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1.
Nanoscale ; 12(36): 18733-18741, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970083

RESUMO

Supercapacitor energy storage devices recently garnered considerable attention due to their cost-effectiveness, eco-friendly nature, high power density, moderate energy density, and long-term cycling stability. Such figures of merit render supercapacitors unique energy sources to power portable electronic devices. Among various energy storage materials, graphene-related materials have established themselves as ideal electrodes for the development of elite supercapacitors because of their excellent electrical conductivity, high surface area, outstanding mechanical properties combined with the possibility to tailor various physical and chemical properties via chemical functionalization. Increasing the surface area is a powerful strategy to improve the performance of supercapacitors. Here, modified polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (POSS) is used to improve the electrochemical performance of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) through the enhancement of porosity and the extension of interlayer space between the sheets allowing efficient electrolyte transport. rGO-POSS hybrids exhibited a high specific capacitance of 174 F g-1, power density reaching 2.25 W cm-3, and high energy density of 41.4 mW h cm-3 endowed by the introduction of POSS spacers. Moreover, these electrode materials display excellent durability reaching >98% retention after 5000 cycles.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880164

RESUMO

Humidity sensors have been gaining increasing attention because of their relevance for well-being. To meet the ever-growing demand for new cost-efficient materials with superior performances, graphene oxide (GO)-based relative humidity sensors have emerged recently as low-cost and highly sensitive devices. However, current GO-based sensors suffer from important drawbacks including slow response and recovery, as well as poor stability. Interestingly, reduced GO (rGO) exhibits higher stability, yet accompanied by a lower sensitivity to humidity due to its hydrophobic nature. With the aim of improving the sensing performances of rGO, here we report on a novel generation of humidity sensors based on a simple chemical modification of rGO with hydrophilic moieties, i.e., triethylene glycol chains. Such a hybrid material exhibits an outstandingly improved sensing performance compared to pristine rGO such as high sensitivity (31% increase in electrical resistance when humidity is shifted from 2 to 97%), an ultrafast response (25 ms) and recovery in the subsecond timescale, low hysteresis (1.1%), excellent repeatability and stability, as well as high selectivity toward moisture. Such highest-key-performance indicators demonstrate the full potential of two-dimensional (2D) materials when decorated with suitably designed supramolecular receptors to develop the next generation of chemical sensors of any analyte of interest.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4731, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948763

RESUMO

Mastering the dynamics of molecular assembly on surfaces enables the engineering of predictable structural motifs to bestow programmable properties upon target substrates. Yet, monitoring self-assembly in real time on technologically relevant interfaces between a substrate and a solution is challenging, due to experimental complexity of disentangling interfacial from bulk phenomena. Here, we show that graphene devices can be used as highly sensitive detectors to read out the dynamics of molecular self-assembly at the solid/liquid interface in-situ. Irradiation of a photochromic molecule is used to trigger the formation of a metastable self-assembled adlayer on graphene and the dynamics of this process are monitored by tracking the current in the device over time. In perspective, the electrical readout in graphene devices is a diagnostic and highly sensitive means to resolve molecular ensemble dynamics occurring down to the nanosecond time scale, thereby providing a practical and powerful tool to investigate molecular self-organization in 2D.

4.
Nanoscale Horiz ; 5(9): 1344, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756632

RESUMO

Correction for 'Controlled functionalization of carbon nanodots for targeted intracellular production of reactive oxygen species' by Ding-Kun Ji et al., Nanoscale Horiz., 2020, 5, 1240-1249, DOI: .

5.
Small ; 16(35): e2002194, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743979

RESUMO

Graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulfide, have been increasingly used in electronics, composites, and biomedicine. In particular, MoS2 and graphene hybrids have attracted a great interest for applications in the biomedical research, therefore stimulating a pertinent investigation on their safety in immune cells like macrophages, which commonly engulf these materials. In this study, M1 and M2 macrophage viability and activation are mainly found to be unaffected by few-layer graphene (FLG) and MoS2 at doses up to 50 µg mL-1 . The uptake of both materials is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Notably, both 2D materials increase the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in M1 macrophages. At the highest dose, FLG decreases CD206 expression while MoS2 decreases CD80 expression. CathB and CathL gene expressions are dose-dependently increased by both materials. Despite a minimal impact on the autophagic pathway, FLG is found to increase the expression of Atg5 and autophagic flux, as observed by Western blotting of LC3-II, in M1 macrophages. Overall, FLG and MoS2 are of little toxicity in human macrophages even though they are found to trigger cell stress and inflammatory responses.

6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(44): 19602-19609, 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634276

RESUMO

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs) have attracted enormous attention in recent years. Recently, MOF@COF are emerging as hybrid architectures combining the unique features of the individual components to enable the generation of materials displaying novel physicochemical properties. Herein we report an unprecedented use of aza-Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction as post-synthetic modification of MOF@COF-LZU1, to generate aza-MOFs@COFs hybrid porous materials with extended π-delocalization. A a proof-of-concept, the obtained aza-MOFs@COFs is used as electrode in supercapacitors displaying specific capacitance of 20.35 µF cm-2 and high volumetric energy density of 1.16 F cm-3 . Our approach of post-synthetic modification of MOFs@COFs hybrids implement rational design for the synthesis of functional porous materials and expands the plethora of promising application of MOFs@COFs hybrid porous materials in energy storage applications.

7.
Small ; 16(26): e2002063, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484276

RESUMO

Herein, AlKα X-rays are used to drive the growth of luminescent silver clusters in zeolites. The growth of the silver species is tracked using Auger spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy, by monitoring the evolution from their ions to luminescent clusters and then metallic, dark nanoparticles. It is shown that the growth rate in different zeolites is determined by the mobility of the silver ions in the framework and that the growth dynamics in calcined samples obeys the Hill-Langmuir equation for noncooperative binding. Comparison of the optical properties of X-ray-grown silver clusters with silver clusters formed by standard heat treatment indicates that the latter have a higher specificity toward the formation of luminescent clusters of a specific (small) nuclearity, whereas the former produce a wide distribution of cluster species as well as larger nanoparticles.

8.
Anal Chem ; 92(13): 9330-9337, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483968

RESUMO

Electrolyte gated organic transistors can operate as powerful ultrasensitive biosensors, and efforts are currently devoted to devising strategies for reducing the contribution of hardly avoidable, nonspecific interactions to their response, to ultimately harness selectivity in the detection process. We report a novel lab-on-a-chip device integrating a multigate electrolyte gated organic field-effect transistor (EGOFET) with a 6.5 µL microfluidics set up capable to provide an assessment of both the response reproducibility, by enabling measurement in triplicate, and of the device selectivity through the presence of an internal reference electrode. As proof-of-concept, we demonstrate the efficient operation of our pentacene based EGOFET sensing platform through the quantification of tumor necrosis factor alpha with a detection limit as low as 3 pM. Sensing of inflammatory cytokines, which also include TNFα, is of the outmost importance for monitoring a large number of diseases. The multiplexable organic electronic lab-on-chip provides a statistically solid, reliable, and selective response on microliters sample volumes on the minutes time scale, thus matching the relevant key-performance indicators required in point-of-care diagnostics.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(25): 11050-11059, 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484344

RESUMO

The integration of photochromic molecules into semiconducting polymer matrices via blending has recently attracted a great deal of attention, as it provides the means to reversibly modulate the output signal of electronic devices by using light as a remote control. However, the structural and electronic interactions between photochromic molecules and semiconducting polymers are far from being fully understood. Here we perform a comparative investigation by combining two photochromic diarylethene moieties possessing similar energy levels yet different propensity to aggregate with five prototypical polymer semiconductors exhibiting different energy levels and structural order, ranging from amorphous to semicrystalline. Our in-depth photochemical, structural, morphological, and electrical characterization reveals that the photoresponsive behavior of thin-film transistors including polymer/diarylethenes blends as the active layer is governed by a complex interplay between the relative position of the energy levels and the polymer matrix microstructure. By matching the energy levels and optimizing the molecular packing, high-performance optically switchable organic thin-film transistors were fabricated. These findings represent a major step forward in the fabrication of light-responsive organic devices.

10.
Nanoscale Horiz ; 5(8): 1240-1249, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555842

RESUMO

Controlled intracellular release of exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an innovative and efficient strategy for cancer treatment. Well-designed materials, which can produce ROS in targeted cells, minimizing side effects, still need to be explored as new generation nanomedicines. Here, red-emissive carbon nanodots (CNDs) with intrinsic theranostic properties are devised, and further modified with folic acid (FA) ligand through a controlled covalent functionalization for targeted cell imaging and intracellular production of ROS. We demonstrated that covalent functionalization is an effective strategy to prevent the aggregation of the dots, leading to superior colloidal stability, enhanced luminescence and ROS generation. Indeed, the functional nanodots possess a deep-red emission and good dispersibility under physiological conditions. Importantly, they show excellent targeting properties and generation of high levels of ROS under 660 nm laser irradiation, leading to efficient cell death. These unique properties enable FA-modified carbon nanodots to act as a multifunctional nanoplatform for simultaneous targeted imaging and efficient photodynamic therapy to induce cancer cell death.

11.
Adv Mater ; : e2001268, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378243

RESUMO

Van der Waals heterostructures (VDWHs), obtained via the controlled assembly of 2D atomically thin crystals, exhibit unique physicochemical properties, rendering them prototypical building blocks to explore new physics and for applications in optoelectronics. As the emerging alternatives to graphene, monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides and bottom-up synthesized graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are promising candidates for overcoming the shortcomings of graphene, such as the absence of a bandgap in its electronic structure, which is essential in optoelectronics. Herein, VDWHs comprising GNRs onto monolayer MoS2 are fabricated. Field-effect transistors (FETs) based on such VDWHs show an efficient suppression of the persistent photoconductivity typical of MoS2 , resulting from the interfacial charge transfer process. The MoS2 -GNR FETs exhibit drastically reduced hysteresis and more stable behavior in the transfer characteristics, which is a prerequisite for the further photomodulation of charge transport behavior within the MoS2 -GNR VDWHs. The physisorption of photochromic molecules onto the MoS2 -GNR VDWHs enables reversible light-driven control over charge transport. In particular, the drain current of the MoS2 -GNR FET can be photomodulated by 52%, without displaying significant fatigue over at least 10 cycles. Moreover, four distinguishable output current levels can be achieved, demonstrating the great potential of MoS2 -GNR VDWHs for multilevel memory devices.

12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(50): 6878-6881, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432577

RESUMO

Dual functionalization of chemically exfoliated MoS2 has been achieved by exploiting coulombic interactions among positively charged molecules and the negatively charged 2D flakes. The reversibility and kinetics of the process have been studied by spectroscopic tools. The hybrid material has been transferred to various substrates, yielding multifunctional robust flexible films.

13.
Adv Mater ; 32(19): e2000740, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239571

RESUMO

As Moore's law is running to its physical limit, tomorrow's electronic systems can be leveraged to a higher value by integrating "More than Moore" technologies into CMOS digital circuits. The hybrid heterostructure composed of two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors and molecular materials represents a powerful strategy to confer new properties to the former components, realize stimuli-responsive functional devices, and enable diversification in "More than Moore" technologies. Here, an ionic liquid (IL) gated 2D MoS2 field-effect transistor (FET) with molecular functionalization is fabricated. The suitably designed ferrocene-substituted alkanethiol molecules not only improve the FET performance, but also show reversible electrochemical switching on the surface of MoS2 . Field-effect mobility of monolayer MoS2 reaches values as high as ≈116 cm2 V-1 s-1 with Ion /Ioff ratio exceeding 105 . Molecules in their neutral or charged state impose distinct doping effect, efficiently tuning the electron density in monolayer MoS2 . It is noteworthy that the joint doping effect from IL and switchable molecules results in the steep subthreshold swing of MoS2 FET in the backward sweep. These results demonstrate that the device architecture represents an unprecedented and powerful strategy to fabricate switchable 2D FET with a chemically programmed electrochemical signal as a remote control, paving the road toward novel functional devices.

15.
Adv Mater ; : e1907903, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977121

RESUMO

The interfacing of 2D materials (2DMs) with photochromic molecules provides an efficient solution to reversibly modulate their outstanding electronic properties and offers a versatile platform for the development of multifunctional field-effect transistors (FETs). Herein, optically switchable multilevel high-mobility FETs based on few-layer ambipolar WSe2 are realized by applying on its surface a suitably designed bicomponent diarylethene (DAE) blend, in which both hole and electron transport can be simultaneously modulated for over 20 cycles. The high output current modulation efficiency (97% for holes and 52% for electrons) ensures 128 distinct current levels, corresponding to a data storage capacity of 7 bit. The device is also implemented on a flexible and transparent poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate, rendering 2DM/DAE hybrid structures promising candidates for flexible multilevel nonvolatile memories.

16.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(19): 7319-7330, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898855

RESUMO

Molecular/supramolecular springs are artificial nanoscale objects possessing well-defined structures and tunable physicochemical properties. Like a macroscopic spring, supramolecular springs are capable of switching their nanoscale conformation as a response to external stimuli by undergoing mechanical spring-like motions. This dynamic action offers intriguing opportunities for engineering molecular nanomachines by translating the stimuli-responsive nanoscopic motions into macroscopic work. These nanoscopic objects are reversible dynamic multifunctional architectures which can express a variety of novel properties and behave as adaptive nanoscopic systems. In this Minireview, we focus on the design and structure-property relationships of supramolecular springs and their (self-)assembly as a prerequisite towards the generation of novel dynamic materials featuring controlled movements to be readily integrated into macroscopic devices for applications in sensing, robotics, and the internet of things.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(5): 6565-6572, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825591

RESUMO

Conformationally rigid multipodal molecules should control the orientation and packing density of functional head groups upon self-assembly on solid supports. Common tripods frequently fail in this regard because of inhomogeneous bonding configuration and stochastic orientation. These issues are circumvented by a suitable tetrapodal diazatriptycene moiety, bearing four thiol-anchoring groups, as demonstrated in the present study. Such molecules form well-defined self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au(111) substrates, whereby the tetrapodal scaffold enforces a nearly upright orientation of the terminal head group with respect to the substrate, with at least three of the four anchoring groups providing thiolate-like covalent attachment to the surface. Functionalization by condensation chemistry allows a large variety of functional head groups to be introduced to the tetrapod, paving the path toward advanced surface engineering and sensor fabrication.

18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(94): 14202-14205, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709447

RESUMO

A novel covalently linked donor-acceptor dyad comprising a dithienopyrrol-based oligomeric donor and a fullerene acceptor was synthesized and characterized. The concomitant effect of favorable optoelectronic properties, energy levels of the frontier orbitals, and ambipolar charge transport enabled the application of the dyad in simplified solution-processed single material organic solar cells reaching a power conversion efficiency of 3.4%.

19.
Nanoscale ; 11(42): 19705-19712, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620768

RESUMO

We report on the modulation of the electrical properties of graphene-based transistors that mirror the properties of a few nanometers thick layer made of dipolar molecules sandwiched in between the 2D material and the SiO2 dielectric substrate. The chemical composition of the films of quinonemonoimine zwitterion molecules adsorbed onto SiO2 has been explored by means of X-ray photoemission and mass spectroscopy. Graphene-based devices are then fabricated by transferring the 2D material onto the molecular film, followed by the deposition of top source-drain electrodes. The degree of supramolecular order in disordered films of dipolar molecules was found to be partially improved as a result of the electric field at low temperatures, as revealed by the emergence of hysteresis in the transfer curves of the transistors. The use of molecules from the same family, which are suitably designed to interact with the dielectric surface, results in the disappearance of the hysteresis. DFT calculations confirm that the dressing of the molecules by an external electric field exhibits multiple minimal energy landscapes that explain the thermally stabilized capacitive coupling observed. This study demonstrates that the design and exploitation of ad hoc molecules as an interlayer between a dielectric substrate and graphene represents a powerful tool for tuning the electrical properties of the 2D material. Conversely, graphene can be used as an indicator of the stability of molecular layers, by providing insight into the energetics of ordering of dipolar molecules under the effect of electrical gating.

20.
Nanoscale ; 11(41): 19319-19326, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478544

RESUMO

We have engineered macroscopic 3D porous networks of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) chemically interconnected by di-thiolated ethylene glycol oligomers. The formation of such superstructures has been followed by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy by monitoring the aggregation-dependent plasmonic band of such nanomaterials. The controlled chemical tethering of the AuNPs with di-thiolated linkers possessing a well-defined contour length rules the interparticle distance. The use of ad-hoc linkers ensures charge transport via direct tunneling and the hygroscopic nature of the ethylene glycol backbone allows interaction with moisture. Upon interaction with water molecules from the atmosphere, our 3D networks undergo swelling reducing the tunnelling current passing through the system. By exploiting such a behavior, we have devised a new approach for the fabrication of electrical resistive humidity sensors. For the first time we have also introduced a new strategy to fabricate stable and robust devices by covalently attaching our 3D networks to gold electrodes. Devices comprising both 4 (TEG) or 6 (HEG) ethylene glycol repetitive units combined with AuNPs exhibited (i) unprecedentedly high response speed (∼26 ms), (ii) short recovery time (∼250 ms) in the absence of any hysteresis effect, and (iii) a linear response to humidity changes characterized by a highest sensitivity of 51 kΩ per RH(%) for HEG- and 500 Ω per RH(%) for TEG-based devices. The employed green solution processing in water and the extreme robustness of our 3D networks make them interesting candidates for the fabrication of sensors which can operate under extreme conditions and for countless cycles.

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