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1.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255635, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347850

RESUMO

The current pandemic has revolutionized medical education with a rapid shift to online teaching and learning strategies. The students have coped by turning to the online resources to keep pace with the change. To determine the type and practice of online resources used by undergraduate medical students and compare the use of online resources with gender and GPA. This was a cross-sectional study in which an online self-administered questionnaire was used to evaluate the type and practices of the online resources used by the medical students during the Covid-19 pandemic. Complete enumeration sampling method was used to collect the data from 180 medical students studying at College of Medicine, Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia. One hundred and thirty students (72.2%) were unaware of the free online resources offered by the University. Most students (58.3%, n = 105) consulted peers for online references. Male students preferred PowerPoint presentations and consulting online resources for studying as compared to the females, whereas females preferred to study textbooks predominantly as compared to males (p = 0.005). Male students significantly shifted to the online resources during the COVID-19 pandemic as compared to females (p = 0.028). Students with the highest GPA scores shifted to online educational resources during pandemic. A significant proportion of the undergraduate medical students at College of Medicine, Majmaah University used online educational resources for learning. We recommend that the college administration for deliberation with the medical educationalists for necessary curricular amendments and taking necessary steps to make the college Academic supervision and mentorship program more proactive to meet the challenges of students' use of online educational resources.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Educação à Distância , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Educação à Distância/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/organização & administração , Adulto Jovem
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360104

RESUMO

In recent decades, environmental pollution has become a significant international public problem in developing and developed nations. Various regions of the USA are experiencing illnesses related to environmental pollution. This study aims to investigate the association of four environmental pollutants, including particulate matter (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and Ozone (O3), with daily cases and deaths resulting from SARS-CoV-2 infection in five regions of the USA, Los Angeles, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, and Florida. The daily basis concentrations of PM2.5, CO, NO2, and O3 were documented from two metrological websites. Data were obtained from the date of the appearance of the first case of (SARS-CoV-2) in the five regions of the USA from 13 March to 31 December 2020. Regionally (Los Angeles, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, and Florida), the number of cases and deaths increased significantly along with increasing levels of PM2.5, CO, NO2 and O3 (p < 0.05), respectively. The Poisson regression results further depicted that, for each 1 unit increase in PM2.5, CO, NO2 and O3 levels, the number of SARS-CoV-2 infections significantly increased by 0.1%, 14.8%, 1.1%, and 0.1%, respectively; for each 1 unit increase in CO, NO2, and O3 levels, the number of deaths significantly increased by 4.2%, 3.4%, and 1.5%, respectively. These empirical estimates demonstrate an association between the environmental pollutants PM2.5, CO, NO2, and O3 and SARS-CoV-2 infections, showing that they contribute to the incidence of daily cases and daily deaths in the five different regions of the USA. These findings can inform health policy decisions about combatting the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in these USA regions and internationally by supporting a reduction in environmental pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Ambientais , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Humanos , Incidência , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Pak J Med Sci ; 37(4): 959-965, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290766

RESUMO

Background & Objectives: Sports activities are highly beneficial for improving the human health and reducing the risk of diseases. This cross sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence of prediabetes and Type-2 diabetes mellitus in cricket players compared to population based non-elite athlete control subjects. Methods: The present matched cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the period October 2019 to February 2020. Initially, 700 volunteer males, (300) cricket players and (400) population based non-elite athlete control subjects were interviewed. After socio-demographic and medical history, (200) nonsmoker cricket players and (300) nonsmoker control subjects were recruited. The age of cricket players was 34 (32-37) years, weight 81 (76-84) kg, height 1.79 (1.74-1.84) meters, and body mass index (BMI) was 25.09 (23.66-26.76) kg/m2. The cricket players have been playing cricket for 4 (3-4) hours per day; 3.50 (3-4) days per week; for the total period of 24 (12-36) months. American Diabetes Association (ADA) based criteria on Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) was used to investigate the prediabetes and Type-2 diabetes mellitus. Results: In cricket players, the prevalence of prediabetes was 23 (11.5%) and Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was 7 (3.5%) compared to population based matched non-elite athlete control subjects the prediabetes was 73 (24.34%) and T2DM was 63 (21.1%) (p=0.001). Among cricket players, there was a 6-folds decrease in T2DM compared to control subjects. Conclusions: The cricket sports activities decrease the prevalence of prediabetes and Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among the cricket players compared to population based matched non-elite athlete control subjects. The study findings demonstrate the urgent need for promoting sports activities, more cricket grounds as a physiological preventive strategy against the global growing diabetes epidemic.

4.
J King Saud Univ Sci ; 33(3): 101373, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33867776

RESUMO

Objectives: COVID-19 pandemic raised several queries on the relationship between the environment pollution and occurrence of new cases and deaths. This study aims to explore the effect of environmental pollution, particulate matter (PM 2.5 µm), carbon monoxide (CO) and Ozone (O3) on daily cases and daily deaths due to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in a largest metropolitan city London, United Kingdom. Methods: For this study, we selected London, one of the highly populated capitals, and markedly affected due to COVID-19 pandemic. The data on the SARS-CoV-2 daily new cases and deaths were recorded from UK-gov Web "Coronavirus COVId-19 in the UK, 2020". The daily environmental pollutants PM 2.5 µm, CO and O3 were recorded from the metrological web "(London Air Pollution, Air Quality Index- AQI, 2020)". The daily cases, deaths, PM 2.5 µm, CO and O3 were documented from the date of the occurrence of the first case of SARS-CoV-2 in London, February 24 to November 2, 2020. Results: The SARS-CoV-2 cases and deaths were positively related with environmental pollutants, PM2.5, O3 and CO levels. Additionally, with 1 µm increase in PM2.5 the number of cases and deaths significantly increased by 1.1% and 2.3% respectively. A 1 unit increase in CO level significantly increased the number of cases and deaths by 21.3% and 21.8% respectively. A similar trend was observed in O3, with 1-unit increase, the number of cases and deaths were significantly increased respectively by 0.8% and 4.4%. Conclusions: Environmental pollutants, PM2.5, CO and O3 have a positive association with an increased number of SARS-CoV-2 daily cases and daily deaths in London, UK. Environmental pollution management authorities must implement necessary policies and assist in planning to minimize the environmental pollution and COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 757: 143948, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321340

RESUMO

Various regions of California have experienced a large number of wildfires this year, at the same time the state has been experiencing a large number of cases of and deaths from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The present study aimed to investigate the relationship of wildfire allied pollutants, including particulate matter (PM-2.5 µm), carbon monoxide (CO), and Ozone (O3) with the dynamics of new daily cases and deaths due to SARS-COV 2 infection in 10 counties, which were affected by wildfire in California. The data on COVID-19 pertaining to daily new cases and deaths was recorded from Worldometer Web. The daily PM-2.5 µm, CO, and O3 concentrations were recorded from three metrological websites: BAAQMD- Air Quality Data; California Air Quality Index-AQI; and Environmental Protection Agency- EPA. The data recorded from the date of the appearance of first case of (SARS-CoV-2) in California region to the onset of wildfire, and from the onset of wildfire to September 22, 2020. After the wildfire, the PM2.5 concentration increased by 220.71%; O3 by 19.56%; and the CO concentration increased by 151.05%. After the wildfire, the numbers of cases and deaths due to COVID-19 both increased respectively by 56.9% and 148.2%. The California wildfire caused an increase in ambient concentrations of toxic pollutants which were temporally associated with an increase in the incidence and mortality of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Ambientais , Ozônio , Incêndios Florestais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , California/epidemiologia , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/toxicidade , Humanos , Incidência , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(10): 1753-1757, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of current practices and new modalities for the management of neonatal indirect hyperbilirubinaemia. METHODS: The prospective study was conducted at King Khalid Hospital, Al Majmaah, Saudi Arabia, from September 2015 to September 2018, and copmprised neonates with hyperbilirubinaemia who were managed using the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence 2010 guidelines. The outcomes were measured in terms of decrease in total serum bilirubin and clinical improvement. Data was analysed using SPSS 25. RESULTS: Of the 233 subjects, there were 119(51%) girls and 114(49%) boys. Phototherapy was used in 162(69.5%) cases, intensive phototherapy in 36(15.5%) and intravenous immunoglobulin in 35(15%). Exchange transfusion was done in 2(0.85%) patients. All the 233(100%) patients improved with the management and total serum bilirubin significantly reduced (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Newer techniques were found to have a vital role in the management of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia.


Assuntos
Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal , Icterícia Neonatal , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/terapia , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fototerapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Arábia Saudita , Atenção Secundária à Saúde
7.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(9): 1591-1595, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040115

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Electronic Health Record (EHR) system is now considered the backbone of effective storage and retrieval of patient records in a healthcare setup. This study is an attempt to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of healthcare professionals in the use of Electronic Health Record system in patient care. METHODS: It was a comparative cross-sectional study, conducted among the clinicians working in King Khaled Hospital, Almajmaah, Saudi Arabia. The data was collected from 260 clinicians using systematic random sampling technique. A pre-validated questionnaire was used to gather the data. Nineteen items were graded based on the adaptability, usability and knowledge of the participants. The total duration of the study from conception to completion was 6 months. RESULTS: There were 146 (56.2%) Saudis and 114 (43.8%) non - Saudi participants. Knowledge of computer was slightly more among Saudis 134 (51.5%) than non - Saudis 104 (40.0%) (p>0.05). Saudis had an overall positive attitude toward using the EHR as compared to non-Saudis (p<0.001).Frequency of accessing computers daily was more among Non-Saudi practitioners 93 (35.8%) as compared to the Saudis 85 (32.7%) which was statistically significant (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study has attempted to correlate that clinician's adaptability with an electronic record system that requires prior expertise in the use of computers. It recommends further foray into researching barriers associated with slow uptake and positive attitudinal change among clinicians using the electronic health records system in healthcare facilities across Saudi Arabia.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Hospitais , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(2)2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102378

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: There is a paucity of literature on the dietary attitude (DA) of patients with type 2 diabetes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Although the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is high in Gulf countries, there remains a lack of understanding of the importance of dietary behavior in diabetes management among patients. Understanding the behavior of patients with diabetes towards the disease requires knowledge of their DA. Therefore, this study aimed to assess and evaluate the DA of type 2 diabetes patients, and it is the first of its kind in the KSA. Material and Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among 350 patients with type 2 diabetes. A self-administered DA questionnaire was used to collect the data. Psychometric properties of the questionnaire were assessed by face validity, content validity, exploratory factor analysis, and internal consistency reliability. The data were collected using a systematic random sampling technique. Results: The overall DA of the patients was inappropriate (p = 0.014). Patients had an inappropriate DA towards food selection (p = 0.003), healthy choices(p = 0.005), food restraint (p < 0.001), health impact (p < 0.001), and food categorization (p = 0.033). A poor DA was also observed in relation to the consumption of red meat(p < 0.001), rice (p < 0.001), soup and sauces (p = 0.040), dairy products (p = 0.015), and junk food(p < 0.001). Conclusions: It is highly recommended that patients with diabetes receive counseling with an empowerment approach, as this can bring about changes in their dietary behavior, which is deeply rooted in their daily routine. Healthcare providers should also be well-informed about patients' attitudes and beliefs towards diabetes to design tailored educational and salutary programs for this specific community. Diabetes self-management educational programs should also be provided on a regular basis with a special emphasis on diet and its related components.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019083

RESUMO

Dietary management is considered as a major step in assessing a patient's knowledge related to nutritional aspects, treatment, and complications of diabetes. Diabetes patients frequently face difficulty in identifying the recommended diet, including its quality and quantity. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), sedentary lifestyle, along with food choices and portion sizes, have increased considerably and this has resulted in the soaring risk of diabetes. In addition, there is paucity of literature focusing on the Dietary Knowledge (DK) of type 2 diabetics in KSA. The study aimed to assess and evaluate the DK of type 2 diabetics. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among 350 type 2 diabetics using a valid and reliable self-prepared questionnaire comprising of 21 questions. Results showed that type 2 diabetics had an overall poor DK (28.57%). Sub-group analysis further revealed that diabetes patients had poor knowledge related to the consumption of carbohydrates and food choices, whereas they had good knowledge related to lipids and fats, proteins and food types. The role of diet in controlling of diabetes is considered imperative, but still, diabetes patients are unaware how they should approach this issue. The patient empowerment approach can be used to counsel patients with a poor DK. Primary care physicians and dietitians should work together and carry out individualized, tailored and patient-centered dietary education sessions.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dieta , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 30(2): 308-311, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29938444

RESUMO

One of frequently asked question by medical and dental students / researchers is how to determine the sample size. Sample size calculations is necessary for approval of research projects, clearance from ethical committees, approval of grant from funding bodies, publication requirement for journals and most important of all justify the authenticity of study results. Determining the sample size for a study is a crucial component. The goal is to include sufficient numbers of subjects so that statistically significant results can be detected. Using too few subjects' will result in wasted time, effort, money; animal lives etc. and may yield statistically inconclusive results. There are numerous situations in which sample size is determined that varies from study to study. This article will focus on the sample size determination for hypothesis testing that involves means, one sample t test, two independent sample t test, paired sample and one-way analysis of variance.


Assuntos
Projetos de Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Tamanho da Amostra
11.
Int J Health Sci (Qassim) ; 11(3): 9-13, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28936144

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anxiety is an emotion characterized by feelings of tension, worried thoughts, and physical changes such as increased blood pressure, etc. The impact of anxiety and depression on health-caregivers of disabled patients are very important because these psychological disorders effects both the health-caregivers and the patients which lead to unexpected bad events. OBJECTIVES: The current study was aimed to find out the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder and major depression in health-care givers of disabled patients and to observe associations between demographic characteristics and psychological disorders in Majmaah and Shaqra Cities, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in rehabilitation centers at Majmaah and Shaqra Cities. The data comprising 100 health-care givers was collected from February to April 2015 through complete enumeration sampling method. A pre-validated "general health quality questionnaire" was used to collect the data. RESULTS: Majority of the participants were male (n = 75, 75%). More than 50% of the participants were holding bachelors' degree. Almost three-fifths of the participants had monthly income between 5000 and 15,000 SAR. The prevalence of somatic disorder was only (2%), anxiety disorder (3%), and depression (1%). However, in psychosocial and stress, the prevalence was (8%), respectively. No significant association was observed between demographic characteristics (nationality, gender, marital status, educational level, occupation, and income) and psychological disorders (somatic, anxiety, psychosocial, depression, and stress) P > 0.05, respectively. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of psychological disorders was very low. Nationality, gender, marital status, educational level, occupation, and income were not significantly associated with psychological disorders.

12.
Int J Health Sci (Qassim) ; 11(2): 65-71, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28539866

RESUMO

Globally, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is considered as one of the most common diseases. The etiology of T2DM is complex and is associated with irreversible risk factors such as age, genetic, race, and ethnicity and reversible factors such as diet, physical activity and smoking. The objectives of this review are to examine various studies to explore relationship of T2DM with different dietary habits/patterns and practices and its complications. Dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle are the major factors for rapidly rising incidence of DM among developing countries. In type 2 diabetics, recently, elevated HbA1c level has also been considered as one of the leading risk factors for developing microvascular and macrovascular complications. Improvement in the elevated HbA1c level can be achieved through diet management; thus, the patients could be prevented from developing the diabetes complications. Awareness about diabetes complications and consequent improvement in dietary knowledge, attitude, and practices lead to better control of the disease. The stakeholders (health-care providers, health facilities, agencies involved in diabetes care, etc.) should encourage patients to understand the importance of diet which may help in disease management, appropriate self-care and better quality of life.

13.
J Educ Health Promot ; 6: 100, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29296601

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to explore the student's perspectives toward the interactive lectures as a teaching and learning method in an integrated curriculum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1st, 2nd and 3rd year male medical students (n = 121). A self-administered questionnaire based on the Visual, Auditory, Reader, Kinesthetic learning styles, learning theories, and role of feedback in teaching and learning on five-point Likert rating scale was used. The questionnaire was constructed after extensive literature review. RESULTS: There was an 80% response rate in this study. The total number of undergraduate medical students responded in the study were n = 97, 34 students of 1st year, n = 30 students of 2nd year and n = 33 student were in 3rd year, the mean scores of the student responses were calculated using Independent samples Kruskal-Wallis. There was no significant difference in the responses of the students of different years except for the question "The Interactive lectures facilitate effective use of learning resources." Which showed significant difference in the responses of the 3 years students by Independent samples Kruskal-Wallis test. No significant association was found between the year of study and items of the questionnaire except for the same item, " The Interactive lectures facilitates effective use of learning resources" by Spearman rank correlation test. CONCLUSION: The students perceive interactive lecture as an effective tool for facilitating visual and auditory learning modes, and for achieving curricular strategies. The student find the feedback given during the interactive lectures is effective in modifying learning attitude and enhancing motivation toward learning.

14.
J Neurosci Rural Pract ; 7(4): 499-503, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27695227

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Epilepsy is very common in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, occurring in 6.54 out of every 1000 individuals. The current study was conducted to determine the level of public awareness of and attitudes toward epilepsy in the city of Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. The study population included respondents derived from preselected public places in the city. Stratified random sampling was used, and the sample size was made up of 706 individuals. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection from respondents after receiving their verbal consent. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 2.0. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of Majmaah University. RESULTS: The results showed that 575 (81.4%) of the respondents had heard or read about epilepsy. Almost 50% of the respondents knew someone who had epilepsy, and 393 (55.7%) had witnessed what they believed to be a seizure. Results showed that 555 (78.6%) respondents believed that epilepsy was neither a contagious disease nor a type of insanity. It was found that 335 (47.5%) stated that epilepsy was a brain disease, and almost one-quarter of the respondents said that the manifestation of an epileptic episode is a convulsion. Regarding attitude, 49% and 47.3% of respondents stated that they would not allow their children to interact with individuals with epilepsy and would object to marrying an individual with epilepsy, respectively. CONCLUSION: Although knowledge about epilepsy is improving, it is still not adequate. The study showed that the attitude toward epilepsy is poor.

15.
J Family Community Med ; 23(3): 133-9, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27625578

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Risky behaviors are those that potentially expose people to harm, or significant risk of harm, which prevent them from reaching their potential in life and which can cause significant morbidity or mortality. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to determine the overall prevalence of risky behaviors among university students; to determine the prevalence of smoking, drifting, fast driving and physical inactivity among university students; and to determine the associations between such behavior and demographic characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational cross-sectional study conducted in three colleges. The data were randomly collected from 340 students aged 18-30 years from February to March 2015 using a self-administered questionnaire in Arabic. The data were entered using SPSS v 22.0. Mean and standard deviation were calculated for quantitative variables, and frequency and percentages were computed for categorical variables. Chi-square or Fisher's Exact test, as appropriate, were used to test for statistical significance. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of risky behaviors (smoking, drifting, fast driving, and physical inactivity) among students was 47.35%. Overall, 28% of the students were smokers, 25.2% were involved in drifting, 60.9% reported driving fast, and 66.4% were physically inactive. The age between 18-20 years was significantly associated with higher rates of drifting, fast driving, and physical inactivity. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of risky behaviors among university students was high. Physical inactivity and fast driving were the most common identified risky behaviors. Increasing awareness of these risks in the youth may significantly decrease related morbidities, complications, and even mortalities.

16.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 66(4): 442-6, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27122273

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice of food hygiene among primary, intermediate and high school students and explore association, if any, with socio-demographic differences. METHODS: The observational cross-sectional study was conducted at boy's schools in Majmaah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from February to May 2014. Data was collected using stratified random sampling technique from students aged 8-25 year. Two schools from each level (primary, intermediate and high school) were randomly selected and data was collected from the selected schools using simple random sampling method. A self-administered modified Sharif and Al-Malki questionnaire for knowledge, attitude and practice of food hygiene was used with Arabic translation. RESULTS: The mean age of 377 male students in the study was 14.53±2.647 years. Knowledge levels was less in primary school students compared to high school students (p=0.026). Attitude level was high in primary school students compared to intermediate school students (p< 0.001). No significant difference was observed between groups with regard to practice levels (p=0.152). CONCLUSIONS: The students exhibited good practice levels, despite fair knowledge and attitude levels.


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Contaminação de Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 65(8): 825-8, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26228324

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of using non-prescribed medication in a Saudi Arabian city. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted in Majmaah city, Saudi Arabia, from January to May 2014, and comprised adults of either gender. For data collection, a questionnaire was designed and its reliability was checked by Cronbach Alpha. SPSS 20 was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Of the 390 respondents 276(70.8%) were males, while 114(29.2%) were females. The overall mean age was 29.90±11.56 years (range: 18-83 years). Of the total, 363(93.1%) were using non-prescribed medication; and 148(37.9%) said they were using the drugs as they had experienced similar symptoms before and they knew the treatment. Public pharmacies were the main source for obtaining non-prescribed medication for 163(41.8%) subjects. Gender and use of non-prescribed medication was significantly associated (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of using non-prescribed medication in Majmaah city was high. Pain-killers, antibiotics and antipyretics were the most used non-prescribed medications. Male respondents used non-prescribed medication more than the females.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antipiréticos/uso terapêutico , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Health Sci (Qassim) ; 9(2): 163-70, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26309435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PHC Patient' satisfaction represents a key marker for the quality of health care delivery and this internationally accepted factor needs to be studied repeatedly for smooth functioning of the health care systems. The objectives of the current study were to determine the level of patients' satisfaction with the primary health care services provided in Majmaah city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; to identify the reasons behind satisfaction or dissatisfaction and to determine the effect of the social factors on the level of satisfaction. METHODOLOGY: The study was a cross-sectional facility- based. The sample comprised 370 patients selected by stratified and systematic sampling at the health centers' level and the patients' level respectively. The data were collected by a pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS software. RESULTS: Patients' level of satisfaction was 82%. The reasons behind satisfaction were cleanliness of the facilities and technical competencies of the staff (33.1% and 24.2%). The study showed that the most stated reason behind dissatisfaction was the unsuitable buildings (29%). Significant association was found between the level of patients' satisfaction about PHC centers services and the respondents' level of education. CONCLUSION: The level of satisfaction with the services provided by PHC centers in Majmaah is high. The gender, marital status and income have no effect on the level of satisfaction with the services provided by PHC centers. However, the lower educated are more satisfied than the higher educated. Cleanliness, competence of the staff along with respect and good handling are the drivers behind the high level of satisfaction.

19.
J Family Community Med ; 21(2): 85-92, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24987276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breaking bad news is one of the most stressful and difficult things a physician has to do. Good communication skills are required in order to ensure that bad news is delivered in a humane but effective way. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to explore the preferences and attitude of the Saudi population toward receiving bad news. Second, it was to identify the associations between preferences, attitudes, and sociodemographic characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted during the month of April 2009 in Riyadh. Data were collected from 1013 adult Saudis. Stratified random sampling technique was used through a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: In this study, 474 (46.8%) were males and 539 (53.2%) were females. Almost two-third of the participants preferred to be the first to receive the bad news. A majority of the participants 695 (68.6%) preferred to be told the bad news at a private place, whereas, 441 (43.5%) preferred to be told by the head of the medical team. Moreover, almost half of the participants would like the one who breaks the bad news to remain with them to give them some more information about the disease. Significant associations were observed between participants' perception and attitude with age, marital status, gender, and education (P < 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSION: Factors such as marital status, age, and gender, and education play significant roles in how bad news is received. Understanding what is important in the process of breaking bad news may help in determining how best to perform this challenging task.

20.
Asian J Surg ; 36(4): 144-9, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23726829

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of the Alvarado scoring system in reducing the percentage of negative appendectomy in our unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted, comprising 110 patients, admitted to Surgical Unit I, Civil Hospital, Karachi, in 2011 with a preliminary diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Patients of both sexes and all age groups except younger than 10 years were included in the study and their Alvarado scores calculated, on the basis of which patients were divided into two groups: Group A (Alvarado score <6) and Group B (Alvarado score ≥6). The signs, symptoms, laboratory values, surgical interventions, and pathology reports of each patient were evaluated. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. RESULTS: Out of 110 cases (79 males, 31 females), 31 belonged to Group A (28.2%) and 79 belonged to Group B (71.8%). Surgical procedures were performed in 98.2% of cases, along with conservative treatment. Final diagnosis by histopathology was confirmed in 77 cases (71.3%). The overall negative appendectomy rate was 28.7% (males: 28.2%, females: 30%). Sensitivity and specificity of the Alvarado scoring system were found to be 93.5% and 80.6% respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 92.3% and 83.3%, respectively, and accuracy was 89.8%. CONCLUSION: Alvarado score can be used effectively in our setup to reduce the incidence of negative appendectomies. However, its role in females was not satisfactory and needs to be supplemented by other means.


Assuntos
Apendicite/diagnóstico , Erros de Diagnóstico/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Apendicectomia , Apendicite/patologia , Apendicite/cirurgia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
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