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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9733, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278336

RESUMO

Streptococcus pyogenes infection continues to be a worldwide public health problem causing various diseases in humans and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. We developed a vaccine candidate to prevent S. pyogenes infections, identified as StreptInCor, that presented promising results in mouse models. A certified and independent laboratory conducted two repeated intramuscular dose toxicity tests (28 days, four weekly injections). The first test, composed of four experimental groups treated with 0 (vehicle), 50, 100 or 200 µg/500 µL StreptInCor, did not show significant alterations in clinical, hematological, biochemical or anatomopathological parameters related to the administration of StreptInCor. In addition to the parameters mentioned above, we evaluated the cardiac function and valves of animals by echocardiography before and after administration of 200 µg/500 µL StreptInCor versus placebo. We did not observe any changes related to StreptInCor administration, including changes in cardiac function and valves in animals, after receiving the highest dose of this vaccine candidate. The results obtained in the two repeated intramuscular dose toxicity tests showed that this vaccine formulation did not induce harmful effects to the tissues and organs studied, indicating that the candidate vaccine is well tolerated in minipigs.

2.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 12(5): e008353, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088148

RESUMO

Background Few data exist on the degree of interstitial myocardial fibrosis in patients with classical low-flow, low-gradient aortic stenosis (LFLG-AS) and its association with left ventricular flow reserve (FR) on dobutamine stress echocardiography. This study sought to evaluate the diffuse interstitial fibrosis measured by T1 mapping cardiac magnetic resonance technique in LFLG-AS patients with and without FR. Methods Prospective study including 65 consecutive patients (41 LFLG-AS [mean age, 67.1±8.4 years; 83% men] and 24 high-gradient aortic stenosis used as controls) undergoing dobutamine stress echocardiography to assess FR and cardiac magnetic resonance to determine the extracellular volume (ECV) fraction of the myocardium, indexed ECV (iECV) to body surface area and late gadolinium enhancement. Results Interstitial myocardial fibrosis measured by iECV was higher in patients with LFLG-AS with and without FR as compared with high-gradient aortic stenosis (35.25±9.75 versus 32.93±11.00 versus 21.19±6.47 mL/m2, respectively; P<0.001). However, both ECV and iECV levels were similar between LFLG-AS patients with and without FR ( P=0.950 and P=0.701, respectively). Also, FR did not correlate significantly with ECV (r=-0.16, P=0.31) or iECV (r=0.11, P=0.51). Late gadolinium enhancement mass was also similar in patients with versus without FR but lower in high-gradient aortic stenosis (13.3±10.2 versus 10.5±7.5 versus 4.8±5.9 g, respectively; P=0.018). Conclusions Patients with LFLG-AS have higher ECV, iECV, and late gadolinium enhancement mass compared with high-gradient aortic stenosis. Moreover, among patients with LFLG-AS, the degree of myocardial fibrosis was similar in patients with versus those without FR. These findings suggest that diffuse myocardial fibrosis may not be the main factor responsible for the absence of FR in LFLG-AS patients.

3.
Congenit Heart Dis ; 13(6): 1069-1071, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30280492

RESUMO

In the 2017, "Cairo Accord on Rheumatic Heart Disease-From Molecules to The Global Community" experts from endemic areas enumerated an approach to reduce the population burden of rheumatic heart disease. The 10 key recommendations include immediate logistical objectives as well as domains for further study. Echocardiographic population screening programs were relegated to research alone. Given the large body of supporting data, relegating echo screening to an investigational modality is an opportunity lost.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Vigilância da População , Cardiopatia Reumática/diagnóstico , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Cardiopatia Reumática/epidemiologia
4.
Braz J Cardiovasc Surg ; 33(4): 362-370, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184033

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the behavior of platelets after transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation for the treatment of degenerated bioprosthesis and how they correlate with adverse events upon follow-up. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 28 patients who received a valve-in-valve implant, 5 in aortic, 18 in mitral and 5 in tricuspid positions. Data were compared with 74 patients submitted to conventional redo valvular replacements during the same period, and both groups' platelet curves were analyzed. Statistical analysis was conducted using the IBM SPSS Statistics(r) 20 for Windows. RESULTS: All patients in the valve-in-valve group developed thrombocytopenia, 25% presenting mild (<150.000/µL), 54% moderate (<100.000/µL) and 21% severe (<50.000/µL) thrombocytopenia. The platelet nadir was on the 4th postoperative day for aortic ViV, 2nd for mitral and 3rd for tricuspid patients, with the majority of patients recovering regular platelet count. However, the aortic subgroup comparison between valve-in-valve and conventional surgery showed a statistically significant difference from the 7th day onwards, where valve-in-valve patients had more severe and longer lasting thrombocytopenia. This, however, did not translate into a higher postoperative risk. In our study population, postoperative thrombocytopenia did not correlate with greater occurrence of adverse outcomes and only normal preoperative platelet count could significantly predict a postoperative drop >50%. CONCLUSION: Although thrombocytopenia is an extremely common finding after valve-in-valve procedures, the degree of platelet count drop did not correlate with greater incidence of postoperative adverse outcomes in our study population.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Trombocitopenia/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bioprótese/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Contagem de Plaquetas/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Valores de Referência , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Valva Tricúspide/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(4): 362-370, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-958425

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: To analyze the behavior of platelets after transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation for the treatment of degenerated bioprosthesis and how they correlate with adverse events upon follow-up. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 28 patients who received a valve-in-valve implant, 5 in aortic, 18 in mitral and 5 in tricuspid positions. Data were compared with 74 patients submitted to conventional redo valvular replacements during the same period, and both groups' platelet curves were analyzed. Statistical analysis was conducted using the IBM SPSS Statistics(r) 20 for Windows. Results: All patients in the valve-in-valve group developed thrombocytopenia, 25% presenting mild (<150.000/µL), 54% moderate (<100.000/µL) and 21% severe (<50.000/µL) thrombocytopenia. The platelet nadir was on the 4th postoperative day for aortic ViV, 2nd for mitral and 3rd for tricuspid patients, with the majority of patients recovering regular platelet count. However, the aortic subgroup comparison between valve-in-valve and conventional surgery showed a statistically significant difference from the 7th day onwards, where valve-in-valve patients had more severe and longer lasting thrombocytopenia. This, however, did not translate into a higher postoperative risk. In our study population, postoperative thrombocytopenia did not correlate with greater occurrence of adverse outcomes and only normal preoperative platelet count could significantly predict a postoperative drop >50%. Conclusion: Although thrombocytopenia is an extremely common finding after valve-in-valve procedures, the degree of platelet count drop did not correlate with greater incidence of postoperative adverse outcomes in our study population.

7.
J Heart Valve Dis ; 24(5): 629-34, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26897843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: International records indicate that only 2.6% of patients with heart transplants have valvular heart disease. The study aim was to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical profile of patients with valvular heart disease undergoing heart transplantation. METHODS: Between 1985 and 2013, a total of 569 heart transplants was performed at the authors' institution. Twenty patients (13 men, seven women; mean age 39.5 +/- 15.2 years) underwent heart transplant due to structural (primary) valvular disease. Analyses were made of the patients' clinical profile, laboratory data, echocardiographic and histopathological data, and mortality and rejection. RESULTS: Of the patients, 18 (90%) had a rheumatic etiology, with 85% having undergone previous valve surgery (45% had one or more operations), and 95% with a normal functioning valve prosthesis at the time of transplantation. Atrial fibrillation was present in seven patients (35%), while nine (45%) were in NYHA functional class IV and eight (40%) in class III. The indication for cardiac transplantation was refractory heart failure in seven patients (35%) and persistent NYHA class III/IV in ten (50%). The mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 26.6 +/- 7.9%. The one-year mortality was 20%. Histological examination of the recipients' hearts showed five (27.7%) to have reactivated rheumatic myocarditis without prior diagnosis at the time of transplantation. Univariate analysis showed that age, gender, LVEF, rheumatic activity and rejection were not associated with mortality at one year. CONCLUSION: Among the present patient cohort, rheumatic heart disease was the leading cause of heart transplantation, and a significant proportion of these patients had reactivated myocarditis diagnosed in the histological analyses. Thus, it appears valid to investigate the existence of rheumatic activity, especially in valvular cardiomyopathy with severe systolic dysfunction before transplantation.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Cardiopatia Reumática/cirurgia , Adulto , Brasil , Bases de Dados Factuais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/mortalidade , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocardite/mortalidade , Miocardite/fisiopatologia , Miocardite/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cardiopatia Reumática/diagnóstico , Cardiopatia Reumática/mortalidade , Cardiopatia Reumática/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Volume Sistólico , Sístole , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/mortalidade , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/cirurgia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto Jovem
8.
Front Pediatr ; 2: 126, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25478552

RESUMO

Rheumatic fever (RF) remains endemic in many countries and frequently causes heart failure due to severe chronic rheumatic valvular heart disease, which requires surgical treatment. Here, we report on a patient who underwent an elective surgical correction for mitral and aortic valvular heart disease and had a post-operative diagnosis of acute rheumatic carditis. The incidental finding of Aschoff bodies in myocardial biopsies is frequently reported in the nineteenth-century literature, with prevalences as high as 35%, but no clinical or prognostic data on the patients is included. The high frequency of this finding after cardiac surgery in classical reports suggests that these patients were not using secondary prophylaxis for RF. We discuss the clinical diagnosis of acute rheumatic myocarditis in asymptomatic patients and the laboratorial and imaging methods for the diagnosis of acute rheumatic carditis. We also discuss the prognostic implications of this finding and review the related literature.

9.
Am J Cardiol ; 107(7): 1040-5, 2011 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21296315

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension represents an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with mitral stenosis who undergo cardiac surgery, especially in the postoperative period. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) would improve the hemodynamic effects and short-term clinical outcomes of patients with mitral stenosis and severe pulmonary hypertension who undergo cardiac surgery in a randomized, controlled study. Twenty-nine patients (4 men, 25 women; mean age 46 ± 2 years) were randomly allocated to receive iNO (n = 14) or oxygen (n = 15) for 48 hours immediately after surgery. Hemodynamic data, the use of vasoactive drugs, duration of stay, and short-term complications were assessed. No differences in baseline characteristics were observed between the groups. After 24 and 48 hours, patients receiving iNO had a significantly greater increase in cardiac index compared to patients receiving oxygen (p <0.0001). Pulmonary vascular resistance was also more significantly reduced in patients receiving iNO versus oxygen (-117 dyne/s/cm(5), 95% confidence interval -34 to -200, vs 40 dyne/s/cm(5), 95% confidence interval -34 to 100, p = 0.005) at 48 hours. Patients in the iNO group used fewer systemic vasoactive drugs (mean 2.1 ± 0.14 vs 2.6 ± 0.16, p = 0.046) and had a shorter intensive care unit stay (median 2 days, interquartile range 0.25, vs median 3 days, interquartile range 7, p = 0.02). In conclusion, iNO immediately after surgery in patients with mitral stenosis and severe pulmonary hypertension improves hemodynamics and may have short-term clinical benefits.


Assuntos
Fatores Relaxantes Dependentes do Endotélio/administração & dosagem , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Óxido Nítrico/administração & dosagem , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Administração por Inalação , Adulto , Débito Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Propulsora Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 56(4): 278-87, 2010 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20633819

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether the quantitative assessment of myocardial fibrosis (MF), either by histopathology or by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (ce-MRI), could help predict long-term survival after aortic valve replacement. BACKGROUND: Severe aortic valve disease is characterized by progressive accumulation of interstitial MF. METHODS: Fifty-four patients scheduled to undergo aortic valve replacement were examined by ce-MRI. Delayed-enhanced images were used for the quantitative assessment of MF. In addition, interstitial MF was quantified by histological analysis of myocardial samples obtained during open-heart surgery and stained with picrosirius red. The ce-MRI study was repeated 27+/-22 months after surgery to assess left ventricular functional improvement, and all patients were followed for 52+/-17 months to evaluate long-term survival. RESULTS: There was a good correlation between the amount of MF measured by histopathology and by ce-MRI (r=0.69, p<0.001). In addition, the amount of MF demonstrated a significant inverse correlation with the degree of left ventricular functional improvement after surgery (r=-0.42, p=0.04 for histopathology; r=-0.47, p=0.02 for ce-MRI). Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed that higher degrees of MF accumulation were associated with worse long-term survival (chi-square=6.32, p=0.01 for histopathology; chi-square=5.85, p=0.02 for ce-MRI). On multivariate Cox regression analyses, patient age and the amount of MF were found to be independent predictors of all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The amount of MF, either by histopathology or by ce-MRI, is associated with the degree of left ventricular functional improvement and all-cause mortality late after aortic valve replacement in patients with severe aortic valve disease.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Miocárdio/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Fibrose/etiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am Heart J ; 157(2): 361-8, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19185646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic aortic valve disease (AVD) is characterized by progressive accumulation of interstitial myocardial fibrosis (MF). However, assessment of MF accumulation has only been possible through histologic analyses of endomyocardial biopsies. We sought to evaluate contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (ce-MRI) as a noninvasive method to identify the presence of increased MF in patients with severe AVD. METHODS: Seventy patients scheduled to undergo aortic valve replacement surgery were examined by cine and ce-MRI in a 1.5-T scanner. Cine images were used for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) volumes, mass, and function. Delayed-enhancement images were used to characterize the regions of MF. In addition, histologic analyses of myocardial samples obtained during aortic valve replacement surgery were used for direct quantification of interstitial MF. Ten additional subjects who died of noncardiac causes served as controls for the quantitative histologic analyses. RESULTS: Interstitial MF determined by histopathologic analysis was higher in patients with AVD than in controls (2.7% +/- 2.0% vs 0.6% +/- 0.2%, P = .001). When compared with histopathologic results, ce-MRI demonstrated a sensitivity of 74%, a specificity of 81%, and an accuracy of 76% to identify AVD patients with increased interstitial MF. There was a significant inverse correlation between interstitial MF and LV ejection fraction (r = -0.67, P < .0001). Accordingly, patients with identifiable focal regions of MF by ce-MRI exhibited worse LV systolic function than those without MF (45% +/- 14% vs 65% +/- 14%, P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Contrast-enhanced MRI allows for the noninvasive detection of focal regions of MF in patients with severe AVD. Moreover, patients with identifiable MF by ce-MRI exhibited worse LV functional parameters.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/patologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Miocárdio/patologia , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Fibrose/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 92(1): 63-7, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19219266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Significant symptomatic chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) leads to considerable left ventricular remodeling at the expense of myocyte hypertrophy and extracellular matrix remodeling. The relevance of interstitial fibrosis concentration in these patients is unknown. We analyzed the degree of fibrosis in the left ventricle (LV) in symptomatic patients with AR submitted to surgical treatment, and its relationship with functional and anatomical characteristics. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate myocardial fibrosis in chronic severe aortic regurgitation. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with chronic symptomatic AR (16 with normal LV function and 12 with LV dysfunction) were selected and assessed pre- and postoperatively by echocardiography. Functional capacity was measured using maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) through the cardiopulmonary test. Myocardial fibrosis volume fraction (MFV) was quantified through endomyocardial biopsy performed in all patients during surgery. We compared the histopathologic results with a nine-patient control group. RESULTS: The mean age was 39 +/- 12 years, 75% of the patients were male, and the rheumatic etiology accounted for 84% of the cases. Twenty-five patients remained in FC l and ll at the end of the study, and there was a significant reduction of the LV diameters between the preoperative and late postoperative timepoints. Three deaths occurred but they were not related to postoperative ventricular dysfunction. The parameters of the cardiopulmonary test were similar between pre- and postoperative timepoints. MFV in patients with AR was significantly higher than in the control group (3.47 +/- 1.9% vs 0.82 +/- 0.96%, respectively, p=0.001). There was no statistical correlation among LV fibrosis and LV diameters, LVEF and MVO2. CONCLUSION: In patients with significant symptomatic AR, the presence of limited myocardial fibrosis was not associated with clinical, echocardiographic or functional complications.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Fibrose Endomiocárdica/fisiopatologia , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Adulto , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/patologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Doença Crônica , Colágeno/metabolismo , Fibrose Endomiocárdica/etiologia , Fibrose Endomiocárdica/patologia , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia
13.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 92(1): 63-67, jan. 2009. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | LILACS | ID: lil-505201

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTO: A insuficiência aórtica crônica importante sintomática (IAo) leva a grande remodelamento ventricular esquerdo, à custa de hipertrofia de mióciotos e remodelamento da matriz extracelular. A relevância da concentração de fibrose intersticial nos pacientes acometidos é desconhecida. Analisamos o grau de fibrose no ventrículo esquerdo (VE) em pacientes sintomáticos com IAo submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico e sua relação com características funcionais e anatômicas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a fibrose miocárdica na insuficiência aórtica crônica importante. MÉTODOS: Selecionaram-se 28 pacientes com IAo (16 com função VE normal e 12 com disfunção do VE), os quais foram analisados no pré e pós-operatório por ecodopplercardiografia. A capacidade funcional foi medida pelo teste de esforço cardiopulmonar. Para comparação dos resultados histopatológicos, um grupo-controle de 9 pacientes foi constituído. RESULTADOS: A média etária foi de 39 ± 12 anos, 75 por cento do sexo masculino com 84 por cento de etiologia reumática. Vinte e cinco pacientes permaneceram em classes funcionais I e II ao fim do estudo e apresentaram redução significativa dos diâmetros do VE entre os momentos pré e pós-operatórios. Houve três óbitos não relacionados à disfunção VE. Os parâmetros do teste cardiopulmonar não se modificaram entre o pré e o pós-operatório. O volume de fibrose intersticial em pacientes com IAo foi significativamente quando maior comparado ao grupo controle (3,47 ± 1,9 por cento vs 0,82 ± 0,96 por cento, respectivamente, p = 0,001). Não houve correlação entre o grau de fibrose do VE, parâmetros ecocardiográficos e funcionais. CONCLUSÃO: Em pacientes com IAo, a presença de fibrose miocárdica não se associou às alterações clínicas, ecocardiográficas ou funcionais.


BACKGROUND: Significant symptomatic chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) leads to considerable left ventricular remodeling at the expense of myocyte hypertrophy and extracellular matrix remodeling. The relevance of interstitial fibrosis concentration in these patients is unknown. We analyzed the degree of fibrosis in the left ventricle (LV) in symptomatic patients with AR submitted to surgical treatment, and its relationship with functional and anatomical characteristics. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate myocardical fibrosis in chronic severe aortic regurgitation. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with chronic symptomatic AR (16 with normal LV function and 12 with LV dysfunction) were selected and assessed pre- and postoperatively by echocardiography. Functional capacity was measured using maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) through the cardiopulmonary test. Myocardial fibrosis volume fraction (MFV) was quantified through endomyocardial biopsy performed in all patients during surgery. We compared the histopathologic results with a nine-patient control group. RESULTS: The mean age was 39 ± 12 years, 75 percent of the patients were male, and the rheumatic etiology accounted for 84 percent of the cases. Twenty-five patients remained in FC l and ll at the end of the study, and there was a significant reduction of the LV diameters between the preoperative and late postoperative timepoints. Three deaths occurred but they were not related to postoperative ventricular dysfunction. The parameters of the cardiopulmonary test were similar between pre- and postoperative timepoints. MFV in patients with AR was significantly higher than in the control group (3.47 ± 1.9 percent vs 0.82 ± 0.96 percent, respectively, p=0.001). There was no statistical correlation among LV fibrosis and LV diameters, LVEF and MVO2. CONCLUSION: In patients with significant symptomatic AR, the presence of limited myocardial fibrosis was not associated with clinical, echocardiographic or...


FUNDAMENTO: La insuficiencia aórtica crónica severa sintomática (IAo crónica severa) ocasiona una gran remodelación ventricular izquierda, por cuenta de hipertrofia de miociotos y remodelación de la matriz extracelular. Se desconoce la relevancia de la concentración de fibrosis intersticial en los pacientes acometidos. Analizamos el grado de fibrosis en el ventrículo izquierdo (VI) en pacientes sintomáticos con IAo crónica severa sometidos a tratamiento quirúrgico y su relación con características funcionales y anatómicas. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la fibrosis miocárdica en la insuficiencia aórtica crónica severa. MÉTODOS: Se seleccionaron a 28 pacientes con IAo crónica severa (16 con función VI normal y 12 con disfunción del VI), los que se analizaron en el pre y el postoperatorio por ecocardiografía Doppler. Se midió la capacidad funcional por la prueba de esfuerzo cardiopulmonar. Para comparación de los resultados histopatológicos, se constituyó a un Grupo Control de 9 pacientes. RESULTADOS: El promedio de edad fue de 39±12 años, el 75 por ciento del sexo masculino con el 84 por ciento de etiología reumática. El total de 25 pacientes permanecieron en clases funcionales I e II al fin del estudio y presentaron reducción significativa de los diámetros del VI entre los momentos pre y postoperatorios. Hubo tres óbitos no relacionados a la disfunción VI. Los parámetros de la prueba cardiopulmonar no se modificaron entre el pre y el postoperatorio. El volumen de fibrosis intersticial en pacientes con IAo crónica severa fue significativo cuando mayor, comparado al Grupo control (3,47 ± 1,9 por ciento vs. 0,82 ±0,96 por ciento, respectivamente, p = 0,001). No hubo correlación entre el grado de fibrosis del VI, parámetros ecocardiográficos y funcionales. CONCLUSIÓN: En pacientes con IAo crónica severa, la presencia de fibrosis miocárdica no se asoció a las alteraciones clínicas, ecocardiográficas o funcionales.


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Fibrose Endomiocárdica/fisiopatologia , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/patologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Doença Crônica , Colágeno/metabolismo , Fibrose Endomiocárdica/etiologia , Fibrose Endomiocárdica/patologia , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia
14.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 3(6): 1007-17, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18200819

RESUMO

Rheumatic fever (RF) is a sequel of group A streptococcal throat infection and occurs in untreated susceptible children. Rheumatic heart disease (RHD), the major sequel of RF, occurs in 30%-45% of RF patients. RF is still considered endemic in some regions of Brazil and is responsible for approximately 90% of early childhood valvular surgery in the country. In this study, we present a 15-year clinical follow-up of 25 children who underwent surgical valvular repair. Histopathological and immunological features of heart tissue lesions of RHD patients were also evaluated. The patients presented severe forms of RHD with congestive symptoms at a very young age. Many of them had surgery at the acute phase of RF. Histological analysis showed the presence of dense valvular inflammatory infiltrates and Aschoff nodules in the myocardium of 21% of acute RHD patients. Infiltrating T-cells were mainly CD4+ in heart tissue biopsies of patients with rheumatic activity. In addition, CD4+ and CD8+ infiltrating T-cell clones recognized streptococcal M peptides and cardiac tissue proteins. These findings may open the possibilities of new ways of immunotherapy. In addition, we demonstrated that the surgical procedure during acute phase of the disease improved the quality of life of young RHD patients.


Assuntos
Cardiopatia Reumática/imunologia , Cardiopatia Reumática/patologia , Adolescente , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Biópsia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte/imunologia , Criança , Células Clonais/imunologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/patologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Miocárdio/patologia , Qualidade de Vida
15.
Am J Cardiol ; 96(1): 117-21, 2005 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15979448

RESUMO

The effects of 12 months of therapy were evaluated in 47 mildly symptomatic patients with moderate to severe mitral valve regurgitation; 26 patients received enalapril and 21 received a placebo. Enalapril was associated with a significant reduction in left ventricular diameter and mitral regurgitation volume, with no evidence of change in systolic function indexes. However, enalapril did not hinder progressive aerobic impairment to effort.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Enalapril/farmacologia , Tolerância ao Exercício , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/complicações , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/complicações , Cardiopatia Reumática/complicações , Adulto , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Enalapril/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Remodelação Ventricular
16.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 13(3): 312-316, maio-jun. 2003. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-364550

RESUMO

O aumento da pós-carga na estenose aórtica resulta em ativação hemodinâmica e neuro-hormonal e, por fim, em remodelação ventricular. É um processo dependente do tempo e somente interfere no desempenho ventricular após a perda de proporcionalidade entre os compartimentos muscular, intersticial e endotelial. Após a correção da obstrução ocorre fenômeno inverso, resultando em melhora tanto clínica como funcional...


Assuntos
Humanos , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/terapia , Remodelação Ventricular , Cardiomegalia , Citocinas , Óxido Nítrico , Disfunção Ventricular
17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 41(8): 1316-24, 2003 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12706927

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to assess the feasibility and the long-term results of a symptom-based strategy of aortic valve replacement in a Brazilian population with predominant rheumatic etiology. BACKGROUND: Optimal criteria for valve replacement in aortic regurgitation (AR) are still not entirely clear. The appearance of symptoms is an indication for surgery, but may be associated with myocardial damage. Although cardiac imaging data have provided a safer guide for such decisions, the use of symptom-based surgical indication has not been validated and might conceivably be better in populations with predominant rheumatic etiology and younger age. METHODS: Echocardiography and rest-exercise radionuclide ventriculography were performed in 75 patients with severe AR, age 28 +/- 9 years, over a period of 10 +/- 0.69 years. Thirty-seven patients developed symptoms and underwent aortic valve replacement surgery within six months. Thirty-eight patients remained asymptomatic and were managed medically. RESULTS: Survival was 100% in asymptomatic patients and 82% in symptomatic. Surgical treatment caused marked ventricular remodeling, with ventricular diameter involution and an improvement of rest-exercise ejection fraction percent variation. Multivariate analysis showed that the probability of developing symptoms within 10 years was 58% for a patient with a left ventricular end-diastolic diameter > or =70 mm and 76% for a patient with left ventricular end-systolic (LVESD) > or =50 mm. Logistic regression identified LVESD and age as the most predictive and specific, but not sensitive, indicators of symptom development. CONCLUSIONS: Application of a standardized therapeutic strategy to patients with severe AR and predominant rheumatic etiology resulted in 90.6% survival after 10 years of follow-up.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/terapia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Adulto , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Doença Crônica , Ecocardiografia , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Seguimentos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/terapia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ventriculografia com Radionuclídeos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/terapia
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