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1.
Pediatrics ; 146(1)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estimates of children and adolescents with disabilities worldwide are needed to inform global intervention under the disability-inclusive provisions of the Sustainable Development Goals. We sought to update the most widely reported estimate of 93 million children <15 years with disabilities from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2004. METHODS: We analyzed Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 data on the prevalence of childhood epilepsy, intellectual disability, and vision or hearing loss and on years lived with disability (YLD) derived from systematic reviews, health surveys, hospital and claims databases, cohort studies, and disease-specific registries. Point estimates of the prevalence and YLD and the 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) around the estimates were assessed. RESULTS: Globally, 291.2 million (11.2%) of the 2.6 billion children and adolescents (95% UI: 249.9-335.4 million) were estimated to have 1 of the 4 specified disabilities in 2017. The prevalence of these disabilities increased with age from 6.1% among children aged <1 year to 13.9% among adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. A total of 275.2 million (94.5%) lived in low- and middle-income countries, predominantly in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The top 10 countries accounted for 62.3% of all children and adolescents with disabilities. These disabilities accounted for 28.9 million YLD or 19.9% of the overall 145.3 million (95% UI: 106.9-189.7) YLD from all causes among children and adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: The number of children and adolescents with these 4 disabilities is far higher than the 2004 estimate, increases from infancy to adolescence, and accounts for a substantial proportion of all-cause YLD.


Assuntos
Cegueira/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
2.
PeerJ ; 6: e4385, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29456896

RESUMO

Background: Although several studies have identified risk factors for high blood pressure (BP), data from Afro-Caribbean populations are limited. Additionally, less is known about how putative risk factors operate in young adults and how social factors influence the risk of high BP. In this study, we estimated the relative risk for elevated BP or hypertension (EBP/HTN), defined as BP ≥ 120/80 mmHg, among young adults with putative cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Jamaica and evaluated whether relative risks differed by sex. Methods: Data from 898 young adults, 18-20 years old, were analysed. BP was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer after participants had been seated for 5 min. Anthropometric measurements were obtained, and glucose, lipids and insulin measured from a fasting venous blood sample. Data on socioeconomic status (SES) were obtained via questionnaire. CVD risk factor status was defined using standard cut-points or the upper quintile of the distribution where the numbers meeting standard cut-points were small. Relative risks were estimated using odds ratios (OR) from logistic regression models. Results: Prevalence of EBP/HTN was 30% among males and 13% among females (p < 0.001 for sex difference). There was evidence for sex interaction in the relationship between EBP/HTN and some of risk factors (obesity and household possessions), therefore we report sex-specific analyses. In multivariable logistic regression models, factors independently associated with EBP/HTN among men were obesity (OR 8.48, 95% CI [2.64-27.2], p < 0.001), and high glucose (OR 2.01, CI [1.20-3.37], p = 0.008), while high HOMA-IR did not achieve statistical significance (OR 2.08, CI [0.94-4.58], p = 0.069). In similar models for women, high triglycerides (OR 1.98, CI [1.03-3.81], p = 0.040) and high HOMA-IR (OR 2.07, CI [1.03-4.12], p = 0.039) were positively associated with EBP/HTN. Lower SES was also associated with higher odds for EBP/HTN (OR 4.63, CI [1.31-16.4], p = 0.017, for moderate vs. high household possessions; OR 2.61, CI [0.70-9.77], p = 0.154 for low vs. high household possessions). Alcohol consumption was associated with lower odds of EBP/HTN among females only; OR 0.41 (CI [0.18-0.90], p = 0.026) for drinking <1 time per week vs. never drinkers, and OR 0.28 (CI [0.11-0.76], p = 0.012) for drinking ≥3 times per week vs. never drinkers. Physical activity was inversely associated with EBP/HTN in both males and females. Conclusion: Factors associated with EBP/HTN among Jamaican young adults include obesity, high glucose, high triglycerides and high HOMA-IR, with some significant differences by sex. Among women lower SES was positively associated with EBP/HTN, while moderate alcohol consumption was associated lower odds of EBP/HTN.

3.
Int J Speech Lang Pathol ; 16(1): 30-5, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24397842

RESUMO

There is limited information on autism spectrum disorders from lower- and middle-income countries (LMIC). This paper reviews the status of early identification and early intervention for autism spectrum disorders in response to the article by Camarata (2014) . The PubMed database was searched to identify relevant epidemiological studies from LMIC. Seven studies from five countries were identified: Colombia, India, Jamaica, Jordan, and Mexico. The mean age of parental concern, at 21-24 months, and mean age of diagnosis, at 45-57 months, were similar in LMIC, but later than in high-income countries. Both country groups reported language disorder to be the symptom of initial concern. Similarities in biological aspects of the disorders were noted across LMIC and high-income countries. Comparable ages of identification and diagnosis across vastly different LMIC suggest limited resources to be the underlying contributory factor. Recommendations for improving early identification and intervention made by researchers in the LMIC are reported.


Assuntos
Humanos
4.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 1: 12, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26664862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) has been shown to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) endpoints and is associated with CVD risk factors and the metabolic syndrome. This study evaluated the association between hsCRP and CVD risk factors among Afro-Caribbean young adults in Jamaica. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Jamaica 1986 Birth Cohort Study. Data were collected between 2005 and 2007 when participants were 18-20 years old. All participants completed an interviewer administered questionnaire and had anthropometric and blood pressure (BP) measurements performed. Fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of glucose, lipids, and hsCRP. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors independently associated with high hsCRP. RESULTS: Analyses included 342 men and 404 women with mean age 18.8 ± 0.6 years. Approximately 15% of the participants had high risk hsCRP (>3 mg/L), with a higher prevalence among women (20 vs. 9%; p < 0.001). The prevalence of elevated hsCRP increased with body mass index category, high waist circumference (WC), high triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein, and lower parental education among women, but only for high WC and lower parental education among men. In logistic regression models controlling for sex and parental education, high WC was associated with significantly higher odds of high hsCRP (OR 7.8, 95% CI 4.8-12.9, p < 0.001). In a similar model, high hsCRP was also associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components. Compared to participants with no metabolic syndrome component, having one metabolic syndrome component was associated with a twofold higher odds of high hsCRP (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.8, p = 0.005), while having three components was associated with a 14-fold higher odds of high hsCRP (OR 13.5, 95% CI 2.4-76.0, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: High hsCRP is common among Jamaican young adults and is strongly associated with central obesity and the number of metabolic syndrome components.

5.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 2: 68, 2010 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21134291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) has ethnic specific waist circumference (WC) cut-points for the metabolic syndrome for Asian populations it is not known whether the cut-points for black populations should differ from those for European populations. We examined the validity of IDF WC cut points for identifying insulin resistance (IR), the underlying cause of the metabolic syndrome, in predominantly black, young Jamaican adults. METHODS: Participants from a 1986 birth cohort were evaluated between 2005 and 2007 when they were 18-20 years old. Trained observers took anthropometric measurements and collected a fasting blood sample. IR was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment computer programme (HOMA-IR). Sex specific quartiles for IR were generated using HOMA-IR values and participants in the highest quartile were classified as "insulin resistant". Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were used to estimate the best WC to identify insulin resistance. The sensitivity and specificity of these values were compared with the IDF recommended WC cut-points. RESULTS: Data from 707 participants (315 males; 392females) were analysed. In both sexes those with IR were more obese, had higher mean systolic blood pressure, glucose and triglycerides and lower mean HDL cholesterol. The WC was a good predictor of IR with an ROC area under the curve (95% CI) of 0.71(0.64,0.79) for men and 0.72(0.65,0.79) for women. Using the Youden Index (J) the best WC cut point for identifying IR in male participants was 82 cm (sensitivity 45%, specificity 93%, J 0.38) while the standard cut point of 94 cm had a sensitivity of 14% and specificity of 98% (J 0.12). In the female participants 82 cm was also a good cut point for identifying IR (sensitivity 52%, specificity 87%, J 0.39) and was similar to the standard IDF 80 cm cut point (sensitivity 53%, specificity 82%, J 0.35). CONCLUSIONS: The WC that identified IR in young black men is lower than the IDF recommended WC cut point. Sex differences in WC cut points for identifying IR were less marked in this population than in other ethnic groups.

6.
Assessment ; 14(3): 231-45, 2007 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17690380

RESUMO

The Youth Self-Report Form's (YSR's) factor model was derived from traditional exploratory factor analytical procedures. Assuming appropriate model specification, psychometrically invariant items, and that its items provide useful psychometric information across nations omitted from its normative samples, the YSR is widely used in cross-national studies of nonreferred children. Item response theory analytical procedures reveal (a) 2 dimensions partly overlapping with the YSR's Internalizing and Externalizing second-order factors; (b) variance (i.e., differential item functioning) in how well a few items discriminate for nonreferred children across two nations; and (c) variance in estimating severity levels in children with identical psychopathological severity cross-nationally. Addressing psychometric variance, limiting redundancy, and matching children's psychopathological severity levels with items measuring this severity might promote more accurate and economical assessment.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Comportamento Infantil/etnologia , Cultura , Psicometria/instrumentação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/etnologia , Feminino , Geografia , Alemanha , Humanos , Jamaica , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Perfil de Impacto da Doença
7.
Psychol Assess ; 15(4): 550-68, 2003 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14692849

RESUMO

Through surveying of children in 10 nations with parent, teacher, and Youth Self-Report (YSR) forms of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), cross-informant syndromes (CISs) were derived and cross-validated by sample-dependent methodology. Generalizing CBCL syndromes and norms to nations excluded from its normative sample is problematic. This study used confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) to test factor model fit for CISs on the YSR responses of 625 Jamaican children ages 11 to 18 years. Item response theory (IRT), a sample-independent methodology, was used to estimate the psychometric properties of individual items on each dimension. CFAs indicated poor to moderate model-to-data fit. Across all syndromes, IRT analyses revealed that more than 3/4 of the cross-informant items yielded little information. Eliminating such items could be cost effective in terms of administration time yet improve the measures discrimination across syndrome severity levels.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Jamaica , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
West Indian med. j ; 50(Suppl 5): 26-7, Nov. 2001.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the level of stress associated with raising an autistic child in Jamaica, a developing nation with fewer available resources for affected families. METHODS: Fifty-two autistic children were identified through medical records of hospitals and private paediatricians, and from registers of special schools. Mothers completed the Parental Stress Index (PSI), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) (a measure of mental health status), and a socioeconomic questionnaire. The PSI identified stress in two major domains, the Parent and Child Domains. It also included a life event stress scale. The severity of autism was assessed by using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Results were compared with national sample of healthy children, in which similar parent questionnaires had been completed. SPSS software version 7.5 was used for data analysis and a "p" value less than 0.05 was considered significant. The sample of autistic children consisted of 41 males (78.8 percent) and 11 females (21.2 percent) with a mean (ñ standard deviation) age of 6.5ñ3.7 years. The control group consisted of 72 males (50.3 percent) and 71 females (49.7 percent) with a mean/SD age of 6.0ñ0.4 years. RESULTS: Both study and control groups had similar Parent Domain scores, but parents of autistic children had significantly higher scores in the Child Domain (p<0.001). Mothers of non-autistic children obtained significantly higher scores in somatization, (p<0.001), depression (p<0.05), hostility (p<0.05) and paranoia (p<0.001) using the BSI Crowding (p<0.05), maternal level of education (p<0.05), and occupation (p<0.01) were significantly associated with stress in the control group, but not in the study group. The severity of autistic features (p<0.001) significantly contributed to stress associated with raising autistic children. Factors that did not significantly contribute to stress in either group included: socio-economic status, age and gender of the child, and stressful life events. CONCLUSIONS: Mothers of autistic children experienced significantly higher levels of stress than did mothers of non-autistic children. Parental stress was directly attributed to dificulties of the child (Child Domain), but not to parenting inadequacy (Parent domain). With autism on the increase, public services aimed at assissting parents by providing respite care and/or training in behaviour management will need to be developed. (AU)


Assuntos
Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudo Comparativo , Estresse Fisiológico/psicologia , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Cuidado da Criança , Jamaica , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Coleta de Dados
10.
West Indian med. j ; 50(Suppl 5): 14, Nov. 2001.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of vision impairment in Jamaican pre-school children. METHODS: A national sample of Jamaican children at the end of the pre-school years was identified using the quarterly Jamaican Labour Force Survey. Each year, this survey identifies 500 pre-school children (1 percent of the national population) using a two-stage stratified random sampling process based on electoral divisions. Over two successive years, a 1 percent and a 0.5 percent sample of children were identified (n=750). A total of 302 children had their distance and near visual acuity assessed. Information on socio-economic status and the parental perception of children's vision was obtained by parental interview. RESULTS: 10.4 Percent of the children were identified as being in need of further ophthalmological referral using the American Academy Screening Guidelines. 4.1 percent of the children were diagnosed as having "low vision" according to the World Health Organization classification. 45.8 percent of the children were unable to identify letters and required lap-card use for evaluation of vision. No gender or socioeconomic differences were identified between those children requiring further ophthalmological assessment and those who did not (p<0.05). Parental perception of children's visual impairment was shown to be an unsatisfactory tool to assist in determining children at high risk for vision impairment. CONCLUSION: Based on the rates of children requiring further ophthalmological evaluation and the rates of low vision identified in this study, the abscence of identifiable risk factors and the inaccuracy of parental perception, all Jamaican pre-school children should be offered vision screening. The inability to identify letters demands that screening programmes must have facilities available for using lap-cards. (AU)


Assuntos
Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Seleção Visual , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Jamaica , Amostragem , Testes Visuais
11.
West Indian med. j ; 50(Suppl 5): 13, Nov. 2001.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-208

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of autistic disorder has been rising worldwide. This disorder is believed to have a genetic basis with an environmental trigger. The clinical presentation has features that are similar to mercury poisoning, suggesting a probable environmental trigger. This paper investigates the relationship between environmental contaminants/toxins, including mercury, and autistic disorder in Jamaica. METHODS: Autistic children were identified from public and private hospital records and from records of special schools. Fifty-eight parents of autistic children completed a questionnaire about their environment and frequency of exposure to harmful chemicals and contaminants during pregnancy and prior to diagnosis. The childhood Autism Rating Scale determined the severity of autistic disorder. The relationship between the severity of autism and different environmental factors was analyzed using the chi-squared test. RESULTS: The meanñStandard Deviation age of autistic children was 6.5ñ3.7 years. There were 79 percent male and 21 percent female. Although there were rates of autism calculated by parish, there are no known apparent links between the geographical region and severity of autism. Sixty percent of the population had changed their address since birth. No association was found between use of common household chemicals (eg bleach, disinfectant), residence close to possible environmental contaminants (eg garbage dumps, factories, bodies of water) and autism, either during pregnancy or prior to diagnosis. A single case of exposure to mercury during pregnancy associated with severe autism was identified. CONCLUSIONS: This study was unable to identify any associations between a number of environmental agents and the severity of autism. The single case of mercury exposure during pregnancy warrants further investigation of this association with a larger sample size (AU)


Assuntos
Pré-Escolar , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Mercúrio/efeitos adversos , Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia
12.
West Indian med. j ; 50(Suppl 5): 13, Nov. 2001.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-209

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There has been an increased prevalence of autism worldwide. Research in developed countries has identified a number of associations, though no direct agent has been identified. Mothers of autistic children have been shown to have more obstetric complications than others. There is little information available about autistic disorder in developing countries. This study sought to determine the relationship between obstetric and perinatal history and the diagnosis of autistic disorder in Jamaican children. METHODS: Children with autistic disorder were identified from public hospital records, private paediatricians' records and from registers of special schools. Parents of 55 Jamaican children were interviewed about the pre-natal and peri-natal periods. Their experiences were compared with those of a national sample of young children for whom pre-natal and peri-natal information was already available. The same questionnare was administered to both groups of parents. RESULTS: The mean ñ Standard Deviation age of autistic children was 6.3 ñ 4.3 years. There was a male preponderance in the autistic group (79 percent), compared with the control group (forty eight percent). Families with autistic children had significantly fewer children (mean/SD 2.54 ñ 1.5) than the non-autistic control group (mean/SD4.02 ñ 2.5) (p<0.05). Mothers of autistic children had higher rates of complications during labour (30.2 percent compared with 12.8 percent) and pregnancy (30.2 percent compared with 13.4 percent), but these did not achieve statistical significance. A greater proportion of autistic children was either born prematurely or late and was admitted to the hospital but these differences were not statistically significant. Breast feeding rates were similar. CONCLUSION: This study showed that mothers of autistic children in Jamaica have a higher rate of obstetric complications, as has been found in other countries. Mothers have a significantly higher mean age at the birth of an autistic child and have significantly fewer children. Parents may opt not to have any more children once a child with a disability has been born. (AU)


Assuntos
Lactente , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudo Comparativo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez , Coleta de Dados , Jamaica , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Estudos de Coortes
13.
West Indian med. j ; 50(Suppl 5): 12, Nov. 2001.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-210

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the seroprevalence of the hepatitis B carrier state in Jamaican children. METHODS: Serum specimens from 525 randomly-selected students attending one of 6 basic/pre-schools in the Kingston and St.Andrew region were tested at the MIcrobiology Laboratory of the University Hospital of the West Indies for hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B antibodies. A second specimen was sent from each patient to a private laboratory where the tests were repeated and cross-checked against the results obtained from the UHWI laboratory. Demographic data concerning patients age and sex, maternal age and socio-economic status obtained from a parent interview were recorded on a pre-coded questionnare. The age of the students ranged from 3 years to 6 years with a mean age of 4 years. The male to female ratio was 2:3. Eighty percent of the mothers were under thirty-five years of age. RESULTS: The carrier state was identified in 12 percent of students. Six percent of the study sample had a reactive test for antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of hepatitis B carrier state in children under 6 years of age supports infection acquired perinatally from infected mothers. This seroprevalence rate would classify Jamaica as an area of high endemicity and further support the urgent need for a national hepatitis B screening. (AU)


Assuntos
Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos da Hepatite B/sangue , Portador Sadio/sangue , Jamaica , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Amostragem
14.
West Indian med. j ; 49(3): 200-4, Sept. 2000. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-291972

RESUMO

Haemophilus influenzae (H influenzae) invasive disease was studied retrospectively over a four-year period in children admitted to the Bustamante Hospital for Children in Kingston, Jamaica. A total of 86cases were identified. The mean estimated annual incidence of H influenzae invasive disease in Kingston and St. Andrew was 39 per 100,000 children under 5 years of age. The majority (77percent) of cases were in the under 2-year age group. A distinct seasonal pattern was noted, with a significantly higher proportion of patients (57-73percent) presenting in the cooler months. Meningitis was the most common clinical diagnosis, accounting for 76percent of the cases. Poor outcome was demonstrated in 21.5percent of patients with meningitis. Sensitivity testing of H influenzae isolates revealed a resistance rate of 26percent for ampicillin and 7percent for chloramphenicol. The epidemiological findings in this study provide reasonable guidelines for empiric antibiotic therapy and also support the need to seriously consider vaccine prophylaxis in Jamaican children.


Assuntos
Lactente , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Haemophilus influenzae , Resistência a Ampicilina , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Resistência ao Cloranfenicol , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus/uso terapêutico , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Meningite/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
West Indian med. j ; 49(3): 200-4, Sept. 2000. tab, gra
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-679

RESUMO

Haemophilus influenzae (H influenzae) invasive disease was studied retrospectively over a four-year period in children admitted to the Bustamante Hospital for Children in Kingston, Jamaica. A total of 86cases were identified. The mean estimated annual incidence of H influenzae invasive disease in Kingston and St. Andrew was 39 per 100,000 children under 5 years of age. The majority (77percent) of cases were in the under 2-year age group. A distinct seasonal pattern was noted, with a significantly higher proportion of patients (57-73percent) presenting in the cooler months. Meningitis was the most common clinical diagnosis, accounting for 76percent of the cases. Poor outcome was demonstrated in 21.5percent of patients with meningitis. Sensitivity testing of H influenzae isolates revealed a resistance rate of 26percent for ampicillin and 7percent for chloramphenicol. The epidemiological findings in this study provide reasonable guidelines for empiric antibiotic therapy and also support the need to seriously consider vaccine prophylaxis in Jamaican children.(Au)


Assuntos
Lactente , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Masculino , Haemophilus influenzae , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Meningite/diagnóstico , Resistência a Ampicilina , Resistência ao Cloranfenicol , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
West Indian med. j ; 49(Supp 2): 40, Apr. 2000.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-945

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine maternal and birth factors that are associated with poor cognitive outcome in a low-birth weight (LBW) cohort enrolled at birth and examined at 11 years of age. The identification of these factors will help to plan intervention strategies to improve cognitive outcomes in LBW infants. DESIGN AND METHODS: In September and October 1986, all Jamaican-born children were enrolled in the Jamaican Perinatal Mortality Survey. At that time, a Main Questionnaire, asking questions about maternal demographic, social, and medical conditions and reviewing aspects of the pregnancy, labour, and delivery, was administered. A geographical subset of children was examined for cognitive abilities at 11 years of age using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and Ravens Progressive Matrices. Former LBW children were included in the testing even though they were outside of the geographical area. Of the 1569 children tested, 107 were former LBW infants. Linear regressiong models were developed associating variables from the Main Quesitionnaire with outcomes on the cognitive tests. Based on the regression models, a Nursery Checklist was developed that could be used to identify children for referral to early intervention programmes. RESULTS: Twenty-one (20 percent) of the 107 ex-LBW children performed two standard deviations below the mean of the entire cohort. Maternal and birth factors associated with poor outcome were: living in poor housing conditions, not taking prenatal iron, not working outside the home and the infant not crying at birth. The Nursery Checklist identified 90 percent of the infants with poor cognitive outcomes while only referring 56 percent of the LBW population to intervention services. CONCLUSION: The factors associated with poor cognitive outcome include two socio-economic factors, an indication of infant viability at birth, and a possible nutritional deficiency. These factors can be used to institute primary interventions to ameliorate these conditions and to identify children in need of secondary interventions in early childhood.(Au)


Assuntos
Criança , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Manifestações Neurocomportamentais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Jamaica , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Estudos de Coortes
17.
West Indian med. j ; 48(4): 203-7, Dec. 1999. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1571

RESUMO

Few psychological assessment instruments exist for Jamaicans. Studies that address the appropriateness of foreign instruments for Jamaicans are sparse and empirical focus on psychopathology and its aetiology in Jamaican adults is virtually nonexistent. The present study addressed these deficits via Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) which revealed that factors on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) were not replicated for a Jamaican sample (N=352). Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) on the TAS-20 revealed one factor labelled Unawareness and Confusion Regarding Emotions (UCRE). Also, EFA yielded six BSI dimensions labelled Somatic Complaints, Paranoia, Hostility, Mild Depression/Dysthymia, Major Depression with Psychotic features, and Agoraphobia with Panic. Regression analyses on the Jamaican-based TAS-20 and BSI factors revealed a positive relationship between UCRE and each BSI factor and total BSI score. Mild Depression, Agoraphobia with Panic, Paranoia, Hostility, Mild Depression and Major Depression were higher for women and younger Jamaicans, respectively, but younger Jamaicans with higher UCRE scores had higher scores on Paranoia, Major Depression, and total score. The findings suggest that Jamaican mental health policy and programmes should focus on the difficulties some Jamaicans experience in recognising and expressing their emotions.(AU)


Assuntos
Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Psicometria , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Cultura , Análise Fatorial , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Regressão
18.
West Indian med. j ; 47(suppl. 2): 52-3, Apr. 1998.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1823

RESUMO

Several factors determine behaviour problem types children exhibit, and actions adults (eg, parents) subsequently take. Factors include children's sociocultural background and clinicians' professional training. Cross-national research on children of similar heritage (eg, the African Diaspora) living in different cultures can address sociocultural issues associated with child psychopathology, but few cross-cultural studies focus on children of African descent. This study begins addressing these issues by surveying clinic records of 696 African American and Jamaican children aged 4-18 years. Trained recorders reviewed clinic records and recorded youngsters' presenting problems. By matching youngsters' problem to the widely used Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) items, recorders coded and summed problems according to eight CBCL syndromes, internalising, externalising problems, other CBCL-, and non-CBCL problems. Stepwise regression revealed that African American youngsters scored higher on the Somatization syndrome only, a child problem type the Jamaican culture seems to tolerate.(AU)


Assuntos
Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Comparação Transcultural
19.
West Indian med. j ; 47(suppl. 2): 39-40, Apr. 1998.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1856

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking, marijuana and alcohol use, and coital activity have been investigated for effect on foetal birth weight and gestation chiefly in developed countries. Apart from the relationship between cigarette smoking and heavy alcohol intake and growth retardation, the evidence for poor birth outcome is controversial. Little is known of the effect of these lifestyle factors in developing countries where poor pregnancy outcome is common. Using data from a population based perinatal study in Jamaica, the effect of lifestyle factors was ivestigated in 8486 babies. Data collected by midwives at birth included the date of the last menstrual period, socio-demographic characteristics and frequency of tobacco, marijuana and alcohol use during pregnancy, as well as coital frequency at quickening and at delivery. Babies were weighed and measured. Live birth outcomes investigated were low birth weight, preterm birth and growth retardation, with population rates of 10.1 percent, 8.7 percent and 9.7 percent, respectively. Data were processed using SPSS and BMDP statistical packages. The prevalence of cigarette, marijuana and alcohol use was 7.0 percent, 2.1 percent and 16.4 percent respectively. 74 percent and 27 percent of women were having sexual intercourse at quickening and in the week prior to delivery, respectively. Apart from coital frequency at quickening, life style factors were strongly associated with each other. All life style factors were associated with social class. On univate analysis, significant associations were found between cigarette smoking and low birth weight (p,0.04) and growth retardation ,0.05). Association between marijuana use and low birth weight and between alcohol use and lower incidence of preterm birth failed to reach significance (p=0.05, p=0.16). When stratified by frequency of use, there was a significant trend in both cases (p<0.05, p<0.04). After controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and other life style factors, associations were maintained between cigarette smoking and low birth weight. Foetal effects of maternal cigarette smoking are present even in al low prevalence country. The effect of marijuana use is less conclusive, but the data suggest that this activity may be detrimental to the foetus. (Au)


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Tabagismo/efeitos adversos , Fumar Maconha/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Resultado da Gravidez , Comportamento Materno , Coito , Estilo de Vida , Jamaica
20.
West Indian med. j ; 47(suppl. 2): 25, Apr. 1998.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1885

RESUMO

Women from different nations with different customs may express varying levels of psychological distress and present problems in forms their societies accept. We compared women from Korea and Jamaica where women's roles and behaviour differ, and may influence the types of symptoms they display. Korean culture supports women's dependence, submissiveness, and obedience toward male partners and discourages women from expressing feelings, a custom that causes women distress which is usually expressed as anxiety related disorders. Jamaican women comprise most Jamaica's work force and are described as independent, outwardly expressive, and unlike Korean women may externalize their psychological distress. We tested these hypotheses using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), a multidimensional psychopathology measure, to survey Korean (N = 214) and Jamaican women (N = 282). Using age and nationality as predictors and total score and the nine BSI scales as criterion variables considered separately, multiple regression analyses reveal significantly higher scores on total problems and on all the paranoid scales scores on total problems and on all the paranoid scale scores for Korean than for Jamaica women. Large effect on the Somatization and Obsessive Complusive scales and a medium effect on the anxiety scale indicate that while Korean women generally expressed much more distress than Jamaica women, they are particularly vulnerable for the development of anxiety related problems(AU)


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Psicopatologia , Jamaica , Coreia (Geográfico)
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