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Gene ; 624: 50-55, 2017 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28456592


Currarino Syndrome is a rare congenital malformation syndrome described as a triad of anorectal, sacral and presacral anomalies. Currarino Syndrome is reported to be both familial and sporadic. Familial CS is today known as an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the transcription factor MNX1. The aim of this study was to look for genetic causes of Currarino Syndrome in sporadic patients after ruling out other causes, like chromosome aberrations, disease-causing variants in possible MNX1 cooperating transcription factors and aberrant methylation in the promoter of the MNX1 gene. The hypothesis was that MNX1 was affected through interactions with other transcription factors or through other regulatory elements and thereby possibly leading to abnormal function of the gene. We performed whole exome sequencing with an additional 6Mb custom made region on chromosome 7 (GRCh37/hg19, chr7:153.138.664-159.138.663) to detect regulatory elements in non-coding regions around the MNX1 gene. We did not find any variants in genes of interest shared between the patients. However, after analyzing the whole exome sequencing data with Filtus, the in-house SNV filtration program, we did find some interesting variants in possibly relevant genes that could be explaining these patients` phenotypes. The most promising genes were ETV3L, ARID5A and NCAPD3. To our knowledge this is the first report of whole exome sequencing in sporadic CS patients.

Canal Anal/anormalidades , Anormalidades do Sistema Digestório/genética , Exoma , Reto/anormalidades , Sacro/anormalidades , Siringomielia/genética , Adolescente , Canal Anal/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades do Sistema Digestório/patologia , Feminino , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Reto/patologia , Sacro/patologia , Siringomielia/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(1): 232-245, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27577878


BACKGROUND: Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders thus far associated with mutations in more than 300 genes. The clinical phenotypes derived from distinct genotypes can overlap. Genetic etiology can be a prognostic indicator of disease severity and can influence treatment decisions. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the ability of whole-exome screening methods to detect disease-causing variants in patients with PIDDs. METHODS: Patients with PIDDs from 278 families from 22 countries were investigated by using whole-exome sequencing. Computational copy number variant (CNV) prediction pipelines and an exome-tiling chromosomal microarray were also applied to identify intragenic CNVs. Analytic approaches initially focused on 475 known or candidate PIDD genes but were nonexclusive and further tailored based on clinical data, family history, and immunophenotyping. RESULTS: A likely molecular diagnosis was achieved in 110 (40%) unrelated probands. Clinical diagnosis was revised in about half (60/110) and management was directly altered in nearly a quarter (26/110) of families based on molecular findings. Twelve PIDD-causing CNVs were detected, including 7 smaller than 30 Kb that would not have been detected with conventional diagnostic CNV arrays. CONCLUSION: This high-throughput genomic approach enabled detection of disease-related variants in unexpected genes; permitted detection of low-grade constitutional, somatic, and revertant mosaicism; and provided evidence of a mutational burden in mixed PIDD immunophenotypes.

Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 4(6): 604-616, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27896283


BACKGROUND: Four patients from three Norwegian families presented with a common skin phenotype of warts, molluscum contagiosum, and dermatitis since early childhood, and various other immunological features. Warts are a common manifestation of human papilloma virus (HPV), but when they are overwhelming, disseminated and/or persistent, and presenting together with other immunological features, a primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD) may be suspected. METHODS AND RESULTS: The four patients were exome sequenced as part of a larger study for detecting genetic causes of primary immunodeficiencies. No disease-causing variants were identified in known primary immunodeficiency genes or in other disease-related OMIM genes. However, the same homozygous missense variant in CARMIL2 (also known as RLTPR) was identified in all four patients. In each family, the variant was located within a narrow region of homozygosity, representing a potential region of autozygosity. CARMIL2 is a protein of undetermined function. A role in T-cell activation has been suggested and the mouse protein homolog (Rltpr) is essential for costimulation of T-cell activation via CD28, and for the development of regulatory T cells. Immunophenotyping demonstrated reduced regulatory, CD4+ memory, and CD4+ follicular T cells in all four patients. In addition, they all seem to have a deficiency in IFN γ -synthesis in CD4+ T cells and NK cells. CONCLUSIONS: We report a novel primary immunodeficiency, and a differential molecular diagnosis to CXCR4-,DOCK8-,GATA2-,MAGT1-,MCM4-,STK4-,RHOH-,TMC6-, and TMC8-related diseases. The specific variant may represent a Norwegian founder variant segregating on a population-specific haplotype.

BMC Genomics ; 17: 51, 2016 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26764020


BACKGROUND: With advances in next generation sequencing technology and analysis methods, single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and indels can be detected with high sensitivity and specificity in exome sequencing data. Recent studies have demonstrated the ability to detect disease-causing copy number variants (CNVs) in exome sequencing data. However, exonic CNV prediction programs have shown high false positive CNV counts, which is the major limiting factor for the applicability of these programs in clinical studies. RESULTS: We have developed a tool (cnvScan) to improve the clinical utility of computational CNV prediction in exome data. cnvScan can accept input from any CNV prediction program. cnvScan consists of two steps: CNV screening and CNV annotation. CNV screening evaluates CNV prediction using quality scores and refines this using an in-house CNV database, which greatly reduces the false positive rate. The annotation step provides functionally and clinically relevant information using multiple source datasets. We assessed the performance of cnvScan on CNV predictions from five different prediction programs using 64 exomes from Primary Immunodeficiency (PIDD) patients, and identified PIDD-causing CNVs in three individuals from two different families. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, cnvScan reduces the time and effort required to detect disease-causing CNVs by reducing the false positive count and providing annotation. This improves the clinical utility of CNV detection in exome data.

Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Exoma/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Algoritmos , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Mutação
BMC Genomics ; 15: 661, 2014 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25102989


BACKGROUND: With advances in next generation sequencing technologies and genomic capture techniques, exome sequencing has become a cost-effective approach for mutation detection in genetic diseases. However, computational prediction of copy number variants (CNVs) from exome sequence data is a challenging task. Whilst numerous programs are available, they have different sensitivities, and have low sensitivity to detect smaller CNVs (1-4 exons). Additionally, exonic CNV discovery using standard aCGH has limitations due to the low probe density over exonic regions. The goal of our study was to develop a protocol to detect exonic CNVs (including shorter CNVs that cover 1-4 exons), combining computational prediction algorithms and a high-resolution custom CGH array. RESULTS: We used six published CNV prediction programs (ExomeCNV, CONTRA, ExomeCopy, ExomeDepth, CoNIFER, XHMM) and an in-house modification to ExomeCopy and ExomeDepth (ExCopyDepth) for computational CNV prediction on 30 exomes from the 1000 genomes project and 9 exomes from primary immunodeficiency patients. CNV predictions were tested using a custom CGH array designed to capture all exons (exaCGH). After this validation, we next evaluated the computational prediction of shorter CNVs. ExomeCopy and the in-house modified algorithm, ExCopyDepth, showed the highest capability in detecting shorter CNVs. Finally, the performance of each computational program was assessed by calculating the sensitivity and false positive rate. CONCLUSIONS: In this paper, we assessed the ability of 6 computational programs to predict CNVs, focussing on short (1-4 exon) CNVs. We also tested these predictions using a custom array targeting exons. Based on these results, we propose a protocol to identify and confirm shorter exonic CNVs combining computational prediction algorithms and custom aCGH experiments.

Algoritmos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Exoma/genética , Genômica/métodos , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos