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1.
Trials ; 22(1): 582, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nut consumption has been related to improvements on cardiometabolic parameters and reduction in the severity of atherosclerosis mainly in primary cardiovascular prevention. The objective of this trial is to evaluate the effects of the Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet (DIeta CArdioprotetora Brasileira, DICA Br) based on consumption of inexpensive locally accessible foods supplemented or not with mixed nuts on cardiometabolic features in patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: DICA-NUTS study is a national, multicenter, randomized 16-week follow-up clinical trial. Patients over 40 years old with diagnosis of previous MI in the last 2 to 6 months will be recruited (n = 388). A standardized questionnaire will be applied to data collection and blood samples will be obtained. Patients will be allocated in two groups: Group 1: DICA Br supplemented with 30 g/day of mixed nuts (10 g of peanuts, 10 g of cashew, 10 g of Brazil nuts); and Group 2: only DICA Br. The primary outcome will consist of LDL cholesterol means (in mg/dL) after 16 weeks of intervention. Secondary outcomes will consist of other markers of lipid profile, glycemic profile, and anthropometric data. DISCUSSION: It is expected that DICA Br supplemented with mixed nuts have superior beneficial effects on cardiometabolic parameters in patients after a MI, when compared to DICA Br. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03728127 . First register: November 1, 2018; Last update: June 16, 2021. World Health Organization Universal Trial Number (WHO-UTN): U1111-1259-8105.


Assuntos
Dieta , Infarto do Miocárdio , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Glicemia , LDL-Colesterol , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
2.
Nutrition ; 91-92: 111411, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425320

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a healthy diet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil or pecans on plasma fatty acids (PFAs) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Patients 40 to 80 y of age were randomized to one of three dietary interventions (allocation ratio 1: 1: 1): healthy diet based on guidelines (control group [CG]), healthy diet supplemented with 30 g/d of pecans (PNG), or a healthy diet supplemented with 30 mL/d of extra virgin olive oil (OOG). PFAs were identified at baseline and at the end of follow-up (12 wk), and correlations between dietary fatty acids intake, PFAs, and clinical biomarkers of the lipid profile were also assessed before and after the interventions. RESULTS: Among 149 participants included in the analysis (43 CG; 51 PNG; and 55 OOG), correlations were observed between food intake, PFAs, and lipid profile before and after interventions independent of statins used, but all were considered weak. At the end of the study, the OOG showed increased concentrations of oleic fatty acid independently of the type of statin in use (1.49%; 95% confidence interval, 0.08-2.89; P = 0.029); however, there were no significant differences between the groups regarding the final mean values of oleic fatty acid or in the other PFAs. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with stable CAD, there were no significant differences in PFAs after 12 wk according to dietary interventions evaluated.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204898

RESUMO

Background: This study investigated the association of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) within erythrocyte membranes and cardiovascular risk assessed by three different estimates. Methods: Inclusion criteria were individuals of both sexes, 30 to 74 years, with at least one cardiovascular risk factor, and no previous cardiovascular events (n = 356). Exclusion criteria were individuals with acute or chronic severe diseases, infectious diseases, pregnant, and/or lactating women. Plasma biomarkers (lipids, glucose, and C-reactive protein) were analyzed, and nineteen erythrocyte membrane fatty acids (FA) were identified. The cardiovascular risk was estimated by Framingham (FRS), Reynolds (RRS), and ACC/AHA-2013 Risk Scores. Three patterns of FA were identified (Factor 1, poor in n-3 PUFA), (Factor 2, poor in PUFA), and (Factor 3, rich in n-3 PUFA). Results: Total cholesterol was inversely correlated with erythrocyte membranes C18:3 n-3 (r = -0.155; p = 0.004), C22:6 n-3 (r = -0.112; p = 0.041), and total n-3 (r = -0.211; p < 0.001). Total n-3 PUFA was associated with lower cardiovascular risk by FRS (OR = 0.811; 95% CI= 0.675-0.976). Regarding RRS, Factor 3 was associated with 25.3% lower odds to have moderate and high cardiovascular risk (OR = 0.747; 95% CI = 0.589-0.948). The ACC/AHA-2013 risk score was not associated with isolated and pooled FA. Conclusions:n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes are independent predictors of low-risk classification estimated by FRS and RRS, which could be explained by cholesterol-lowering effects of n-3 PUFA.


Assuntos
Membrana Eritrocítica/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199457

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are chemical compounds comprised of carbon and hydrogen molecules in a cyclic arrangement. PAHs are associated with risks to human health, especially carcinogenesis. One form of exposure to these compounds is through ingestion of contaminated food, which can occur during preparation and processing involving high temperatures (e.g., grilling, smoking, toasting, roasting, and frying) as well as through PAHs present in the soil, air, and water (i.e., environmental pollution). Differently from changes caused by microbiological characteristics and lipid oxidation, consumers cannot sensorially perceive PAH contamination in food products, thereby hindering their ability to reject these foods. Herein, the occurrence and biological effects of PAHs were comprehensively explored, as well as analytical methods to monitor their levels, legislations, and strategies to reduce their generation in food products. This review updates the current knowledge and addresses recent regulation changes concerning the widespread PAHs contamination in several types of food, often surpassing the concentration limits deemed acceptable by current legislations. Therefore, effective measures involving different food processing strategies are needed to prevent and reduce PAHs contamination, thereby decreasing human exposure and detrimental health effects. Furthermore, gaps in literature have been addressed to provide a basis for future studies.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Benzopirenos/efeitos adversos , Carcinogênese/genética , Carvão Vegetal/efeitos adversos , Culinária , Adutos de DNA/efeitos adversos , Análise de Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos
5.
J Nutr Biochem ; 97: 108809, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192591

RESUMO

Postprandial lipemia consists of changes in concentrations and composition of plasma lipids after food intake, commonly presented as increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia may also affect high-density lipoprotein (HDL) structure and function, resulting in a net decrease in HDL concentrations. Elevated triglycerides (TG) and reduced HDL levels have been positively associated with risk of cardiovascular diseases development. Here, we investigated the plasma lipidome composition of 12 clinically healthy, nonobese and young women in response to an acute high-caloric (1135 kcal) and high-fat (64 g) breakfast meal. For this purpose, we employed a detailed untargeted mass spectrometry-based lipidomic approach and data was obtained at four sampling points: fasting and 1, 3 and 5 h postprandial. Analysis of variance revealed 73 significantly altered lipid species between all sampling points. Nonetheless, two divergent subgroups have emerged at 5 h postprandial as a function of differential plasma lipidome responses, and were thereby designated slow and fast TG metabolizers. Late responses by slow TG metabolizers were associated with increased concentrations of several species of TG and phosphatidylinositol (PI). Lipidomic analysis of lipoprotein fractions at 5 h postprandial revealed higher TG and PI concentrations in HDL from slow relative to fast TG metabolizers, but not in apoB-containing fraction. These data indicate that modulations in HDL lipidome during prolonged postprandial lipemia may potentially impact HDL functions. A comprehensive characterization of plasma lipidome responses to acute metabolic challenges may contribute to a better understanding of diet/lifestyle regulation in the metabolism of lipid and glucose.

6.
Food Chem ; 352: 129334, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657479

RESUMO

Canned fish is submitted to processes that may degrade its lipids and form harmful compounds called cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). Samples of Brazilian commercial canned tuna were analyzed to evaluate the influence of different liquid mediums (oil and brine) on the fatty acid composition and formation of COPs. The exchange between fish lipids and the constituents of the covering liquid was highlighted by the high levels of linoleic acid found in tuna conserved in oil. High amounts of COPs were found. However, higher contents of COPs were found in tuna in brine (933.14 to 1914.23 µg/g) than in oil (698.24 to 1167.88 µg/g). This result was mainly promoted by the presence of pro-oxidant elements such as salt, as well as greater heat transfer in brine than in oil. This study showed that canned tuna is a potential source of exogenous COPs, indicating the role of liquid mediums in oxidative processes.


Assuntos
Colesterol/química , Lipídeos/análise , Atum/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Temperatura Alta , Oxirredução , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
7.
J Food Sci ; 85(8): 2416-2426, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681539

RESUMO

This study determined the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of garlic (Allium sativum L.) and leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.), as well as evaluated their anticholesterol oxidation potential in fish burgers. The total phenolic contents were 1.1 ± 0.1 mg GAE/g FW to garlic and 1.3 ± 0.4 mg GAE/g FW for leek. Leek extract showed antioxidant activity index (1.3 ± 0.01) in DPPH and ß-carotene/linoleic acid assay (66.5 ± 1.6%); however, in ORAC assay, no statistic differences were observed (P > 0.05). Besides that, bioactive compounds of garlic and leek extracts were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray by ionization-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS). Fish burgers were prepared using different concentrations of leek and garlic and stored at -18 °C for 90 days. Thus, at days 0, 30, 60, and 90, the samples were grilled and analyzed as to their cholesterol and cholesterol oxidation products contents. Storage and grilling led to an increase in cholesterol oxidation products; however, addition of garlic and leek minimized cholesterol oxidation products formation. After 90 days, samples containing 3% leek + 0.5% garlic ware the most effective in inhibiting the cholesterol oxides formation during storage and showed the lowest increase in cholesterol oxidation products content (21.16%). Thus, the findings of this research indicate the potential application of garlic and leek as natural inhibitors of cholesterol oxidation in food. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Garlic and leek have a set of bioactive compounds with a wide antioxidant capacity when used in meat foods such as fish burgers. Garlic and leek used as natural antioxidants perform well in the shelf life of fish burgers and can be substitutes for synthetic antioxidants in this type of product. The presence of both vegetables reduced the formation of prejudicial products to human health generated during the shelf life of the food.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Colesterol/química , Peixes , Alimentos Congelados/análise , Alho/química , Cebolas/química , Animais , Produtos Biológicos , Colesterol/análise , Culinária/métodos , Ácido Linoleico , Espectrometria de Massas , Oxirredução , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
8.
Food Res Int ; 132: 109091, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331636

RESUMO

This study evaluated the protective effect of ground aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) fruit addition against fatty acids and cholesterol oxidation in model systems containing sardine oil (Sardinella brasiliensis) during heating (150 and 180 °C). High temperatures reduced the amount of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids and caused the formation of oxidized products. Total cholesterol oxides content increased from 58.9 ± 0.26 to 577.5 ± 2.14 µg/g oil, after heating at 180 °C. However, aroeira significantly protected lipids from oxidation. Although the synthetic antioxidant applied as standard (butylated hydroxytoluene) showed greater results, it was used in the maximum concentration permitted by Brazilian legislation (0.01%), suggesting that aroeira fruit could be used as a natural antioxidant for the food industry. The protective effect of aroeira may be correlated to its antioxidant capacity and the presence of bioactive compounds which were identified by UHPLC-ESI-MS in the aroeira extract.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae/química , Colesterol/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Óleos de Peixe/análise , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Brasil , Hidroxitolueno Butilado , Colesterol/análise , Ácidos Graxos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Peixes , Oxirredução , Temperatura
9.
Food Chem ; 315: 126274, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007814

RESUMO

Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi fruit, known as Brazilian pepper or aroeira, is a natural source of bioactive compounds. However, studies about the antioxidant and nutritional contribution of this fruit in food systems are limited. Regarding the presence of bioactive compounds, flavonoids showed the highest level (10.33 ± 0.34 mg QE/g), and potential antioxidant components such biflavonoids were determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The aroeira fruit extract showed antioxidant potential in DPPH (42.68 ± 0.05%), ORAC (43.40 ± 6.22 µM TE/g) and ß- carotene/linoleic acid (61.41 ± 5.30%) assays. Besides that, in vivo analyses demonstrated the ability of aroeira extracts to decrease the damage caused by oxidative stress promoted by H2O2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Thus, the presence of phytochemicals with functional properties and the antioxidant capacity of aroeira fruit indicate its use as a potential natural antioxidant for the food industry.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae/química , Antioxidantes/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Biflavonoides/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/química , Espectrometria de Massas
10.
Molecules ; 25(3)2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033416

RESUMO

The Brazilian Food Supplement Law recently recognized that guarana (Paullinia cupana) contains bioactive substances, hence supporting its role as a functional food ingredient. The health benefits of guarana are associated, at least in part, to its phenolic compounds. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no literature addressing the presence of phenolic compounds in the fraction containing insoluble-bound compounds and its contribution in terms of alpha-glucosidase inhibition. The concentration of phenolic extracts released from the insoluble-bound fraction required to inhibit 50% of alpha-glucosidase (IC50) activity was 5.8-fold lower than that present in the soluble counterpart. Both fractions exhibited a mixed inhibition mode. Fourteen proanthocyanidins (dimers to tetramers) present in the insoluble-bound fraction were tentatively identified by MALDi-TOF-MS. Future studies aiming at increasing the concentration of the soluble counterpart are deemed necessary. The results presented here enhance the phenolic database of guarana and have a practical impact on the procurement of nutraceuticals and functional ingredients related to the prevention and/or management of type 2 diabetes. The Brazilian normative on food supplements has been recently revised. This study lends support to the future inclusion of guarana powder in the list of sources of proanthocyanidins for the industry of food supplements.


Assuntos
Cafeína/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Teobromina/farmacologia , Teofilina/farmacologia , Brasil , Cafeína/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Paullinia/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Teobromina/química , Teofilina/química , alfa-Glucosidases/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Clin Nutr ; 39(2): 554-562, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885503

RESUMO

High-fat diet increase two to three times the plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels and induce subclinical inflammation. Diet can modify gene expression due to epigenetic processes related to MicroRNAs (miRNAs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important role in the post-transcriptional mechanisms involved in regulation of expression of genes related to the inflammatory response. Also, diet can indirectly induce post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by miRNAs, which may affect the risk for the development of chronic diseases. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of high-fat high-saturated meal ingestion on plasma miRNA expression and LPS levels during the postprandial period in healthy women. METHODS: An interventional study was carried out in which a high-fat breakfast (1067.45 kcal), composed mainly of saturated fatty acids (56 g), and 500 mL of water, was offered. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 1, 3 and 5 h after meal intake. The studied population consisted of healthy women (n = 11), aged between 20 and 40 years, and body mass index (BMI) between 18.5 and 25 kg/m2. Plasma levels of lipid profile, cytokines, adhesion molecules, and LPS were measured at the 3 time points. A profile of 752 human plasma miRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR assay. These analyzes were performed for all blood collection time-points. RESULTS: Expression profile analysis revealed 33 differentially expressed plasma circulating miRNAs compared to that of the control group. MiR-145-5p and miR-200 were differentially modulated in all time-points post meal consumption. In addition, there was a significant increase in plasma LPS, triglycerides, myristic and palmitic saturated fatty acids levels at the 3 time-points in comparison with the control basal levels. We also observed increased levels of the plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) cytokine and the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) levels after 5 h post meal ingestion. CONCLUSION: Ingestion of high-fat high-saturated meal was able to induce metabolic endotoxemia and increase the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules such as TNF-alpha and VCAM-1, as well as modulating circulating miRNAs possibly controlling inflammatory and lipid metabolism proteins at the postprandial period.

12.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190216, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132175

RESUMO

Abstract In the last years phytosterols, natural components of plants, have received more attention due to association of their consumption with reducing risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. There are several scientific studies about phytosterols in vegetable oils, but they are scarce in unconventional oils. The objective of this research was evaluating the content of phytosterols (β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol) in vegetable oils sold in São Paulo city, in Brazil. The analysis included cold alkaline saponification, derivatization with hexamethyldisilazane and trimethylchlorosilane reagents, and quantification by gas chromatography using flame ionization detection and internal standardization. The quality control parameters indicated that the method was suitable for analysis. Total sterols were between 272.3 mg kg-1 (coconut oil) to 6169.7 mg kg-1 (evening primrose oil). β-sitosterol was the component found in higher concentrations and evening primrose oil was the most representative in quantity of phytosterols.


Assuntos
Fitosteróis/análise , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Sitosteroides/análise , Estigmasterol/análise , Óleos Vegetais/classificação , Brasil , Cromatografia Gasosa , Linho , Carthamus tinctorius , Óleo de Palmeira/análise
13.
Food Res Int ; 116: 1076-1083, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716891

RESUMO

This study investigated the phenolic profile of jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stignocarpa Mart.) extracts submitted to in vitro digestion, the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities; and the effect of jatobá-do-cerrado flour addition on the nutritional quality, glycemic index (GI) and acceptability of breads. The phenolic composition was determined by UPLC-MS. Bread formulations were developed adding the jatobá-do-cerrado flour at 10, 20 and 30% (w/w) to replace wheat flour. Phenolic compounds of biological relevance such as caffeic acid, kaempferol, quercetin-3-rutinoside and quercetin-3-rhamnoside were present in jatobá-do-cerrado. The phenolic extracts after in vitro digestion significantly inhibited the α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Breads with 20% jatobá-do-cerrado flour addition promoted significant reduction (22%) in GI from 70 (control) to 54.3, while 30% addition presented GI of 57.4 and 10% addition a GI of 62.5. The replacement of refined wheat flour by jatobá-do-cerrado flour reduced glycemic response of breads in a non-dose dependent manner. The dietary fibers and the phenolic compounds of jatobá-do-cerrado exerted a synergetic modulation of glucose metabolism by inhibiting sugar metabolic enzymes and glucose absorption. Thus, jatobá-do-cerrado can be included in the diet of healthy individuals and chronic diseases patients, such as diabetics, as an alternative to improve glycemic control.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Pão/análise , Índice Glicêmico , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Hymenaea , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis/farmacologia , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Digestão , Feminino , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Hymenaea/química , Masculino , Percepção Olfatória , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Olfato , Paladar , Percepção Gustatória , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
14.
Nutrition ; 58: 194-200, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553106

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the association of plasma and erythrocyte ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids with multiple oxidative stress biomarkers in breast cancer patients. METHODS: Ninety-five women with recently diagnosed breast cancer and no previous treatment were selected for this study. The socioeconomic, clinical, and demographic profile of the patients was determined using a structured questionnaire and medical records. Body weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index. Blood samples were drawn after a 12-h fast for biochemical analyses. The oxidative stress biomarkers low-density lipoprotein (-) and its anti-low-density lipoprotein (-) antibodies, α-tocopherol, ß-carotene, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, and adiponectin were measured. Plasma and erythrocyte fatty acids were assessed by gas chromatography. Factor and principal component analysis was used to identify three factors called factor 1 (anti-inflammatory), factor 2 (antioxidant), and factor 3 (oxidant). Linear regression, adjusted for confounding variables, was used to estimate the association of these factors with plasma and erythrocyte ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids and their ratios. RESULTS: ω-3 series fatty acids showed a positive association with Factor 1. A positive association of plasma and erythrocyte ω-6 fatty acids with factors 1 and 2, respectively, was found. ω-6/ω-3 ratio (plasma) was inversely associated with the anti-inflammatory factor. CONCLUSION: Polyunsaturated fatty acids of the plasma and erythrocyte ω-3 and ω-6 series were associated with multiple inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Eritrócitos , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Vigil. sanit. debate ; 6(3): 28-36, ago. 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-913046

RESUMO

Introdução: As informações em rótulos de suplementos contribuem para a orientação do consumidor sobre a escolha do produto mais adequado às suas necessidades, no entanto, rótulos com informações não conformes à legislação sanitária podem afetar negativamente a saúde dos consumidores. Objetivos: Avaliar a conformidade de rótulos de suplementos de vitaminas e minerais comercializados na cidade de São Paulo no período de 2014 a 2017. Método: Foi elaborado um checklist com os principais itens relacionados à rotulagem, os quais foram verificados em cada embalagem: denominação de venda; lista de ingredientes; composição; conteúdo líquido; identificação de origem; identificação de lote; prazo de validade; frase de advertência e de orientação; cuidados de conservação; uso de expressões; rotulagem nutricional; informação sobre presença de glúten e aditivos permitidos. Resultados: As principais irregularidades observadas foram a presença de frases ou expressões induzindo o consumidor a engano (29%), a denominação de venda de forma incorreta (15%) e a declaração de componentes ativos não autorizados para suplementos vitamínicos (5%). Conclusões: Os resultados evidenciam os problemas relacionados à comercialização de suplementos vitamínicos e minerais no Brasil, em decorrência da complexa legislação, que dificulta sua interpretação gerando pretextos para as empresas produtoras burlarem a lei, prejudicando a saúde da população.


Introduction: The information provided in supplements labels contributes to consumer guidance on choosing the most suitable product for their needs; therefore, labels with nonconformity information to health legislation can negatively affect consumer health. Objectives: To evaluate the compliance of vitamin and mineral supplements labels marketed in the São Paulo city during the 2014­2017 period. Method: A checklist was drawn up covering the main items related to the labeling, which were verified in each package: name under which the product is sold; list of ingredients; composition; net quantity; identification of origin; batch identification; expiration date; warning and guidance statements; storage instructions; use of expressions; nutrition labeling; information on the presence of gluten and permitted additives. Results: The main irregularities observed were the presence of phrases or expressions inducing the consumer to mistake (29%), the incorrect description name (15%), and statement of active components not authorized to vitamin supplements (5%). Conclusions: The results highlight the problems related to the commercialization of vitamin and mineral supplements in Brazil, due to a complex legislation difficult to interpret that makes it possible for producing companies to create excuses to circumvent the law, damaging the health of the population.

16.
Nutr J ; 17(1): 26, 2018 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29466985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proinflammatory biomarkers levels are increased among patients with cardiovascular disease, and it is known that both the presence of insulin resistance and diet may influence those levels. However, these associations are not well studied among patients with established cardiovascular disease. Our objective is to compare inflammatory biomarker levels among cardiovascular disease secondary prevention patients with and without insulin resistance, and to evaluate if there is any association between plasma fatty acid levels and inflammatory biomarker levels among them. METHODS: In this cross-sectional sub-study from the BALANCE Program Trial, we collected data from 359 patients with established cardiovascular disease. Plasma fatty acids and inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha) were measured. Biomarkers and plasma fatty acid levels of subjects across insulin resistant and not insulin resistant groups were compared, and general linear models were used to examine the association between plasma fatty acids and inflammatory biomarkers. RESULTS: Subjects with insulin resistance had a higher concentration of hs-CRP (p = 0.002) and IL-6 (p = 0.002) than subjects without insulin resistance. Among subjects without insulin resistance there was a positive association between stearic fatty acid and IL-6 (p = 0.032), and a negative association between alpha-linolenic fatty acid and pro-inflammatory biomarkers (p < 0.05). Among those with insulin resistance there was a positive association between monounsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic fatty acid and adiponectin (p < 0.05), and a negative association between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and pro-inflammatory biomarkers (p < 0.05), as well as a negative association between polyunsaturated fatty acids and adiponectin (p < 0.05). Our study has not found any association between hs-CRP and plasma fatty acids. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease with insulin resistance have a higher concentration of hs-CRP and IL-6 than individuals without insulin resistance, and these inflammatory biomarkers are positively associated with saturated fatty acids and negatively associated with unsaturated fatty acids.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Adiponectina/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil , Proteína C-Reativa , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
17.
Nutr. j. (Online) ; 17(1): 17-26, Feb. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1223919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proinflammatory biomarkers levels are increased among patients with cardiovascular disease, and it is known that both the presence of insulin resistance and diet may influence those levels. However, these associations are not well studied among patients with established cardiovascular disease. Our objective is to compare inflammatory biomarker levels among cardiovascular disease secondary prevention patients with and without insulin resistance, and to evaluate if there is any association between plasma fatty acid levels and inflammatory biomarker levels among them. METHODS: In this cross-sectional sub-study from the balance Program Trial, we collected data from 359 patients with established cardiovascular disease. Plasma fatty acids and inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha) were measured. Biomarkers and plasma fatty acid levels of subjects across insulin resistant and not insulin resistant groups were compared, and general linear models were used to examine the association between plasma fatty acids and inflammatory biomarkers. RESULTS: Subjects with insulin resistance had a higher concentration of hs-CRP (p = 0.002) and IL-6 (p = 0.002) than subjects without insulin resistance. Among subjects without insulin resistance there was a positive association between stearic fatty acid and IL-6 (p = 0.032), and a negative association between alpha-linolenic fatty acid and pro-inflammatory biomarkers (p < 0.05). Among those with insulin resistance there was a positive association between monounsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic fatty acid and adiponectin (p < 0.05), and a negative association between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and pro-inflammatory biomarkers (p < 0.05), as well as a negative association between polyunsaturated fatty acids and adiponectin (p < 0.05). Our study has not found any association between hs-CRP and plasma fatty acids.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Insulina
18.
Food Chem ; 245: 798-805, 2018 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29287444

RESUMO

This study aimed at evaluating the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination of commercial vegetable oils and examined the identity through the fatty acids profiles. Coconut, safflower, evening primrose, and linseed oils marketed in São Paulo (Brazil) were investigated totaling 69 samples. Four PAHs, benzo[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chr), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), were detected in 96% of the samples at individual levels ranging from not detected to 14.99 µg kg-1. Chrysene was the abundant hydrocarbon found among all types of oils, with the highest median values. The results of the fatty acid profiles revealed that 43% showed different profiles according to the ones on their labels, with a higher incidence of adulteration of evening primrose oils. The maximum tolerable limits by European Regulation No. 835/2011 were exceeded for BaP in 12%, and for total 4 PAHs in 28%, with a greater contribution of adulterated samples.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Óleo de Semente do Linho/análise , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Brasil , Crisenos , Óleo de Coco/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Ácidos Linoleicos/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleo de Cártamo/análise , Ácido gama-Linolênico/análise
19.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(4): e17700, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001589

RESUMO

The stability of vitamins A, E, and C was determined in 12 brands of vitamin supplements over a 12-month storage period. The variations in concentrations of these vitamins across three different batches of five brands were measured. Vitamins A and E was determined by HPLC method, and vitamin C was measured by using potentiometric titration. All samples for stability studies were maintained at room temperature and protected from light. Measurements were carried out in the first semester of the expiration date and then every six months up to 12 months of storage. After this period, only one sample showed no significant decrease in vitamin A and E concentrations in relation to the concentrations measured at the beginning of the study. The concentration of vitamin C showed no significant decrease in 50% of the samples after 6 months of storage, although after 12 months, 92% had significant losses in concentration. The analysis of the different batches showed significant variations in the vitamin levels, which do not seem to be significant for inspection purposes considering the tolerance outlined in the legislation. Over-fortification of vitamin supplements during manufacture seems to be required, but the additional amount of supplementation will depend on each sample.


Assuntos
Vitamina A/análise , Rotulagem de Produtos/normas , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Vitamina E/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/instrumentação , Provitaminas/classificação
20.
Nutrition ; 37: 30-36, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28359359

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the association between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and inflammatory biomarkers among patients in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: In this cross-sectional substudy from BALANCE Program Trial, we have collected data from 364 patients with established CVD. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls and plasma FA concentrations were analyzed to estimate the FA intake. Inflammatory biomarkers measurement consisted of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor-α. After log-transformation of inflammatory biomarkers, multivariate-adjusted general linear model was used to examine the effect of FA intake. The association was adjusted for body mass index, waist circumference, energy, smoking status, age, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, physical activity, and calcium channel blockers. RESULTS: PUFAs were inversely associated with C-reactive protein levels (P = 0.006) and with IL-1 ß. The increase of 1 g/1000 kcal in PUFAs, omega-3, and omega-6 reduces, on average, 6%, 48%, and 8% respectively, the mean concentration of IL-1 ß. CONCLUSION: Omega-3 and omega-6 FA intakes are inversely associated with inflammatory biomarkers among CVD patients. Additional studies on omega-3 and omega-6 intake in relation to inflammatory biomarkers in patients in secondary prevention of CVD are needed, particularly regarding dietary patterns that are rich in some sources of PUFA.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/sangue , Prevenção Secundária , Adiponectina/sangue , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Interleucinas/sangue , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
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