age and body surface area. In the ASIAN-HF registry, similar patterns were observed for both ACE inhibitors or ARBs and ß blockers, with women having approximately 30% lower risk at 50% of the recommended doses, with no further benefit at higher dose levels. INTERPRETATION: This study suggests that women with HFrEF might need lower doses of ACE inhibitors or ARBs and ß blockers than men, and brings into question what the true optimal medical therapy is for women versus men. FUNDING: European Commission.

5.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(7): 730-741, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328830

RESUMO

The heritability of most complex traits is driven by variants throughout the genome. Consequently, polygenic risk scores, which combine information on multiple variants genome-wide, have demonstrated improved accuracy in genetic risk prediction. We present a new two-step approach to constructing genome-wide polygenic risk scores from meta-GWAS summary statistics. Local linkage disequilibrium (LD) is adjusted for in Step 1, followed by, uniquely, long-range LD in Step 2. Our algorithm is highly parallelizable since block-wise analyses in Step 1 can be distributed across a high-performance computing cluster, and flexible, since sparsity and heritability are estimated within each block. Inference is obtained through a formal Bayesian variable selection framework, meaning final risk predictions are averaged over competing models. We compared our method to two alternative approaches: LDPred and lassosum using all seven traits in the Welcome Trust Case Control Consortium as well as meta-GWAS summaries for type 1 diabetes (T1D), coronary artery disease, and schizophrenia. Performance was generally similar across methods, although our framework provided more accurate predictions for T1D, for which there are multiple heterogeneous signals in regions of both short- and long-range LD. With sufficient compute resources, our method also allows the fastest runtimes.

7.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In heart failure (HF), levels of NT-proBNP are influenced by the presence of concomitant atrial fibrillation (AF), making it difficult to distinguish between HF versus AF in patients with raised NT-proBNP. It is unknown whether levels of GDF-15 are also influenced by AF in patients with HF. In this study we compared the plasma levels of NT-proBNP versus GDF-15 in patients with HF in AF versus sinus rhythm (SR). METHODS: In a post hoc analysis of the index cohort of BIOSTAT-CHF (n = 2516), we studied patients with HF categorized into three groups: (1) AF at baseline (n = 733), (2) SR at baseline with a history of AF (n = 183), and (3) SR at baseline and no history of AF (n = 1025). The findings were validated in the validation cohort of BIOSTAT-CHF (n = 1738). RESULTS: Plasma NT-proBNP levels of patients who had AF at baseline were higher than those of patients in SR (both with and without a history of AF), even after multivariable adjustment (3417 [25th-75th percentile 1897-6486] versus 1788 [682-3870], adjusted p < 0.001, versus 2231 pg/mL [902-5270], adjusted p < 0.001). In contrast, after adjusting for clinical confounders, the levels of GDF-15 were comparable between the three groups (3179 [2062-5253] versus 2545 [1686-4337], adjusted p = 0.36, versus 2294 [1471-3855] pg/mL, adjusted p = 0.08). Similar patterns of both NT-proBNP and GDF-15 were found in the validation cohort. CONCLUSION: These data show that in patients with HF, NT-proBNP is significantly influenced by underlying AF at time of measurement and not by previous episodes of AF, whereas the levels of GDF-15 are not influenced by the presence of AF. Therefore, GDF-15 might have additive value combined with NT-proBNP in the assessment of patients with HF and concomitant AF.

8.
Eur Heart J ; 40(29): 2413-2420, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170283

RESUMO

AIMS: Genetic disposition and lifestyle factors are understood as independent components underlying the risk of multiple diseases. In this study, we aim to investigate the interplay between genetics, educational attainment-an important denominator of lifestyle-and coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on the effect sizes of 74 genetic variants associated with educational attainment, we calculated a 'genetic education score' in 13 080 cases and 14 471 controls and observed an inverse correlation between the score and risk of CAD [P = 1.52 × 10-8; odds ratio (OR) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73-0.85 for the higher compared with the lowest score quintile]. We replicated in 146 514 individuals from UK Biobank (P = 1.85 × 10-6) and also found strong associations between the 'genetic education score' with 'modifiable' risk factors including smoking (P = 5.36 × 10-23), body mass index (BMI) (P = 1.66 × 10-30), and hypertension (P = 3.86 × 10-8). Interestingly, these associations were only modestly attenuated by adjustment for years spent in school. In contrast, a model adjusting for BMI and smoking abolished the association signal between the 'genetic education score' and CAD risk suggesting an intermediary role of these two risk factors. Mendelian randomization analyses performed with summary statistics from large genome-wide meta-analyses and sensitivity analysis using 1271 variants affecting educational attainment (OR 0.68 for the higher compared with the lowest score quintile; 95% CI 0.63-0.74; P = 3.99 × 10-21) further strengthened these findings. CONCLUSION: Genetic variants known to affect educational attainment may have implications for a health-conscious lifestyle later in life and subsequently affect the risk of CAD.

9.
Circulation ; 140(6): 500-513, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified chromosome 14q32 as a locus for coronary artery disease. The disease-associated variants fall in a hitherto uncharacterized gene called HHIPL1 (hedgehog interacting protein-like 1), which encodes a sequence homolog of an antagonist of hedgehog signaling. The function of HHIPL1 and its role in atherosclerosis are unknown. METHODS: HHIPL1 cellular localization, interaction with sonic hedgehog (SHH), and influence on hedgehog signaling were tested. HHIPL1 expression was measured in coronary artery disease-relevant human cells, and protein localization was assessed in wild-type and Apoe-/- (apolipoprotein E deficient) mice. Human aortic smooth muscle cell phenotypes and hedgehog signaling were investigated after gene knockdown. Hhipl1-/- mice were generated and aortic smooth muscle cells collected for phenotypic analysis and assessment of hedgehog signaling activity. Hhipl1-/- mice were bred onto both the Apoe-/- and Ldlr-/- (low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient) knockout strains, and the extent of atherosclerosis was quantified after 12 weeks of high-fat diet. Cellular composition and collagen content of aortic plaques were assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: In vitro analyses revealed that HHIPL1 is a secreted protein that interacts with SHH and increases hedgehog signaling activity. HHIPL1 expression was detected in human smooth muscle cells and in smooth muscle within atherosclerotic plaques of Apoe-/- mice. The expression of Hhipl1 increased with disease progression in aortic roots of Apoe-/- mice. Proliferation and migration were reduced in Hhipl1 knockout mouse and HHIPL1 knockdown aortic smooth muscle cells, and hedgehog signaling was decreased in HHIPL1-deficient cells. Hhipl1 knockout caused a reduction of >50% in atherosclerosis burden on both Apoe-/- and Ldlr-/- knockout backgrounds, and lesions were characterized by reduced smooth muscle cell content. CONCLUSIONS: HHIPL1 is a secreted proatherogenic protein that enhances hedgehog signaling and regulates smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Inhibition of HHIPL1 protein function might offer a novel therapeutic strategy for coronary artery disease.

10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(23): 2932-2942, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The taxonomy of cardiovascular (CV) diseases is divided into a broad spectrum of clinical entities. Many such diseases coincide in specific patient groups and suggest shared predisposition. OBJECTIVES: This study focused on coronary artery disease (CAD) and investigated the genetic relationship to CV and non-CV diseases with reported CAD comorbidity. METHODS: This study examined 425,196 UK Biobank participants to determine a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 300 CAD associated variants (CAD-GRS). This score was associated with 22 traits, including risk factors, diseases secondary to CAD, as well as comorbid and non-CV conditions. Sensitivity analyses were performed in individuals free from CAD or stable angina diagnosis. RESULTS: Hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR]: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.26 to 1.29) and hypertension (OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.12) were strongly associated with the CAD-GRS, which indicated that the score contained variants predisposing to these conditions. However, the CAD-GRS was also significant in patients with CAD who were free of CAD risk factors (OR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.30 to 1.44). The study observed significant associations between the CAD-GRS and peripheral arterial disease (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.23 to 1.32), abdominal aortic aneurysms (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.20 to 1.37), and stroke (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.10), which remained significant in sensitivity analyses that suggested shared genetic predisposition. The score was also associated with heart failure (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.22 to 1.29), atrial fibrillation (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.10), and premature death (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.06). These associations were abolished in sensitivity analyses that indicated that they were secondary to prevalent CAD. Finally, an inverse association was observed between the score and migraine headaches (OR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.93 to 0.96). CONCLUSIONS: A wide spectrum of CV conditions, including premature death, might develop consecutively or in parallel with CAD for the same genetic roots. In conditions like heart failure, the study found evidence that the CAD-GRS could be used to stratify patients with no or limited genetic overlap with CAD risk. Increased genetic predisposition to CAD was inversely associated with migraine headaches.

11.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(8): 965-973, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087601

RESUMO

AIMS: Inflammation is a central process in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF), but trials targeting tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α were largely unsuccessful. Interleukin (IL)-6 is an important inflammatory mediator and might constitute a potential pharmacologic target in HF. However, little is known regarding the association between IL-6 and clinical characteristics, outcomes and other inflammatory biomarkers in HF. We thus aimed to identify and characterize these associations. METHODS AND RESULTS: Interleukin-6 was measured in 2329 patients [89.4% with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 40%] of the BIOSTAT-CHF cohort. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and HF hospitalization during 2 years, with all-cause, cardiovascular (CV), and non-CV death as secondary outcomes. Approximately half (56%) of all included patients had plasma IL-6 values greater than the previously determined 95th percentile of normal values at baseline. Elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, procalcitonin and hepcidin, younger age, TNF-α/IL-1-related biomarkers, or having iron deficiency, atrial fibrillation and LVEF > 40% independently predicted elevated IL-6 levels. IL-6 independently predicted the primary outcome [HR (95% confidence interval) per doubling: 1.16 (1.11-1.21), P < 0.001], all-cause mortality [1.22 (1.16-1.29), P < 0.001] and CV as well as non-CV mortality [1.16 (1.09-1.24), P < 0.001; 1.31 (1.18-1.45), P < 0.001], but did not improve discrimination in previously published risk models. CONCLUSIONS: In a large, heterogeneous cohort of HF patients, elevated IL-6 levels were found in more than 50% of patients and were associated with iron deficiency, reduced LVEF, atrial fibrillation and poorer clinical outcomes. These findings warrant further investigation of IL-6 as a potential therapeutic target in specific HF subpopulations.

12.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(5): e005544, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PENK (proenkephalin) is a stable surrogate for enkephalins, endogenous opioid peptides, which exert cardiodepressive effects and improve renal function. PENK has been associated with heart failure (HF) severity and renal dysfunction. We therefore hypothesized that PENK could be associated with deterioration of kidney function and could have a role as a novel renal marker in HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 2180 patients with HF of a large multicenter cohort (BIOSTAT-CHF [A Systems Biology Study to Tailored Treatment in Chronic Heart Failure]), the relationship between PENK and clinical variables, plasma and urinary biomarkers, and clinical end points was established. Data were validated in a separate cohort of 1703 patients with HF. PENK was elevated (>80 pmol/L, 99th percentile) in 1245 (57%) patients. Higher PENK was associated with more advanced HF and glomerular and tubular dysfunction. The strongest independent predictor of PENK was estimated glomerular filtration rate. Others were plasma NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) and NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; all P<0.001). Using correlation heatmaps and hierarchical cluster analyses, PENK clustered with estimated glomerular filtration rate, creatinine, NGAL, galectin-3, and urea. Higher PENK was independently associated with increased risk of deterioration of kidney function between baseline and 9 months (odds ratio, 1.29 [1.02-1.65] per PENK doubling; P=0.038; defined as >25% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate) and mortality (hazard ratio, 1.23 [1.07-1.43] per doubling; P=0.004). Analyses in the validation cohort yielded comparable findings. CONCLUSIONS: Higher PENK levels are associated with more severe HF, with glomerular and tubular renal dysfunction, with incidence of a deterioration of kidney function, and with mortality. These findings suggest that the opioid system might be involved in deteriorating kidney function in HF.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study used optical coherence tomography to investigate the mechanism of false lumen (FL) formation in spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) by studying: 1) differences between fenestrated and nonfenestrated SCAD; 2) vasa vasorum density; and 3) light attenuation characteristics of the FL. BACKGROUND: SCAD is an increasingly recognized cause of acute coronary syndromes, characterized by FL formation and compression of the true lumen (TL). The mechanisms underlying FL formation remain poorly understood. METHODS: A total of 65 SCAD patients (68 vessels) who underwent acute OCT imaging as part of routine clinical care were included. Images were classified by the absence or presence of a connection (fenestration) between the TL and FL. Indexed measurements of TL stenosis, external elastic lamina (EEL) area, FL area, and light attenuation of the FL were assessed. Vasa vasorum densities of SCAD cases were compared with those in control non-SCAD myocardial infarction cases. RESULTS: In nonfenestrated cases, there was significantly larger expansion of the EEL area (9.1% vs. -1.9%; p <0.05) and a larger FL area (73.6% vs. 53.2%, respectively; p <0.05) in dissected segments. No significant differences were found between vasa vasorum density in SCAD and those in control subjects. The FL contents were heterogeneous but attenuated less light than whole blood or thrombus (4.28 ± 0.55 mm-1 vs. 5.08 ± 0.56 mm-1; p < 0.05; vs. 4.96 ± 0.56 mm-1; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These observational data suggest that the absence of a fenestration leads to increased FL pressure and compression of the TL. Although vasa vasorum may still be implicated in pathogenesis, increased vasa vasorum density could be an epiphenomenon of vascular healing.

14.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(6): 732-743, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secretion of adrenomedullin (ADM) is stimulated by volume overload to maintain endothelial barrier function, and higher levels of biologically active (bio-) ADM in heart failure (HF) are a counteracting response to vascular leakage and tissue oedema. This study aimed to establish the value of plasma bio-ADM as a marker of congestion in patients with worsening HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: The association of plasma bio-ADM with clinical markers of congestion, as well as its prognostic value was studied in 2179 patients with new-onset or worsening HF enrolled in BIOSTAT-CHF. Data were validated in a separate cohort of 1703 patients. Patients with higher plasma bio-ADM levels were older, had more severe HF and more signs and symptoms of congestion (all P < 0.001). Amongst 20 biomarkers, bio-ADM was the strongest predictor of a clinical congestion score (r2 = 0.198). In multivariable regression analysis, higher bio-ADM was associated with higher body mass index, more oedema, and higher fibroblast growth factor 23. In hierarchical cluster analysis, bio-ADM clustered with oedema, orthopnoea, rales, hepatomegaly and jugular venous pressure. Higher bio-ADM was independently associated with impaired up-titration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers after 3 months, but not of beta-blockers. Higher bio-ADM levels were independently associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality and HF hospitalization (hazard ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.27, P = 0.002, per log increase). Analyses in the validation cohort yielded comparable findings. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma bio-ADM in patients with new-onset and worsening HF is associated with more severe HF and more oedema, orthopnoea, hepatomegaly and jugular venous pressure. We therefore postulate bio-ADM as a congestion marker, which might become useful to guide decongestive therapy.

15.
Kidney Int ; 95(3): 624-635, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784661

RESUMO

Nephrons scar and involute during aging, increasing the risk of chronic kidney disease. Little is known, however, about genetic mechanisms of kidney aging. We sought to define the signatures of age on the renal transcriptome using 563 human kidneys. The initial discovery analysis of 260 kidney transcriptomes from the TRANScriptome of renaL humAn TissuE Study (TRANSLATE) and the Cancer Genome Atlas identified 37 age-associated genes. For 19 of those genes, the association with age was replicated in 303 kidney transcriptomes from the Nephroseq resource. Surveying 42 nonrenal tissues from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project revealed that, for approximately a fifth of the replicated genes, the association with age was kidney-specific. Seventy-three percent of the replicated genes were associated with functional or histological parameters of age-related decline in kidney health, including glomerular filtration rate, glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and arterial narrowing. Common genetic variants in four of the age-related genes, namely LYG1, PPP1R3C, LTF and TSPYL5, correlated with the trajectory of age-related changes in their renal expression. Integrative analysis of genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic information revealed that the observed age-related decline in renal TSPYL5 expression was determined both genetically and epigenetically. Thus, this study revealed robust molecular signatures of the aging kidney and new regulatory mechanisms of age-related change in the kidney transcriptome.

16.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 108(7): 797-805, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) on sub-optimal doses of beta-blockers, it is conceivable that changes in heart rate following treatment intensification might be important regardless of underlying heart rhythm. We aimed to compare the prognostic significance of both achieved heart rate and change in heart rate following beta-blocker uptitration in patients with HFrEF either in sinus rhythm (SR) or atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis of the BIOSTAT-CHF study. We evaluated 1548 patients with HFrEF (mean age 67 years, 35% AF). Median follow-up was 21 months. Patients were evaluated at baseline and at 9 months. The combined primary outcome was all-cause mortality and heart failure hospitalisation stratified by heart rhythm and heart rate at baseline. RESULTS: Despite similar changes in heart rate and beta-blocker dose, a decrease in heart rate at 9 months was associated with reduced incidence of the primary outcome in both SR and AF patients [HR per 10 bpm decrease-SR: 0.83 (0.75-0.91), p < 0.001; AF: 0.89 (0.81-0.98), p = 0.018], whereas the relationship was less strong for achieved heart rate in AF [HR per 10 bpm higher-SR: 1.26 (1.10-1.46), p = 0.001; AF: 1.08 (0.94-1.23), p = 0.18]. Achieved heart rate at 9 months was only prognostically significant in AF patients with high baseline heart rates (p for interaction 0.017 vs. low). CONCLUSIONS: Following beta-blocker uptitration, both achieved and change in heart rate were prognostically significant regardless of starting heart rate in SR, however, they were only significant in AF patients with high baseline heart rate.

17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(1): 58-66, 2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an increasingly recognized cause of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) afflicting predominantly younger to middle-aged women. Observational studies have reported a high prevalence of extracoronary vascular anomalies, especially fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) and a low prevalence of coincidental cases of atherosclerosis. PHACTR1/EDN1 is a genetic risk locus for several vascular diseases, including FMD and coronary artery disease, with the putative causal noncoding variant at the rs9349379 locus acting as a potential enhancer for the endothelin-1 (EDN1) gene. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to test the association between the rs9349379 genotype and SCAD. METHODS: Results from case control studies from France, United Kingdom, United States, and Australia were analyzed to test the association with SCAD risk, including age at first event, pregnancy-associated SCAD (P-SCAD), and recurrent SCAD. RESULTS: The previously reported risk allele for FMD (rs9349379-A) was associated with a higher risk of SCAD in all studies. In a meta-analysis of 1,055 SCAD patients and 7,190 controls, the odds ratio (OR) was 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.50 to 1.86) per copy of rs9349379-A. In a subset of 491 SCAD patients, the OR estimate was found to be higher for the association with SCAD in patients without FMD (OR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.53 to 2.33) than in SCAD cases with FMD (OR: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.28 to 1.99). There was no effect of genotype on age at first event, P-SCAD, or recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: The first genetic risk factor for SCAD was identified in the largest study conducted to date for this condition. This genetic link may contribute to the clinical overlap between SCAD and FMD.

18.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(2): 218-226, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is a simple and inexpensive way of measuring exercise capacity in patients with heart failure (HF) that predicts morbidity and mortality. However, there are few reports from large multicentre cohorts assessing the predictive value of baseline and changing walk distance. METHODS AND RESULTS: In BIOSTAT-CHF, a 6MWT was performed at baseline (n = 1714) and 9 months (n = 1520). Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the associations between 6MWT distance and the composite of HF hospitalization and/or death. Median follow-up was 21 months. The median (pct25-75 ) of the 6MWT distance at baseline was 300 m (200-388 m). Independent predictors of a shorter 6MWT distance included older age, female sex, higher heart rate, New York Heart Association class III/IV, orthopnoea, ischaemic heart disease, a previous stroke, current malignancy, and higher N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (all P < 0.05). Patients in the lowest baseline 6MWT tertile (≤ 240 m) were less likely to receive guideline-recommended doses of disease-modifying therapies (P < 0.05). Compared to patients in the highest baseline 6MWT tertile (> 360 m), those in the lowest and middle tertiles had a worse prognosis [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.38-2.18]. Patients with a decrease in the distance walked had a worse prognosis (adjusted HR for each 50 m decrease 1.09, 95% CI 1.06-1.12). 6MWT distance was not modified by treatment up-titration nor the 6MWT improved the BIOSTAT-CHF prognostic models. CONCLUSIONS: The 6-minute walk test distance at baseline and a decline in walking distance were both associated with worse prognosis but did not improve the prognostic models. 6MWT distance was not modified by treatment up-titration and its use for assessing the benefits of pharmacologic treatment up-titration may be limited.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Idoso , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade/tendências , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Teste de Caminhada
19.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(1): e002196, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although short-term trials have suggested that PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) inhibitors are safe and reduce risk of cardiovascular diseases, their long-term safety is unclear. Genetic variants associated with lower activity of a gene can act as proxies to identify potential long-term side effects of drugs as recently exemplified by association of LDL (low-density lipoprotein)-lowering variants in the HMGCR (target for statins) and PCSK9 genes with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, analyses of the full spectrum of potential side effects of PCSK9 inhibition using a genetic approach have not been undertaken. METHODS: We examined the association of an LDL-lowering variant in the PCSK9 gene (T allele of rs1159147), as well as 2 LDL-lowering HGCMR variants (G allele of rs17238484 and T allele of rs12916) with 80 diseases and traits in up to 479 522 individuals in UK Biobank. RESULTS: The PCSK9 T allele was significantly (Bonferroni P<6.25×10-4) associated with risk of T2DM, increased body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, diastolic blood pressure, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and insulin use. The HMGCR variants were also associated with risk of T2DM, although their previously reported associations with anthropometric traits were found to be confounded. Mediation analysis suggested that the association of the PCSK9 T allele with risk of T2DM but not diastolic blood pressure was largely independent of its association with body mass index and central obesity. Nominally significant associations of the PCSK9 T allele were also seen with peptic ulcer disease, depression, asthma, chronic kidney disease, and venous thromboembolism. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support previous genetic analyses suggesting that long-term use of PCSK9 inhibitors, like statins, may be associated with increased risk of T2DM. Some other potential side effects need to be looked for in future studies of PCSK9 inhibitors, although we did not find signals that raise substantial concerns about their long-term safety.

20.
J Clin Invest ; 129(3): 1115-1128, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589415

RESUMO

Noncoding RNAs are emerging as important players in gene regulation and disease pathogeneses. Here, we show that a previously uncharacterized long noncoding RNA, nexilin F-actin binding protein antisense RNA 1 (NEXN-AS1), modulates the expression of the actin-binding protein NEXN and that NEXN exerts a protective role against atherosclerosis. An expression microarray analysis showed that the expression of both NEXN-AS1 and NEXN was reduced in human atherosclerotic plaques. In vitro experiments revealed that NEXN-AS1 interacted with the chromatin remodeler BAZ1A and the 5' flanking region of the NEXN gene and that it also upregulated NEXN expression. Augmentation of NEXN-AS1 expression inhibited TLR4 oligomerization and NF-κB activity, downregulated the expression of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines by endothelial cells, and suppressed monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. These inhibitory effects of NEXN-AS1 were abolished by knockdown of NEXN. In vivo experiments using ApoE-knockout mice fed a Western high-fat diet demonstrated that NEXN deficiency promoted atherosclerosis and increased macrophage abundance in atherosclerotic lesions, with heightened expression of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines, whereas augmented NEXN expression deterred atherosclerosis. Patients with coronary artery disease were found to have lower blood NEXN levels than healthy individuals. These results indicate that NEXN-AS1 and NEXN represent potential therapeutic targets in atherosclerosis-related diseases.

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