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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369329

RESUMO

Nanostructuring is the dominant approach for effective thermal conduction control in nanomaterials. In the past decade, researchers have been interested in thermal conduction control by the coherent effects in phononic crystal (PnC) systems. Recent theoretical works predicted that nanopillars on the surface of silicon membranes could cause a dramatic thermal conductivity reduction due to the phonon local resonances. However, this remarkable prediction has not been experimentally verified yet with the deep-nanoscale pillar-based PnCs. Here, we fabricate nanopillars on suspended silicon membranes using damageless neutral-beam etching and investigate the impact of nanopillars on the thermal conductivity of the membranes in the 4-300 K range. We found that thermal conductivity reduction caused by the nanopillars does not exceed 16%, which is much weaker than that predicted by the theoretical works. Moreover, this reduction remains temperature independent. These facts make the coherence an unlikely reason for the observed reduction. Indeed, our Monte Carlo simulations can reproduce the experimental results under a purely incoherent approximation. Our study shows that the coherent control of heat conduction by PnC nanostructures is more challenging to observe experimentally in reality than predicted in near-ideal modeling.

2.
Nanotechnology ; 31(26): 26LT01, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168495

RESUMO

Surface oxidation employing neutral oxygen irradiation significantly improves the switching and synaptic performance of ZnO-based transparent memristor devices. The endurance of the as-irradiated device is increased by 100 times, and the operating current can be lowered by 10 times as compared with the as-deposited device. Moreover, the performance-enhanced device has an excellent analog behavior that can exhibit 3 bits per cell nonvolatile multistate characteristics and perform 15 stable epochs of synaptic operations with highly linear weight updates. A simulated artificial neural network comprising 1600 synapses confirms the superiority of the enhanced device in processing a 40 × 40 pixels grayscale image. The irradiation effectively decreases the concentration of oxygen vacancy donor defects and promotes oxygen interstitial acceptor defects on the surface of the ZnO films, which consequently modulate the redox process during rupture and rejuvenation of the filament. This work not only proposes the potential of ZnO-based memristor devices for high-density invisible data storage and in-memory computing application but also offers valuable insight in designing high-performance memristor devices, regardless of the oxide system used, by taking advantage of our neutral oxygen irradiation technique.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(48): 41629-41633, 2017 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29135223

RESUMO

The nitridation reaction is significantly important to utilize the unique properties of nitrides and nitrogen-doped materials. However, nitridation generally requires a high temperature or highly reactive reagents (often explosive) because the energies of N-N bond cleavage and nitrogen anion formation (N3-) are very high. We demonstrate the first room-temperature synthesis of GaN directly from GaCl3 by nanoscale atom exchange reaction. Nonequilibrium nitrogen molecules with very high translational energy were used as a chemically stable and safe nitrogen source. The irradiation of molecular nitrogen to the desired reaction area successfully provided a gallium nitride (GaN) nanosheet that exhibited a typical photoluminescence spectrum. Because this process retains the target substrate room temperature and does not involve any photon nor charged ion, it allows damage-less synthesis of the semiconducting metal nitrides, even directly on plastic substrates such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET).

4.
Nanotechnology ; 28(48): 485401, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28976353

RESUMO

In this work, we numerically simulate the silicon (Si)/silicon carbide (SiC) quantum dot superlattice solar cell (SiC-QDSL) with aluminum oxide (Al2O3-QDSL) passivation. By exploiting the passivation layer of Al2O3, the high photocurrent and the conversion efficiency can be achieved without losing the effective bandgap. Based on the two-photon transition mechanism in an AM1.5 and a one sun illumination, the simulated short-circuit current (J sc) of 4.77 mA cm-2 is very close to the experimentally measured 4.75 mA cm-2, which is higher than those of conventional SiC-QDSLs. Moreover, the efficiency fluctuation caused by the structural variation is less sensitive by using the passivation layer. A high conversion efficiency of 17.4% is thus estimated by adopting the QD's geometry used in the experiment; and, it can be further boosted by applying a hexagonal QD formation with an inter-dot spacing of 0.3 nm.

5.
Nanotechnology ; 27(42): 425401, 2016 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27632684

RESUMO

In this work, we demonstrate homogeneously distributed In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN quantum disks (QDs), with an average diameter below 10 nm and a high density of 2.1 × 10(11) cm(-2), embedded in 20 nm tall nanopillars. The scalable top-down fabrication process involves the use of self-assembled ferritin bio-templates as the etch mask, spin coated on top of a strained In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN single quantum well (SQW) structure, followed by a neutral beam etch (NBE) method. The small dimensions of the iron cores inside ferritin and nearly damage-free process enabled by the NBE jointly contribute to the observation of photoluminescence (PL) from strain-relaxed In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN QDs at 6 K. The large blueshift of the peak wavelength by over 70 nm manifests a strong reduction of the quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) within the QD structure, which also agrees well with the theoretical prediction using a 3D Schrödinger equation solver. The current results hence pave the way towards the realization of large-scale III-N quantum structures using the combination of bio-templates and NBE, which is vital for the development of next-generation lighting and communication devices.

6.
Nanotechnology ; 26(48): 485602, 2015 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26559390

RESUMO

Nitrogen-doped graphene promises to improve current electronic devices, sensors, and energy-based devices. To this end, the bonding states between carbon and nitrogen atoms can be manipulated to tailor the properties of the doped graphene. For example, graphitic nitrogen is known to promote desired catalytic activities in graphene fuel-cell systems, resulting from a four-electron reaction. However, established nitrogen-doping methods lack selectivity in dopant chemical identity and in dopant location; both are key factors in graphene property design because the properties depend on the chemical identity and location of the dopant. Here, we utilize a nitrogen neutral beam (NB) technique-with exquisite beam energy control-to dope graphene with nitrogen. Using x-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopy, we show that the energy of the nitrogen NB not only determines the chemistry of the nitrogen dopant introduced to graphene, but it also dictates the doping locations within graphene layers.

7.
Sci Rep ; 5: 9371, 2015 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25792119

RESUMO

Quantum dots photonic devices based on the III-V compound semiconductor technology offer low power consumption, temperature stability, and high-speed modulation. We fabricated GaAs nanodisks (NDs) of sub-20-nm diameters by a top-down process using a biotemplate and neutral beam etching (NBE). The GaAs NDs were embedded in an AlGaAs barrier regrown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The temperature dependence of photoluminescence emission energies and the transient behavior were strongly affected by the quantum confinement effects of the embedded NDs. Therefore, the quantum levels of the NDs may be tuned by controlling their dimensions. We combined NBE and MOVPE in a high-throughput process compatible with industrial production systems to produce GaAs NDs with tunable optical characteristics. ND light emitting diode exhibited a narrow spectral width of 38 nm of high-intensity emission as a result of small deviation of ND sizes and superior crystallographic quality of the etched GaAs/AlGaAs layer.

8.
Langmuir ; 29(41): 12737-43, 2013 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24041254

RESUMO

The interparticle distance between nanoparticles (NPs) dispersed on on SiO2 was shown to be controlled by PEGylation. Ferritins with nanoparticle cores were prepared and PEGylated with poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEGs) of two different molecular weights. It was shown that the thickness of the PEG layer on the ferritin surface determines the interparticle distance under short Debye lengths. Under conditions where the Debye length was greater than the PEG layer thickness, distance between ferritins increased due to the electrostatic repulsive force. Results suggest that the PEG layer accommodated a small amount of counterions insufficient to cancel the ferritin outer surface charges. Simulation showed that ferritins adsorbed randomly and interparticle distance can be predicted theoretically. We demonstrate that PEGylated ferritins, that is, NP cores, can be dispersed on a surface with interval distances between particles determined by the combination of the ionic strength of the solution and the molecular weight of the PEG.


Assuntos
Ferritinas/química , Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Adsorção , Peso Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Dióxido de Silício/química , Eletricidade Estática , Propriedades de Superfície
9.
Nanotechnology ; 24(28): 285301, 2013 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23787817

RESUMO

We successfully fabricated defect-free, distributed and sub-20-nm GaAs quantum dots (named GaAs nanodisks (NDs)) by using a novel top-down technique that combines a new bio-template (PEGylated ferritin) and defect-free neutral beam etching (NBE). Greater flexibility was achieved when engineering the quantum levels of ND structures resulted in greater flexibility than that for a conventional quantum dot structure because structures enabled independent control of thickness and diameter parameters. The ND height was controlled by adjusting the deposition thickness, while the ND diameter was controlled by adjusting the hydrogen-radical treatment conditions prior to NBE. Photoluminescence emission due to carrier recombination between the ground states of GaAs NDs was observed, which showed that the emission energy shift depended on the ND diameters. Quantum level engineering due to both diameter and thickness was verified from the good agreement between the PL emission energy and the calculated quantum confinement energy.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/química , Gálio/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Pontos Quânticos , Biotecnologia/métodos , Ferritinas/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Polietilenoglicóis/química
10.
Nanotechnology ; 24(26): 265401, 2013 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23733263

RESUMO

A highly periodical Si nanodisk superlattice has been fabricated by our top-down process. Based on the realistic structure, a 3D simulation program using the finite element method is developed to calculate energy band structure, optical and electrical properties, as well as the intermediate band solar cell operation. Both the experiments and simulations reveal that miniband formation enhances the optical and electrical collections. Consequently, detailed electronic structure and conversion efficiency are examined to guide the optimal design of minibands. A theoretically predicted maximal efficiency of the explored Si nanodisk superlattice is 50.3%, which is promising, compared with well-known complicated Si tandem solar cells.

11.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 8(1): 223, 2013 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23663680

RESUMO

We study the temperature dependence of time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) in closely packed alignment of Si nanodisks (NDs) with SiC barriers, fabricated by neutral beam etching using bio-nano-templates. The PL time profile indicates three decaying components with different decay times. The PL intensities in the two slower decaying components depend strongly on temperature. These temperature dependences of the PL intensity can be quantitatively explained by a three-level model with thermal activation energies of 410 and 490 meV, depending on the PL components. The activation energies explain PL quenching due to thermal escape of electrons from individual NDs. This thermal escape affects the PL decay times above 250 K. Dark states of photo-excited carriers originating from the separate localization of electron and hole into different NDs are elucidated with the localization energies of 70 and 90 meV. In contrast, the dynamics of the fastest PL decaying component is dominated by electron tunneling among NDs, where the PL intensity and decay time are constant for temperature.

12.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 8(1): 228, 2013 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23676103

RESUMO

We fabricated a three-dimensional (3D) stacked Si nanodisk (Si-ND) array with a high aspect ratio and uniform size by using our advanced top-down technology consisting of bio-template and neutral beam etching processes. We found from conductive atomic microscope measurements that conductivity became higher as the arrangement was changed from a single Si-ND to two-dimensional (2D) and 3D arrays with the same matrix of SiC, i.e., the coupling of wave functions was changed. Moreover, our theoretical calculations suggested that the formation of minibands enhanced tunneling current, which well supported our experimental results. Further analysis indicated that four or more Si-NDs basically maximized the advantage of minibands in our structure. However, it appeared that differences in miniband widths between 2D and 3D Si-ND arrays did not affect the enhancement of the optical absorption coefficient. Hence, high photocurrent could be observed in our Si-ND array with high photoabsorption and carrier conductivity due to the formation of 3D minibands.

13.
Nanotechnology ; 24(1): 015301, 2013 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23221349

RESUMO

A sub-10 nm, high-density, periodic silicon nanodisk (Si-ND) array with a SiC interlayer has been fabricated using a new top-down process that involves a 2D array of a bio-template etching mask and damage-free neutral beam etching. Optical and electrical measurements were carried out to clarify the formation of mini-bands due to wavefunction coupling. We found that the SiC interlayer could enhance the optical absorption coefficient in the layer of Si-NDs due to the stronger coupling of wavefunctions. Theoretical simulation also indicated that wavefunction coupling was effectively enhanced in Si-NDs with a SiC interlayer, which precisely matched the experimental results. Furthermore, the I-V properties of a 2D array of Si-NDs with a SiC interlayer were studied through conductive AFM measurements, which indicated conductivity in the structure was enhanced by strong lateral electronic coupling between neighboring Si-NDs. We confirmed carrier generation and less current degradation in the structure due to high photon absorption and conductivity by inserting the Si-NDs into p-i-n solar cells.

14.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 7(1): 629, 2012 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23158215

RESUMO

The authors study plasmonic enhancements of photoluminescence (PL) in Si nanodisk (ND) arrays hybridized with nanostructures such as nanoplates of Au, where these hybrid nanostructures are fabricated by fully top-down lithography: neutral-beam etching using bio-nano-templates and high-resolution electron-beam lithography. The separation distance between the Si ND and Au nanostructure surfaces is precisely controlled by inserting a thin SiO2 layer with a thickness of 3 nm. We observe that PL intensities in the Si NDs are enhanced by factors up to 5 depending on the wavelength by integrating with the Au nanoplates. These enhancements also depend on the size and shape of the Au nanoplates.

15.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 7(1): 587, 2012 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23095286

RESUMO

The picosecond carrier dynamics in a closely packed Si-nanodisk (Si-ND) array with ultrathin potential barrier fabricated by neutral beam etching using bio-nano-templates was investigated by time-resolved photoluminescence (PL). The PL decay curves were analyzed as a function of photon energy by the global fitting method. We show three spectral components with different decay times, where the systematic energy differences of the spectral peaks are clarified: 2.03 eV for the fastest decaying component with a decay time τ = 40 ps, 2.02 eV for τ = 300 ps, and 2.00 eV for τ = 1.6 ns. These energy separations ranging from 10 to 30 meV among the emissive states can be attributed to the coupling of wavefunctions of carriers between neighboring NDs.

16.
Nanotechnology ; 23(6): 065302, 2012 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22248504

RESUMO

A sub-10 nm, high-density, periodic silicon-nanodisc (Si-ND) array has been fabricated using a new top-down process, which involves a 2D array bio-template etching mask made of Listeria-Dps with a 4.5 nm diameter iron oxide core and damage-free neutral-beam etching (Si-ND diameter: 6.4 nm). An Si-ND array with an SiO(2) matrix demonstrated more controllable optical bandgap energy due to the fine tunability of the Si-ND thickness and diameter. Unlike the case of shrinking Si-ND thickness, the case of shrinking Si-ND diameter simultaneously increased the optical absorption coefficient and the optical bandgap energy. The optical absorption coefficient became higher due to the decrease in the center-to-center distance of NDs to enhance wavefunction coupling. This means that our 6 nm diameter Si-ND structure can satisfy the strict requirements of optical bandgap energy control and high absorption coefficient for achieving realistic Si quantum dot solar cells.

17.
Nanotechnology ; 22(36): 365301, 2011 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21836326

RESUMO

The first damage-free top-down fabrication processes for a two-dimensional array of 7 nm GaAs nanodiscs was developed by using ferritin (a protein which includes a 7 nm diameter iron core) bio-templates and neutral beam etching. The photoluminescence of GaAs etched with a neutral beam clearly revealed that the processes could accomplish defect-free etching for GaAs. In the bio-template process, to remove the ferritin protein shell without thermal damage to the GaAs, we firstly developed an oxygen-radical treatment method with a low temperature of 280 °C. Then, the neutral beam etched the defect-free nanodisc structure of the GaAs using the iron core as an etching mask. As a result, a two-dimensional array of GaAs quantum dots with a diameter of ∼ 7 nm, a height of ∼ 10 nm, a high taper angle of 88° and a quantum dot density of more than 7 × 10(11) cm(-2) was successfully fabricated without causing any damage to the GaAs.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/química , Ferritinas/química , Gálio/química , Nanopartículas/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Tamanho da Partícula , Pontos Quânticos , Animais , Compostos Férricos/química , Ferritinas/ultraestrutura , Cavalos , Ácido Clorídrico/química , Medições Luminescentes , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Oxigênio/química , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Soluções , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Propriedades de Superfície
18.
Nanotechnology ; 22(10): 105301, 2011 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21289397

RESUMO

We created a two-dimensional array of sub-10 nm Si-nanodiscs (Si-NDs), i.e. a 2D array of Si-NDs, with a highly ordered arrangement and dense NDs by using a new top-down technique comprising advanced damage-free neutral-beam (NB) etching and a bio-template (iron oxide core) as a uniform sub-10 nm etching mask. The bandgap energy (E(g)) of the fabricated 2D array of Si-NDs can be simply controlled from 2.2 to 1.3 eV by changing the ND thickness from 2 to 12 nm. Due to weak quantum confinement existing in the diameter direction resulting from the sub-10 nm Si-ND diameter, even though the thickness of the Si-ND is much larger than the Bohr radius of Si, E(g) is still larger than the 1.1 eV E(g) of bulk Si. Si-ND not only has wide controllable E(g) but also a high absorption coefficient due to quantum confinement in three dimensions. This new technique is a promising candidate for developing new nanostructures and could be integrated into the fabrication of nanoelectronic devices.

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