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1.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(2)2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498421

RESUMO

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a huge environmental problem in mountain-top mining regions worldwide, including the Appalachian Mountains in the United States. This study applied a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to uncover genomic loci in Arabidopsis associated with tolerance to AMD toxicity. We characterized five major root phenotypes-cumulative root length, average root diameter, root surface area, root volume, and primary root length-in 180 Arabidopsis accessions in response to AMD-supplemented growth medium. GWAS of natural variation in the panel revealed genes associated with tolerance to an acidic environment. Most of these genes were transcription factors, anion/cation transporters, metal transporters, and unknown proteins. Two T-DNA insertion mutants, At1g63005 (miR399b) and At2g05635 (DEAD helicase RAD3), showed enhanced acidity tolerance. Our GWAS and the reverse genetic approach revealed genes involved in conferring tolerance to coal AMD. Our results indicated that proton resistance in hydroponic conditions could be an important index to improve plant growth in acidic soil, at least in acid-sensitive plant species.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 407: 124831, 2021 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340971

RESUMO

Arsenic (As), a non-biodegradable contaminant, is extremely toxic to plants and animals in its inorganic form. As negatively affects plant growth and development, primarily by inducing oxidative stress through redox imbalance. Here we characterized the Arabidopsis F-box protein gene AT2G16220 (Arsenic Stress-Related F-box (ASRF)) that we identified in the genome-wide association study. The asrf mutant seedlings showed high sensitivity to arsenate (AsV) stress. AsV significantly affected asrf seedling growth when germinated on or exposed to AsV-supplemented growth regimes. AsV stress significantly induced production of reactive oxygen species and proline accumulation in asrf, so the asrf maintained high proline content, possibly for cellular protection and redox homeostasis. Heterozygous seedlings (Col-0 x asrf, F1 progeny) were relatively less affected by AsV stress than asrf mutant but showed slightly reduced growth compared with the Col-0 wild type, which suggests that the homozygous ASRF locus is important for AsV stress resistance. Transcriptome analysis involving the mutant and wild type revealed altered phosphate homeostasis in asrf seedlings, which implies that ASRF is required for maintaining phosphate and cellular- homeostasis under excess AsV. Our findings confirm the roles of ASRF in As stress tolerance in plants, for a novel way to mitigate arsenic stress.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arsênio , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arsênio/metabolismo , Arsênio/toxicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo
3.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215901, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039176

RESUMO

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes act as transporters for different molecules across biological membranes and are involved in a diverse range of biological processes. In this study, we performed a genome-wide identification and expression analysis of genes encoding ABC transporter proteins in three Capsicum species, i.e., Capsicum annuum, Capsicum baccatum and Capsicum chinense. Capsicum is a valuable horticultural crop worldwide as an important constituent of many foods while containing several medicinal compounds including capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. Our results identified the presence of a total of 200, 185 and 187 ABC transporter genes in C. annuum, C. baccatum and C. chinense genomes, respectively. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin content were determined in green pepper fruits (16 dpa). Additionally, we conducted different bioinformatics analyses including ABC genes classification, gene chromosomal location, Cis elements, conserved motifs identification and gene ontology classification, as well as profile expression of selected genes. Based on phylogenetic analysis and domain organization, the Capsicum ABC gene family was grouped into eight subfamilies. Among them, members within the ABCG, ABCB and ABCC subfamilies were the most abundant, while ABCD and ABCE subfamilies were less abundant throughout all species. ABC members within the same subfamily showed similar motif composition. Furthermore, common cis-elements involved in the transcriptional regulation were also identified in the promoter regions of all Capsicum ABC genes. Gene expression data from RNAseq and reverse transcription-semi-quantitative PCR analysis revealed development-specific stage expression profiles in placenta tissues. It suggests that ABC transporters, specifically the ABCC and ABCG subfamilies, may be playing important roles in the transport of secondary metabolites such as capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin to the placenta vacuoles, effecting on their content in pepper fruits. Our results provide a more comprehensive understanding of ABC transporter gene family in different Capsicum species while allowing the identification of important candidate genes related to capsaicin content for subsequent functional validation.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Capsicum/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/química , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Alelos , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Capsaicina/análise , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Ontologia Genética , Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
4.
Funct Integr Genomics ; 19(1): 171-190, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244303

RESUMO

Elevated CO2 along with drought is a serious global threat to crop productivity. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms plants use to protect these stresses is the key for plant growth and development. In this study, we mimicked natural stress conditions under a controlled Soil-Plant-Atmosphere-Research (SPAR) system and provided the evidence for how miRNAs regulate target genes under elevated CO2 and drought conditions. Significant physiological and biomass data supported the effective utilization of source-sink (leaf to root) under elevated CO2. Additionally, elevated CO2 partially rescued the effect of drought on total biomass. We identified both known and novel miRNAs differentially expressed during drought, CO2, and combined stress, along with putative targets. A total of 32 conserved miRNAs belonged to 23 miRNA families, and 25 novel miRNAs were identified by deep sequencing. Using the existing sweet potato genome database and stringent analyses, a total of 42 and 22 potential target genes were predicted for the conserved and novel miRNAs, respectively. These target genes are involved in drought response, hormone signaling, photosynthesis, carbon fixation, sucrose and starch metabolism, etc. Gene ontology and KEGG ontology functional enrichment revealed that these miRNAs might target transcription factors (MYB, TCP, NAC), hormone signaling regulators (ARF, AP2/ERF), cold and drought factors (corA), carbon metabolism (ATP synthase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate), and photosynthesis (photosystem I and II complex units). Our study is the first report identifying targets of miRNAs under elevated CO2 levels and could support the molecular mechanisms under elevated CO2 in sweet potato and other crops in the future.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Ipomoea batatas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Biomassa , Ciclo do Carbono/genética , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Ontologia Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fotossíntese/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
5.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 4, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29403516

RESUMO

The plant microbiome is a key determinant of plant health and productivity, and changes in the plant microbiome can alter the tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses and the quality of end produce. Little is known about the microbial diversity and its effect on carbohydrate metabolism in ripe fruits. In this study, we aimed to understand the diversity and function of microorganisms in relation to carbohydrate metabolism of ripe watermelon fruits. We used 16S metagenomics and RNAseq metatranscriptomics for analysis of red (PI459074, Congo, and SDRose) and yellow fruit-flesh cultivars (PI227202, PI435990, and JBush) of geographically and metabolically diverse watermelon cultivars. Metagenomics data showed that Proteobacteria were abundant in SDRose and PI227202, whereas Cyanobacteria were most abundant in Congo and PI4559074. In the case of metatranscriptome data, Proteobacteria was the most abundant in all cultivars. High expression of genes linked to infectious diseases and the expression of peptidoglycan hydrolases associated to pathogenicity of eukaryotic hosts was observed in SDRose, which could have resulted in low microbial diversity in this cultivar. The presence of GH28, associated with polygalacturonase activity in JBush and SDRose could be related to cell wall modifications including de-esterification and depolymerization, and consequent loss of galacturonic acid and neutral sugars. Moreover, based on the KEGG annotation of the expressed genes, nine α-galactosidase genes involved in key processes of galactosyl oligosaccharide metabolism, such as raffinose family were identified and galactose metabolism pathway was reconstructed. Results of this study underline the links between the host and fruit-associated microbiome in carbohydrate metabolism of the ripe fruits. The cultivar difference in watermelon reflects the quantum and diversity of the microbiome, which would benefit watermelon and other plant breeders aiming at the holobiont concept to incorporate associated microbiomes in breeding programs.

6.
Sci Rep ; 7: 41285, 2017 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28128280

RESUMO

Use of 10,129 singleton SNPs of known genomic location in tetraploid cotton provided unique opportunities to characterize genome-wide diversity among 440 Gossypium hirsutum and 219 G. barbadense cultivars and landrace accessions of widespread origin. Using the SNPs distributed genome-wide, we examined genetic diversity, haplotype distribution and linkage disequilibrium patterns in the G. hirsutum and G. barbadense genomes to clarify population demographic history. Diversity and identity-by-state analyses have revealed little sharing of alleles between the two cultivated allotetraploid genomes, with a few exceptions that indicated sporadic gene flow. We found a high number of new alleles, representing increased nucleotide diversity, on chromosomes 1 and 2 in cultivated G. hirsutum as compared with low nucleotide diversity on these chromosomes in landrace G. hirsutum. In contrast, G. barbadense chromosomes showed negative Tajima's D on several chromosomes for both cultivated and landrace types, which indicate that speciation of G. barbadense itself, might have occurred with relatively narrow genetic diversity. The presence of conserved linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks and haplotypes between G. hirsutum and G. barbadense provides strong evidence for comparable patterns of evolution in their domestication processes. Our study illustrates the potential use of population genetic techniques to identify genomic regions for domestication.


Assuntos
Domesticação , Genética Populacional , Genoma de Planta/genética , Gossypium/genética , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tetraploidia
7.
Sci Rep ; 6: 38081, 2016 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27901114

RESUMO

Accumulated capsaicinoid content and increased fruit size are traits resulting from Capsicum annuum domestication. In this study, we used a diverse collection of C. annuum to generate 66,960 SNPs using genotyping by sequencing. The study identified 1189 haplotypes containing 3413 SNPs. Length of individual linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks varied along chromosomes, with regions of high and low LD interspersed with an average LD of 139 kb. Principal component analysis (PCA), Bayesian model based population structure analysis and an Euclidean tree built based on identity by state (IBS) indices revealed that the clustering pattern of diverse accessions are in agreement with capsaicin content (CA) and fruit weight (FW) classifications indicating the importance of these traits in shaping modern pepper genome. PCA and IBS were used in a mixed linear model of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin content and fruit weight to reduce spurious associations because of confounding effects of subpopulations in genome-wide association study (GWAS). Our GWAS results showed SNPs in Ankyrin-like protein, IKI3 family protein, ABC transporter G family and pentatricopeptide repeat protein are the major markers for capsaicinoids and of 16 SNPs strongly associated with FW in both years of the study, 7 are located in known fruit weight controlling genes.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Capsicum , Frutas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Capsaicina/metabolismo , Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla
8.
Front Plant Sci ; 7: 1646, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27857720

RESUMO

Principal component analysis (PCA) with 36,621 polymorphic genome-anchored single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified collectively for Capsicum annuum and Capsicum baccatum was used to characterize population structure and species domestication of these two important incompatible cultivated pepper species. Estimated mean nucleotide diversity (π) and Tajima's D across various chromosomes revealed biased distribution toward negative values on all chromosomes (except for chromosome 4) in cultivated C. baccatum, indicating a population bottleneck during domestication of C. baccatum. In contrast, C. annuum chromosomes showed positive π and Tajima's D on all chromosomes except chromosome 8, which may be because of domestication at multiple sites contributing to wider genetic diversity. For C. baccatum, 13,129 SNPs were available, with minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥0.05; PCA of the SNPs revealed 283 C. baccatum accessions grouped into 3 distinct clusters, for strong population structure. The fixation index (FST ) between domesticated C. annuum and C. baccatum was 0.78, which indicates genome-wide divergence. We conducted extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis of C. baccatum var. pendulum cultivars on all adjacent SNP pairs within a chromosome to identify regions of high and low LD interspersed with a genome-wide average LD block size of 99.1 kb. We characterized 1742 haplotypes containing 4420 SNPs (range 9-2 SNPs per haplotype). Genome-wide association study (GWAS) of peduncle length, a trait that differentiates wild and domesticated C. baccatum types, revealed 36 significantly associated genome-wide SNPs. Population structure, identity by state (IBS) and LD patterns across the genome will be of potential use for future GWAS of economically important traits in C. baccatum peppers.

9.
Front Plant Sci ; 7: 1437, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27713759

RESUMO

Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a phenotypically diverse eudicot diploid (2n = 2x = 24) has climacteric and non-climacteric morphotypes and show wide variation for fruit firmness, an important trait for transportation and shelf life. We generated 13,789 SNP markers using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and anchored them to chromosomes to understand genome-wide fixation indices (Fst) between various melon morphotypes and genomewide linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay. The FST between accessions of cantalupensis and inodorus was 0.23. The FST between cantalupensis and various agrestis accessions was in a range of 0.19-0.53 and between inodorus and agrestis accessions was in a range of 0.21-0.59 indicating sporadic to wide ranging introgression. The EM (Expectation Maximization) algorithm was used for estimation of 1436 haplotypes. Average genome-wide LD decay for the melon genome was noted to be 9.27 Kb. In the current research, we focused on the genome-wide divergence underlying diverse melon horticultural groups. A high-resolution genetic map with 7153 loci was constructed. Genome-wide segregation distortion and recombination rate across various chromosomes were characterized. Melon has climacteric and non-climacteric morphotypes and wide variation for fruit firmness, a very important trait for transportation and shelf life. Various levels of QTLs were identified with high to moderate stringency and linked to fruit firmness using both genome-wide association study (GWAS) and biparental mapping. Gene annotation revealed some of the SNPs are located in ß-D-xylosidase, glyoxysomal malate synthase, chloroplastic anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase, and histidine kinase, the genes that were previously characterized for fruit ripening and softening in other crops.

10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 16(1): 122, 2016 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27230657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding endogenous RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally, play multiple key roles in plant growth and development and in biotic and abiotic stress response. Knowledge and roles of miRNAs in pomegranate fruit development have not been explored. RESULTS: Pomegranate, which accumulates a large amount of anthocyanins in skin and arils, is valuable to human health, mainly because of its antioxidant properties. In this study, we developed a small RNA library from pooled RNA samples from young seedlings to mature fruits and identified both conserved and pomegranate-specific miRNA from 29,948,480 high-quality reads. For the pool of 15- to 30-nt small RNAs, ~50 % were 24 nt. The miR157 family was the most abundant, followed by miR156, miR166, and miR168, with variants within each family. The base bias at the first position from the 5' end had a strong preference for U for most 18- to 26-nt sRNAs but a preference for A for 18-nt sRNAs. In addition, for all 24-nt sRNAs, the nucleotide U was preferred (97 %) in the first position. Stem-loop RT-qPCR was used to validate the expression of the predominant miRNAs and novel miRNAs in leaves, male and female flowers, and multiple fruit developmental stages; miR156, miR156a, miR159a, miR159b, and miR319b were upregulated during the later stages of fruit development. Higher expression of miR156 in later fruit developmental may positively regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis by reducing SPL transcription factor. Novel miRNAs showed variation in expression among different tissues. These novel miRNAs targeted different transcription factors and hormone related regulators. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses revealed predominant metabolic processes and catalytic activities, important for fruit development. In addition, KEGG pathway analyses revealed the involvement of miRNAs in ascorbate and linolenic acid, starch and sucrose metabolism; RNA transport; plant hormone signaling pathways; and circadian clock. CONCLUSION: Our first and preliminary report of miRNAs will provide information on the synthesis of biochemical compounds of pomegranate for future research. The functions of the targets of the novel miRNAs need further investigation.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lythraceae/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Lythraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lythraceae/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 49(17): 10320-9, 2015 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26269111

RESUMO

Efficient postmining reclamation requires successful revegetation. By using RNA sequencing, we evaluated the growth response of two invasive plants, goutweed (Aegopodium podagraria L.) and mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), grown in two Appalachian acid-mine soils (MS-I and -II, pH ∼ 4.6). Although deficient in macronutrients, both soils contained high levels of plant-available Al, Fe and Mn. Both plant types showed toxicity tolerance, but metal accumulation differed by plant and site. With MS-I, Al accumulation was greater for mugwort than goutweed (385 ± 47 vs 2151 ± 251 µg g-1). Al concentration was similar between mine sites, but its accumulation in mugwort was greater with MS-I than MS-II, with no difference in accumulation by site for goutweed. An in situ approach revealed deregulation of multiple factors such as transporters, transcription factors, and metal chelators for metal uptake or exclusion. The two plant systems showed common gene expression patterns for different pathways. Both plant systems appeared to have few common heavy-metal pathway regulators addressing mineral toxicity/deficiency in both mine sites, which implies adaptability of invasive plants for efficient growth at mine sites with toxic waste. Functional genomics can be used to screen for plant adaptability, especially for reclamation and phytoremediation of contaminated soils and waters.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Espécies Introduzidas , Minerais/toxicidade , Mineração , Plantas/genética , Solo/química , Região dos Apalaches , Biodegradação Ambiental/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ontologia Genética , Genes de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade , Regulação para Cima/genética
12.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 290(4): 1393-402, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25675870

RESUMO

This genetic diversity study aimed to estimate the population structure and explore the use of association mapping strategies to identify linked markers for bacterial resistance, growth and fruit quality in pomegranate collections from India. In total, 88 accessions including 37 cultivated types were investigated. A total of 112 alleles were amplified by use of 44 publicly available microsatellites for estimating molecular genetic diversity and population structure. Neighbor-joining analysis, model-based population structure and principal component analysis corroborated the genetic relationships among wild-type and cultivated pomegranate collections from India. Our study placed all 88 germplasm into four clusters. We identified a cultivated clade of pomegranates in close proximity to Daru types of wild-type pomegranates that grow naturally near the foothills of the Himalayas. Admixture analysis sorted various lineages of cultivated pomegranates to their respective ancestral forms. We identified four linked markers for fruit weight, titratable acidity and bacterial blight severity. PGCT001 was found associated with both fruit weight and bacterial blight, and the association with fruit weight during both seasons analyzed was significant after Bonferroni correction. This research demonstrates effectiveness of microsatellites to resolve population structure among the wild and cultivar collection of pomegranates and future use for association mapping studies.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Lythraceae/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Análise de Variância , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Análise por Conglomerados , Resistência à Doença/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Genética Populacional , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Índia , Lythraceae/classificação , Lythraceae/microbiologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie , Xanthomonas axonopodis/fisiologia
13.
J Exp Bot ; 66(5): 1369-85, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25520388

RESUMO

The exploitation of synthetic polyploids for producing seedless fruits is well known in watermelon. Tetraploid progenitors of triploid watermelon plants, compared with their diploid counterparts, exhibit wide phenotypic differences. Although many factors modulate alternative splicing (AS) in plants, the effects of autopolyploidization on AS are still unknown. In this study, we used tissues of leaf, stem, and fruit of diploid and tetraploid sweet watermelon to understand changes in gene expression and the occurrence of AS. RNA-sequencing analysis was performed along with reverse transcription quantitative PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR to demonstrate changes in expression and splicing. All vegetative tissues except fruit showed an increased level of AS in the tetraploid watermelon throughout the growth period. The ploidy levels of diploids and the tetraploid were confirmed using a ploidy analyser. We identified 5362 and 1288 genes that were up- and downregulated, respectively, in tetraploid as compared with diploid plants. We further confirmed that 22 genes underwent AS events across tissues, indicating possibilities of generating different protein isoforms with altered functions of important transcription factors and transporters. Arginine biosynthesis, chlorophyllide synthesis, GDP mannose biosynthesis, trehalose biosynthesis, and starch and sucrose degradation pathways were upregulated in autotetraploids. Phloem protein 2, chloroplastic PGR5-like protein, zinc-finger protein, fructokinase-like 2, MYB transcription factor, and nodulin MtN21 showed AS in fruit tissues. These results should help in developing high-quality seedless watermelon and provide additional transcriptomic information related to other cucurbits.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Citrullus/genética , Diploide , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tetraploidia , Citrullus/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
14.
J Hered ; 106(2): 166-76, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25425675

RESUMO

Our genetic diversity study uses microsatellites of known map position to estimate genome level population structure and linkage disequilibrium, and to identify genomic regions that have undergone selection during watermelon domestication and improvement. Thirty regions that showed evidence of selective sweep were scanned for the presence of candidate genes using the watermelon genome browser (www.icugi.org). We localized selective sweeps in intergenic regions, close to the promoters, and within the exons and introns of various genes. This study provided an evidence of convergent evolution for the presence of diverse ecotypes with special reference to American and European ecotypes. Our search for location of linked markers in the whole-genome draft sequence revealed that BVWS00358, a GA repeat microsatellite, is the GAGA type transcription factor located in the 5' untranslated regions of a structure and insertion element that expresses a Cys2His2 Zinc finger motif, with presumed biological processes related to chitin response and transcriptional regulation. In addition, BVWS01708, an ATT repeat microsatellite, located in the promoter of a DTW domain-containing protein (Cla002761); and 2 other simple sequence repeats that association mapping link to fruit length and rind thickness.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Citrullus/genética , Frutas/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Evolução Biológica , DNA de Plantas/genética , Ecótipo , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Seleção Genética
15.
BMC Genomics ; 15: 767, 2014 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25196513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) dataset was used to analyze genome-wide diversity in a diverse collection of watermelon cultivars representing globally cultivated, watermelon genetic diversity. The marker density required for conducting successful association mapping depends on the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) within a population. Use of genotyping by sequencing reveals large numbers of SNPs that in turn generate opportunities in genome-wide association mapping and marker-assisted selection, even in crops such as watermelon for which few genomic resources are available. In this paper, we used genome-wide genetic diversity to study LD, selective sweeps, and pairwise FST distributions among worldwide cultivated watermelons to track signals of domestication. RESULTS: We examined 183 Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus accessions representing domesticated watermelon and generated a set of 11,485 SNP markers using genotyping by sequencing. With a diverse panel of worldwide cultivated watermelons, we identified a set of 5,254 SNPs with a minor allele frequency of ≥ 0.05, distributed across the genome. All ancestries were traced to Africa and an admixture of various ancestries constituted secondary gene pools across various continents. A sliding window analysis using pairwise FST values was used to resolve selective sweeps. We identified strong selection on chromosomes 3 and 9 that might have contributed to the domestication process. Pairwise analysis of adjacent SNPs within a chromosome as well as within a haplotype allowed us to estimate genome-wide LD decay. LD was also detected within individual genes on various chromosomes. Principal component and ancestry analyses were used to account for population structure in a genome-wide association study. We further mapped important genes for soluble solid content using a mixed linear model. CONCLUSIONS: Information concerning the SNP resources, population structure, and LD developed in this study will help in identifying agronomically important candidate genes from the genomic regions underlying selection and for mapping quantitative trait loci using a genome-wide association study in sweet watermelon.


Assuntos
Citrullus/genética , Genoma de Planta , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Análise de Componente Principal , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 4(11): 2219-30, 2014 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25227227

RESUMO

We used genotyping by sequencing to identify a set of 10,480 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for constructing a high-resolution genetic map of 1096 cM for watermelon. We assessed the genome-wide variation in recombination rate (GWRR) across the map and found an association between GWRR and genome-wide nucleotide diversity. Collinearity between the map and the genome-wide reference sequence for watermelon was studied to identify inconsistency and chromosome rearrangements. We assessed genome-wide nucleotide diversity, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and selective sweep for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus to track signals of domestication. Principal component analysis combined with chromosome-wide phylogenetic study based on 1563 SNPs obtained after LD pruning with minor allele frequency of 0.05 resolved the differences between semi-wild and wild accessions as well as relationships among worldwide sweet watermelon. Population structure analysis revealed predominant ancestries for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated watermelons as well as admixture of various ancestries that were important for domestication. Sliding window analysis of Tajima's D across various chromosomes was used to resolve selective sweep. LD decay was estimated for various chromosomes. We identified a strong selective sweep on chromosome 3 consisting of important genes that might have had a role in sweet watermelon domestication.


Assuntos
Citrullus/genética , Genoma de Planta , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Recombinação Genética , Seleção Genética
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