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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836139

RESUMO

In genome-wide association studies, ordinal categorical phenotypes are widely used to measure human behaviors, satisfaction, and preferences. However, because of the lack of analysis tools, methods designed for binary or quantitative traits are commonly used inappropriately to analyze categorical phenotypes. To accurately model the dependence of an ordinal categorical phenotype on covariates, we propose an efficient mixed model association test, proportional odds logistic mixed model (POLMM). POLMM is computationally efficient to analyze large datasets with hundreds of thousands of samples, can control type I error rates at a stringent significance level regardless of the phenotypic distribution, and is more powerful than alternative methods. In contrast, the standard linear mixed model approaches cannot control type I error rates for rare variants when the phenotypic distribution is unbalanced, although they performed well when testing common variants. We applied POLMM to 258 ordinal categorical phenotypes on array genotypes and imputed samples from 408,961 individuals in UK Biobank. In total, we identified 5,885 genome-wide significant variants, of which, 424 variants (7.2%) are rare variants with MAF < 0.01.

2.
Metabolites ; 11(2)2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578791

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, but its incidence can only be partially explained through established risk factors. Our aim was to use metabolomics to identify novel risk factors for breast cancer and to validate recently reported metabolite-breast cancer findings. We measured levels of 1275 metabolites in prediagnostic serum in a nested case-control study of 782 postmenopausal breast cancer cases and 782 matched controls. Metabolomics analysis was performed by Metabolon Inc using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and a Q-Exactive high resolution/accurate mass spectrometer. Controls were matched by birth date, date of blood draw, and race/ethnicity. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer at the 90th versus 10th percentile (modeled on a continuous basis) of metabolite levels were estimated using conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for age. Twenty-four metabolites were significantly associated with breast cancer risk at a false discovery rate <0.20. For the nine metabolites positively associated with risk, the ORs ranged from 1.75 (95% CI: 1.29-2.36) to 1.45 (95% CI: 1.13-1.85), and for the 15 metabolites inversely associated with risk, ORs ranged from 0.59 (95% CI: 0.43-0.79) to 0.69 (95% CI: 0.55-0.87). These metabolites largely comprised carnitines, glycerolipids, and sex steroid metabolites. Associations for three sex steroid metabolites validated findings from recent studies and the remainder were novel. These findings contribute to growing data on metabolite-breast cancer associations by confirming prior findings and identifying novel leads for future validation efforts.

3.
Acta Paediatr ; 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638889

RESUMO

AIM: Autoimmune disease and its medication are associated with increased cancer risk in adults, but it is unknown whether maternal autoimmune disease and/or medication use in pregnancy are associated with increased cancer risk in offspring. METHODS: In this case-control study, we identified all patients under 20 years of age with their first cancer diagnosis in 1996-2014 from the Finnish Cancer Registry (n = 2029) and 1:5 population-based controls (n = 10,103) from the Medical Birth Register. We obtained information on maternal autoimmune disease and its medication from the relevant Finnish registries and used conditional logistic regression to analyse the risk of offspring cancer after maternal autoimmune disease exposure. RESULTS: The odds ratio (OR) for cancer in offspring following maternal autoimmune exposure was 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-1.23). Individual ORs for inflammatory bowel and connective tissue diseases were 1.08 (95% CI 0.56-2.01) and 0.50 (95% CI 0.23-1.08), respectively. The OR for maternal autoimmune medication was 0.95 (95% CI 0.80-1.14) overall and similar by drug subtype. There was an increased risk with medication in late pregnancy but the ORs were unstable owing to small numbers. CONCLUSION: Our study does not support an increased cancer risk among offspring of women with autoimmune disease or its medication during pregnancy.

4.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(12): 1643-1652, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections cause most cases of cervical cancer. Here, we report long-term follow-up results for the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (publicly funded and initiated before licensure of the HPV vaccines), with the aim of assessing the efficacy of the bivalent HPV vaccine for preventing HPV 16/18-associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+). METHODS: Women aged 18-25 years were enrolled in a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial in Costa Rica, between June 28, 2004, and Dec 21, 2005, designed to assess the efficacy of a bivalent vaccine for the prevention of infection with HPV 16/18 and associated precancerous lesions at the cervix. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive an HPV 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine or control hepatitis A vaccine. Vaccines were administered intramuscularly in three 0·5 mL doses at 0, 1, and 6 months and participants were followed up annually for 4 years. After the blinded phase, women in the HPV vaccine group were invited to enrol in the long-term follow-up study, which extended follow-up for 7 additional years. The control group received HPV vaccine and was replaced with a new unvaccinated control group. Women were followed up every 2 years until year 11. Investigators and patients were aware of treatment allocation for the follow-up phase. At each visit, clinicians collected cervical cells from sexually active women for cytology and HPV testing. Women with abnormal cytology were referred to colposcopy, biopsy, and treatment as needed. Women with negative results at the last screening visit (year 11) exited the long-term follow-up study. The analytical cohort for vaccine efficacy included women who were HPV 16/18 DNA-negative at vaccination. The primary outcome of this analysis was defined as histopathologically confirmed CIN2+ or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse associated with HPV 16/18 cervical infection detected at colposcopy referral. We calculated vaccine efficacy by year and cumulatively. This long-term follow-up study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00867464. FINDINGS: 7466 women were enrolled in the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial; 3727 received the HPV vaccine and 3739 received the control vaccine. Between March 30, 2009, and July 5, 2012, 2635 women in the HPV vaccine group and 2836 women in the new unvaccinated control group were enrolled in the long-term follow-up study. 2635 women in the HPV vaccine group and 2677 women in the control group were included in the analysis cohort for years 0-4, and 2073 women from the HPV vaccine group and 2530 women from the new unvaccinated control group were included in the analysis cohort for years 7-11. Median follow-up time for the HPV group was 11·1 years (IQR 9·1-11·7), 4·6 years (4·3-5·3) for the original control group, and 6·2 years (5·5-6·9) for the new unvaccinated control group. At year 11, vaccine efficacy against incident HPV 16/18-associated CIN2+ was 100% (95% CI 89·2-100·0); 34 (1·5%) of 2233 unvaccinated women had a CIN2+ outcome compared with none of 1913 women in the HPV group. Cumulative vaccine efficacy against HPV 16/18-associated CIN2+ over the 11-year period was 97·4% (95% CI 88·0-99·6). Similar protection was observed against HPV 16/18-associated CIN3-specifically at year 11, vaccine efficacy was 100% (95% CI 78·8-100·0) and cumulative vaccine efficacy was 94·9% (73·7-99·4). During the long-term follow-up, no serious adverse events occurred that were deemed related to the HPV vaccine. The most common grade 3 or worse serious adverse events were pregnancy, puerperium, and perinatal conditions (in 255 [10%] of 2530 women in the unvaccinated control group and 201 [10%] of 2073 women in the HPV vaccine group). Four women in the unvaccinated control group and three in the HPV vaccine group died; no deaths were deemed to be related to the HPV vaccine. INTERPRETATION: The bivalent HPV vaccine has high efficacy against HPV 16/18-associated precancer for more than a decade after initial vaccination, supporting the notion that invasive cervical cancer is preventable. FUNDING: US National Cancer Institute.

5.
J Infect Dis ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Factors that lead human papillomavirus (HPV) infections to persist and progress to cancer are not fully understood, especially among vaccinated women. We evaluated co-factors for acquisition, persistence and progression of non-HPV16/18 infections in a cohort of HPV-vaccinated women. METHODS: We analyzed 2,153 18-25-year-old women randomized to the HPV-vaccine arm of CVT. Women were HPV-DNA-negative for all types at baseline and followed for ~11 years. Acquisition was a type-specific cervical infection not present/detected at the previously scheduled visit. Persistence was a type-specific incident infection that persisted for ≥1-year with no intervening negatives. Progression of persistent incident infections to CIN2+ was based on histological findings by expert pathologists. GEE methods were used to account for correlated observations. Time-dependent factors evaluated were age, sexual behavior, marital status, hormonal-related factors, number of full-term pregnancies (FTP), smoking behavior, and baseline-BMI. RESULTS: 1,777 incident oncogenic non-HPV16/18 infections were detected in 12,292 visits (average 0.14 infections per visit). Age and sexual behavior-related variables were associated with oncogenic non-HPV16/18 acquisition. 26% of incident infections persisted for ≥1-year. None of the factors evaluated were statistically associated with persistence of oncogenic non-HPV16/18 infections. Risk of progression to CIN2+ increased with increasing age (p-trend=0.001), injectable contraceptives use [relative risk 2.61 (95%CI 1.19-5.73) ever vs. never] and increasing FTP (p-trend=0.034). CONCLUSION: In a cohort of HPV16/18-vaccinated women, age and sexual behavior variables are associated with acquisition of oncogenic non-HPV16/18 infections, no notable factors are associated with persistence of acquired oncogenic non-HPV16/18 infections, and age, parity and hormonally-related exposures are associated with progression to CIN2+.

6.
Environ Epidemiol ; 4(5): e110, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154988

RESUMO

Longitudinal studies of environmental hazards often rely on exposure estimated at the participant's enrollment residence. This could lead to exposure misclassification if participants move over time. Methods: We evaluated residential mobility in the Iowa Women's Health Study (age 55-69 years) over 19 years of follow-up (1986-2004). We assessed several environmental exposures of varying spatial scales at enrollment and follow-up addresses. Exposures included average nitrate concentrations in public water supplies, percent of agricultural land (row crops and pasture/hay) within 750 m, and the presence of concentrated animal feeding operations within 5 km. In comparison to gold standard duration-based exposures averaged across all residences, we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of exposure metrics and attenuation bias for a hypothetical nested case-control study of cancer, which assumed participants did not move from their enrollment residence. Results: Among 41,650 participants, 32% moved at least once during follow-up. Mobility was predicted by working outside the home, being a former/current smoker, having a higher education level, using a public drinking water supply, and town size of previous residence. Compared with duration-based exposures, the sensitivity and specificity of exposures at enrollment ranged from 94% to 99% and 97% to 99%, respectively. A hypothetical true odds ratio of 2.0 was attenuated 8% for nitrate, 9%-10% for agricultural land, and 6% for concentrated animal feeding operation exposures. Conclusions: Overall, we found low rates of mobility and mobility-related exposure misclassification in the Iowa Women's Health Study. Misclassification and attenuation of hypothetical risk estimates differed by spatial variability and exposure prevalence.

7.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are highly persistent chemicals that have been detected in the serum of > 98% of the U.S. population. Studies among highly exposed individuals suggest an association with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposure and kidney cancer. It remains unclear whether PFOA or other PFAS are renal carcinogens, or if they influence risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) at concentrations observed in the general population. METHODS: We measured pre-diagnostic serum concentrations of PFOA and seven additional PFAS in 324 RCC cases and 324 individually matched controls within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) relating serum PFAS concentrations and RCC risk. Individual PFAS were modeled continuously (log2-transformed) and categorically, with adjustment for kidney function and additional potential confounders. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We observed a positive association with RCC risk for PFOA (doubling in serum concentration, ORcontinuous = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.23 to 2.37; P = .002), and a greater than two-fold increased risk among those in the highest quartile vs. the lowest (OR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.33 to 5.20; Ptrend = .007). The association with PFOA was similar after adjustment for other PFAS (ORcontinuous = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.07 to 2.63; P = .02), and remained apparent in analyses restricted to individuals without evidence of diminished kidney function and in cases diagnosed ≥8 years after phlebotomy. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings add substantially to the weight of evidence that PFOA is a renal carcinogen and may have important public health implications for the many individuals exposed to this ubiquitous and highly persistent chemical.

8.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 41, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964115

RESUMO

Terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) are the predominant anatomical structures where breast cancers originate. Having lesser degrees of age-related TDLU involution, measured as higher TDLUs counts or more epithelial TDLU substructures (acini), is related to increased breast cancer risk among women with benign breast disease (BBD). We evaluated whether a recently developed polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 313-common variants for breast cancer prediction is related to TDLU involution in the background, normal breast tissue, as this could provide mechanistic clues on the genetic predisposition to breast cancer. Among 1398 women without breast cancer, higher values of the PRS were significantly associated with higher TDLU counts (P = 0.004), but not with acini counts (P = 0.808), in histologically normal tissue samples from donors and diagnostic BBD biopsies. Mediation analysis indicated that TDLU counts may explain a modest proportion (≤10%) of the association of the 313-variant PRS with breast cancer risk. These findings suggest that TDLU involution might be an intermediate step in the association between common genetic variation and breast cancer risk.

9.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959873

RESUMO

Many epidemiological studies use metabolomics for discovery-based research. The degree to which sample handling may influence findings, however, is poorly understood. Serum from 13 volunteers from the USDA Beltsville center were subjected to different clotting (30/120 minutes) and refrigeration (0/24 hours) conditions, as well as number (0/1/4) and temperature (ice/refrigerator/room temperature) of thaws (2016). Median absolute percentage difference (APD) between metabolite levels and correlations across conditions were estimated for 628 metabolites. The potential for handling artifacts to induce false positives was estimated using variable hypotheticals where 1-100% of case samples had different handling than control samples. All handling conditions influenced metabolite levels. Across metabolites, the median APD when extending clotting was 9.08%. When increasing from 0 to 4 thaws, the median APD was 10.05% for ice, and 5.54% APD for room temperature. Metabolites correlated highly across conditions (all r>0.84), indicating relative ranks were preserved. However, if handling varied even modestly by case status, our hypotheticals show results can be biased and result in false positives. Sample handling affects levels of metabolites, and special care should be taken to minimize effects. Shorter room temperature thaws should be preferred over longer ice thaws, and handling should be meticulously matched by case status.

10.
J Infect Dis ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887990

RESUMO

Clinical trial data and real-world evidence suggest the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 (AS04-HPV-16/18) vaccine provides nearly 90% protection against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or greater (CIN3+) irrespective of type, among females vaccinated prior to sexual debut. This high efficacy is not fully explained by cross-protection. Although AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccination does not impact clearance of prevalent infections, it may accelerate clearance of newly acquired infections. We pooled data from two large-scale randomized controlled trials to evaluate efficacy of the AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine against clearance of non-targeted incident infections. Results of our analysis do not suggest an effect in expediting clearance of incident infections.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237792, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ewing sarcoma (EwS) is a rare, aggressive solid tumor of childhood, adolescence and young adulthood associated with pathognomonic EWSR1-ETS fusion oncoproteins altering transcriptional regulation. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 6 common germline susceptibility loci but have not investigated low-frequency inherited variants with minor allele frequencies below 5% due to limited genotyped cases of this rare tumor. METHODS: We investigated the contribution of rare and low-frequency variation to EwS susceptibility in the largest EwS genome-wide association study to date (733 EwS cases and 1,346 unaffected controls of European ancestry). RESULTS: We identified two low-frequency variants, rs112837127 and rs2296730, on chromosome 20 that were associated with EwS risk (OR = 0.186 and 2.038, respectively; P-value < 5×10-8) and located near previously reported common susceptibility loci. After adjusting for the most associated common variant at the locus, only rs112837127 remained a statistically significant independent signal (OR = 0.200, P-value = 5.84×10-8). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest rare variation residing on common haplotypes are important contributors to EwS risk. IMPACT: Motivate future targeted sequencing studies for a comprehensive evaluation of low-frequency and rare variation around common EwS susceptibility loci.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Sarcoma de Ewing/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923912

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radiotherapy for childhood cancer is associated with elevated subsequent neoplasm (SN) risk, but the contribution of rare variants in DNA damage response and radiation sensitivity genes to SN risk is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted whole-exome sequencing in a cohort of childhood cancer survivors originally diagnosed during 1970 to 1986 (mean follow-up, 32.7 years), with reconstruction of doses to body regions from radiotherapy records. We identified patients who developed SN types previously reported to be related to radiotherapy (RT-SNs; eg, basal cell carcinoma [BCC], breast cancer, meningioma, thyroid cancer, sarcoma) and matched controls (sex, childhood cancer type/diagnosis, age, SN location, radiation dose, survival). Conditional logistic regression assessed SN risk associated with potentially protein-damaging rare variants (SnpEff, ClinVar) in 476 DNA damage response or radiation sensitivity genes with exact permutation-based P values using a Bonferroni-corrected significance threshold of P < 8.06 × 10-5. RESULTS: Among 5,105 childhood cancer survivors of European descent, 1,108 (21.7%) developed at least 1 RT-SN. Out-of-field RT-SN risk, excluding BCC, was associated with homologous recombination repair (HRR) gene variants (patient cases, 23.2%; controls, 10.8%; odds ratio [OR], 2.6; 95% CI, 1.7 to 3.9; P = 4.79 × 10-5), most notably but nonsignificantly for FANCM (patient cases, 4.0%; matched controls, 0.6%; P = 9.64 × 10-5). HRR variants were not associated with likely in/near-field RT-SNs, excluding BCC (patient cases, 12.7%; matched controls, 12.9%; P = .92). Irrespective of radiation dose, risk for RT-SNs was also associated with EXO1 variants (patient cases, 1.8%; controls, 0.4%; P = 3.31 × 10-5), another gene implicated in DNA double-strand break repair. CONCLUSION: In this large-scale discovery study, we identified novel associations between RT-SN risk after childhood cancer and potentially protein-damaging rare variants in genes involved in DNA double-strand break repair, particularly HRR. With replication, these results could affect screening recommendations for childhood cancer survivors and risk-benefit assessments of treatment approaches.

13.
Vaccine ; 38(38): 5997-6006, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713678

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Whether existing serological assays are sufficiently robust to measure the lower antibody levels expected following single-dose HPV vaccination is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated seven assays measuring HPV-16/18 immunological responses overall and by number of doses in 530 serum samples from participants receiving varying doses of Cervarix or Gardasil up to 36-months post-vaccination. Serum was evaluated by simplex (HPV-16 ELISA, HPV-18 ELISA), multiplex (LIA-4, VLP-MIA, M9ELISA, GST-L1), and high-throughput pseudovirion-based neutralization assays (HT-PBNA), and results were compared to the gold standard HPV-16/18 secreted alkaline phosphatase neutralization assay (SEAP-NA). Reproducibility was assessed by the coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Percent agreement, Pearson correlation, and weighted-kappa were used to assess validity. Determinants of seronegativity were evaluated by chi-squared test. RESULTS: HPV-16: Seropositivity range was 97.1-99.5% for single dose and 98.8-99.8% overall. CV range was 4.0-18.0% for single dose and 2.9-19.5% overall. ICC range was 0.77-0.99 for single dose and 0.74-0.99 overall. Correlation with SEAP-NA range was 0.43-0.85 for single dose and 0.51-0.90 overall. Weighted-kappa range was 0.34-0.82 for single dose and 0.45-0.84 overall. HPV-18: Seropositivity range was 63.9-94.7% for single dose and 86.2-97.9% overall. CV range was 8.1-18.2% for single dose and 4.6-18.6% overall. ICC range was 0.75-0.99 for single dose and 0.83-0.99 overall. Correlation with SEAP-NA range was 0.31-0.99 for single dose and 0.27-0.96 overall. Weighted-kappa range was 0.35-0.83 for single dose and 0.45-0.84 overall. HPV-16 seronegativity was <5% for all assays. HPV-18 seronegativity range was 5.5-17.3%. For LIA-4 and GST-L1 where the proportion of seronegativity was >10%, the strongest correlates of seronegativity were receiving a single vaccine dose and receiving Gardasil. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the utility of existing serological assays to monitor antibody responses following single-dose HPV vaccination.

14.
J Infect Dis ; 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: How vaginal infections like bacterial vaginosis (BV), Candida spp., and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) affect persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is not well established. Our study aimed to evaluate the association between common vaginal infections and cervical non-HPV16/18 infection, as risk factors associated with persistence of non-vaccine HPV types will become increasingly relevant in the setting of HPV vaccination. METHODS: We performed an analysis in 2,039 AS04-HPV16/18-vaccinated women enrolled in a phase II/III trial in China, who were HPV DNA-negative at Month 0 and 6 and had at least one subsequent follow-up visit. Vaginal infections were detected in liquid-based cytology according to the diagnostic criteria of The Bethesda System. Associations between vaginal infections and incident and 6-month persistent non-HPV16/18 infections in the cervix were evaluated using generalized estimating equations, adjusting for the age at initial vaccination, as well as HPV types in the persistence analysis. RESULTS: Study visits with any vaginal infection had a statistically significant increased risk of incident non-HPV16/18 infection compared to those without vaginal infections(OR:1.44,95%CI:1.09-1.92). However, vaginal infections were not associated with 6-month persistent non-HPV16/18 infection (OR:1.02,95%CI:0.62-1.69). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that common vaginal infections are not associated with persistence of non-HPV16/18 infection among HPV16/18-vaccinated women.

15.
Stat Med ; 39(18): 2423-2436, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363646

RESUMO

We consider the scenario where there is an exposure, multiple biologically defined sets of biomarkers, and an outcome. We propose a new two-step procedure that tests if any of the sets of biomarkers mediate the exposure/outcome relationship, while maintaining a prespecified familywise error rate. The first step of the proposed procedure is a screening step that removes all groups that are unlikely to be strongly associated with both the exposure and the outcome. The second step adapts recent advances in postselection inference to test if there are true mediators in each of the remaining candidate sets. We use simulation to show that this simple two-step procedure has higher statistical power to detect true mediating sets when compared with existing procedures. We then use our two-step procedure to identify a set of Lysine-related metabolites that potentially mediate the known relationship between increased body mass index and the increased risk of estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1329-1334, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin E is an essential micronutrient and critical human antioxidant previously tested for cancer preventative effects with conflicting clinical trial results that have yet to be explained biologically. METHODS: We examined baseline and on-trial serum samples for 154 men randomly assigned to receive 400 IU vitamin E (as alpha-tocopheryl acetate; ATA) or placebo daily in the Vitamin E Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (VEAPS), and for 100 men administered 50 IU ATA or placebo daily in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC). Over 970 metabolites were identified using ultrahigh-performance LC/MS-MS. Linear regression models estimated the change in serum metabolites of men supplemented with vitamin E versus those receiving placebo in VEAPS as compared with ATBC. RESULTS: Serum alpha-carboxyethyl hydrochroman (CEHC) sulfate, alpha-tocopherol, and beta/gamma-tocopherol were significantly altered by ATA supplementation in both trials (all P values ≤5.1 × 10-5, the Bonferroni multiple comparisons corrected statistical threshold). Serum C22 lactone sulfate was significantly decreased in response to the high-dose vitamin E in VEAPS (ß = -0.70, P = 8.1 × 10-6), but not altered by the low dose in ATBC (ß = -0.17, P = 0.4). In addition, changes in androgenic steroid metabolites were strongly correlated with the vitamin E supplement-associated change in C22 lactone sulfate only in the VEAPS trial. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence of a dose-dependent vitamin E supplementation effect on a novel C22 lactone sulfate compound that was correlated with several androgenic steroids. IMPACT: Our data add information on a differential hormonal response based on vitamin E dose that could have direct relevance to opposing prostate cancer incidence results from previous large controlled trials.

17.
Stat Methods Med Res ; 29(10): 3048-3058, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297554

RESUMO

We provide methods to estimate the confidence interval for the difference between two relative risks. Letting p0, p1, and p2 be the probabilities of an event in three groups (i.e. control, treatment 1, treatment 2), our methods estimate a confidence interval for r = p1/p0 - p2/p0. We highlight that our methods can handle small sample sizes, covariates, and study populations from multiple strata. We specifically developed these methods for vaccine trials to estimate the difference between two vaccine efficacies, where VE1 = 1 - p1/p0, VE2 = 1 - p2/p0 and r = VE2 - VE1. We showcase our methods by using interim data from one of these trials to suggest that one dose of the human papillomavirus vaccine may be as efficacious as two doses of the vaccine.

18.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(10): 1038-1046, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The authors investigated the durability of vaccine efficacy (VE) against human papillomavirus (HPV)16 or 18 infections and antibody response among nonrandomly assigned women who received a single dose of the bivalent HPV vaccine compared with women who received multiple doses and unvaccinated women. METHODS: HPV infections were compared between HPV16 or 18-vaccinated women aged 18 to 25 years who received one (N = 112), two (N = 62), or three (N = 1365) doses, and age- and geography-matched unvaccinated women (N = 1783) in the long-term follow-up of the Costa Rica HPV Vaccine Trial. Cervical HPV infections were measured at two study visits, approximately 9 and 11 years after initial HPV vaccination, using National Cancer Institute next-generation sequencing TypeSeq1 assay. VE and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. HPV16 or 18 antibody levels were measured in all one- and two-dose women, and a subset of three-dose women, using a virus-like particle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (n = 448). RESULTS: Median follow-up for the HPV-vaccinated group was 11.3 years (interquartile range = 10.9-11.7 years) and did not vary by dose group. VE against prevalent HPV16 or 18 infection was 80.2% (95% CI = 70.7% to 87.0%) among three-dose, 83.8% (95% CI = 19.5% to 99.2%) among two-dose, and 82.1% (95% CI = 40.2% to 97.0%) among single-dose women. HPV16 or 18 antibody levels did not qualitatively decline between years four and 11 regardless of the number of doses given, although one-dose titers continue to be statistically significantly lower compared with two- and three-dose titers. CONCLUSION: More than a decade after HPV vaccination, single-dose VE against HPV16 or 18 infection remained high and HPV16 or 18 antibodies remained stable. A single dose of bivalent HPV vaccine may induce sufficiently durable protection that obviates the need for more doses.

19.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(10): 1030-1037, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Costa Rica HPV Vaccine Trial has documented cross-protection of the bivalent HPV vaccine against HPV31/33/45 up to 7 years after vaccination, even with one dose of the vaccine. However, the durability of such protection remains unknown. Here, we evaluate the efficacy of different schedules of the vaccine against HPV31/33/45 out to 11 years postvaccination, expanding to other nontargeted HPV types. METHODS: We compared the rates of HPV infection in vaccinated women with the rates in a comparable cohort of unvaccinated women. We estimated the average vaccine efficacy (VEavg) against incident infections and tested for a change in VE over time. RESULTS: Among 3-dose women, we observed statistically significant cross-protection against HPV31/33/45 (VEavg = 64.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 57.7% to 70.0%). Additionally, we observed borderline, statistically significant cross-protection against HPV35 (VEavg = 23.2%, 95% CI = 0.3% to 40.8%) and HPV58 (VEavg = 21.2%, 95% CI = 4.2% to 35.3%). There was no decrease in VE over time (two-sided Ptrend > .05 for HPV31, -33, -35, -45, and -58). As a benchmark, VEavg against HPV16/18 was 82.0% (95% CI = 77.3% to 85.7%). Among 1-dose women, we observed comparable efficacy against HPV31/33/45 (VEavg = 54.4%, 95% CI = 21.0% to 73.7%). Acquisition of nonprotected HPV types was similar between vaccinated and unvaccinated women, indicating that the difference in HPV infection rates was not attributable to differential genital HPV exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial cross-protection afforded by the bivalent vaccine against HPV31/33/45, and to a lesser extent, HPV35 and HPV58, was sustained and remained stable after 11 years postvaccination, reinforcing the notion that the bivalent vaccine is an effective option for protection against HPV-associated cancers.

20.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228887, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomere length is associated with risk for thyroid subsequent malignant neoplasm in survivors of childhood cancer. Here, we investigated associations between thyroid subsequent malignant neoplasm and inherited variation in telomere maintenance genes. METHODS: We used RegulomeDB to annotate the functional impact of variants mapping to 14 telomere maintenance genes among 5,066 five-or-more year survivors who participate in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) and who are longitudinally followed for incidence of subsequent cancers. Hazard ratios for thyroid subsequent malignant neoplasm were calculated for 60 putatively functional variants with minor allele frequency ≥1% in or near telomere maintenance genes. Functional impact was further assessed by measuring telomere length in leukocyte subsets. RESULTS: The minor allele at Protection of Telomeres-1 (POT1) rs58722976 was associated with increased risk for thyroid subsequent malignant neoplasm (adjusted HR = 6.1, 95% CI: 2.4, 15.5, P = 0.0001; Fisher's exact P = 0.001). This imputed SNP was present in three out of 110 survivors who developed thyroid cancer vs. 14 out of 4,956 survivors who did not develop thyroid cancer. In a subset of 83 survivors with leukocyte telomere length data available, this variant was associated with longer telomeres in B lymphocytes (P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Using a functional variant approach, we identified and confirmed an association between a low frequency intronic regulatory POT1 variant and thyroid subsequent malignant neoplasm in survivors of childhood cancer. These results suggest that intronic variation in POT1 may affect key protein binding interactions that impact telomere maintenance and genomic integrity.


Assuntos
Segunda Neoplasia Primária/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Adolescente , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Incidência , Íntrons , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Homeostase do Telômero/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
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