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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957087

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ablation with second-generation cryoballoon technology evolves as an effective and safe alternative to radiofrequency for atrial fibrillation ablation procedures. Nevertheless, the optimal freezing strategy remains unknown. Our objective was to identify the procedural cryoablation parameters predicting successful peri-pulmonary vein (PV) lesions by directly analyzing post-ablation gaps in late gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR). METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-nine consecutive patients (196 PVs) undergoing ablation with second-generation cryoballoon at our center were included. The number and duration of cryoballoon application to achieve PV isolation was left to operator discretion. Gap number and length were quantified in all patients with a LGE-CMR performed 3 months post-ablation. Application time (420±217 s), number of applications (2.1±1.2), application time after electrical isolation (311±194 s) and minimum temperature (-45.8±6.5ºC) were similar in the 4 PVs. Gaps were observed in 148 PVs (76%), averaging 1.3±1 gaps per vein. Gaps were longer and more frequent in the right PVs (91% vs 59% in left PVs, p<0.001). Neither the number, total duration of applications, nor post-isolation application time predicted relative length or number of gaps. CONCLUSIONS: After successful PV isolation was achieved in patients undergoing cryoablation, increasing the number of applications, the total application time or application time post-isolation did not result in a reduction in the number or the relative length of gaps. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 21(10): 127, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520271

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this paper is to review present knowledge regarding preventive and antitachycardia pacing algorithms, aimed to reduce atrial fibrillation (AF) burden in patients when pacing is indicated. RECENT FINDINGS: Reactive antitachycardia pacing (ATP), the new generation of ATP, is significantly associated with a reduced risk of AF. In patients with indication for pacing and history of AF, pacemakers endowed with atrial preventive pacing and atrial ATP combined with managed ventricular pacing proved superior to standard dual-chamber pacing. Managed ventricular pacing is an algorithm that minimizes unnecessary right ventricular pacing. Progression to persistent AF is prevented by ventricular pacing minimization in patients with normal PR interval. The synergistic effect of pacemakers that combine atrial preventive pacing with reactive ATP and with algorithms that minimize ventricular pacing can reduce AF incidence and decrease the combined endpoint of permanent AF, hospital admissions, and mortality.

6.
Minerva Cardioangiol ; 67(5): 411-424, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343147

RESUMO

Exercise is, together with diet, a powerful health-promoting habit. However, an association of intense physical activity with the onset of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden death has been described. Although initially questioned, the atrial pro-arrhythmic role of endurance physical activity is now well accepted in the scientific community. Atrial fibrillation is common among endurance athletes, being a source of morbidity in otherwise healthy young and middle-aged individuals. The mechanisms for its development are still poorly understood, but likely involve some components of the athlete's heart (e.g., bradycardia, atrial enlargement) and some clearly pathological factors (e.g., atrial fibrosis). Its management must be a careful balance between exercise moderation and cessation, as extremes in exercise practice have both been related to atrial fibrillation. In this article, we review the current knowledge on exercise-induced atrial fibrillation through different perspectives, each focusing on the epidemiological evidence, the associated risk, the identification of individuals at risk, the potential approach to reduce its impact and how should these athletes be informed.

9.
Heart Rhythm ; 16(12): 1849-1854, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Micra transcatheter pacing system (Micra TPS) is often implanted in patients with atrial fibrillation and thus with increased thromboembolic risk. It is unknown whether the use of anticoagulants, associated with the use of a large venous introducer, implies an increased risk of bleeding in this group of patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of bleeding and thromboembolic complications after Micra TPS implantation with and without therapeutic anticoagulation. METHODS: This single-center observational study included 107 consecutive patients receiving the Micra TPS from 2014 to 2018. At procedure completion, a figure-of-eight suture was placed at the femoral puncture site after sheath withdrawal and was maintained for 24 hours. In patients receiving enoxaparin or new oral anticoagulants, treatment was discontinued 12 or 24 hours before the procedure, respectively, and was reinitiated 4-6 hours postprocedure. In those receiving vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), dosing was not discontinued and the procedure was performed if the international normalized ratio was less than 3. RESULTS: Sixty-four patients (60%) did not receive anticoagulants. Of the 43 (40%) who did, 29 (67%) received VKAs, 8 (19%) received new oral anticoagulants, and 6 (14%) received enoxaparin. Two patients presented hemorrhagic or thromboembolic complications during short-term follow-up: 1 woman receiving VKAs presented hemorrhagic pericardial effusion without tamponade and 1 woman not receiving anticoagulants presented thrombosis of the ipsilateral saphenous vein. CONCLUSION: Bleeding and thromboembolic complications after receiving Micra TPSs are infrequent. The use of anticoagulant therapy, regardless of the type, does not increase the complications associated with the procedure.

10.
Europace ; 21(9): 1286-1296, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038177

RESUMO

Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a cornerstone of therapy for patients with heart failure, reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, and a wide QRS complex. However, not all patients respond to CRT: 30% of CRT implanted patients are currently considered clinical non-responders and up to 40% do not achieve LV reverse remodelling. In order to achieve the best CRT response, appropriate patient selection, device implantation, and programming are important factors. Optimization of CRT pacing intervals may improve results, increasing the number of responders, and the magnitude of the response. Echocardiography is considered the reference method for atrioventricular and interventricular (VV) intervals optimization but it is time-consuming, complex and it has a large interobserver and intraobserver variability. Previous studies have linked QRS shortening to clinical response, echocardiographic improvement and favourable prognosis. In this review, we describe the electrocardiographic optimization methods available: 12-lead electrocardiogram; fusion-optimized intervals (FOI); intracardiac electrogram-based algorithms; and electrocardiographic imaging. Fusion-optimized intervals is an electrocardiographic method of optimizing CRT based on QRS duration that combines fusion with intrinsic conduction. The FOI method is feasible and fast, further reduces QRS duration, can be performed during implant, improves acute haemodynamic response, and achieves greater LV remodelling compared with nominal programming of CRT.

11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(15): 1931-1944, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Empagliflozin cardiac benefits in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME (Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients) trial cannot be explained exclusively by its antihyperglycemic activity. OBJECTIVES: The hypothesis was that empagliflozin's cardiac benefits are mediated by switching myocardial fuel metabolism away from glucose toward ketone bodies (KB), which improves myocardial energy production. METHODS: Heart failure was induced in nondiabetic pigs (n = 14) by 2-h balloon occlusion of the proximal left anterior descending artery. Animals were randomized to empagliflozin or placebo for 2 months. Animals were evaluated with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and 3-dimensional echocardiography. Myocardial metabolite consumption was analyzed by simultaneous blood sampling from coronary artery and coronary sinus. Myocardial samples were obtained for molecular evaluation. Nonmyocardial infarction animals served as comparison. RESULTS: Despite similar initial ischemic myocardial injury in both groups, the empagliflozin group showed amelioration of adverse remodeling at 2 months (lower left ventricular [LV] mass, reduced LV dilatation, less LV sphericity) versus the control group. LV systolic function (LV ejection fraction and echocardiography-derived strains) was improved, as was neurohormonal activation. Compared with nonmyocardial infarction, control animals increased myocardial glucose consumption mainly through anaerobic glycolysis while reducing utilization of free fatty acid (FFA) and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA). Empagliflozin-treated pigs did not consume glucose (reduction in myocardial glucose uptake, and glucose-related enzymes) but instead switched toward utilization of KB, FFA, and BCAA (increased myocardial uptake of these 3 metabolites, and enhanced expression/activity of the enzymes implicated in the metabolism of KB/FFA/BCAA). Empagliflozin increased myocardial ATP content and enhanced myocardial work efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Empagliflozin ameliorates adverse cardiac remodeling and heart failure in a nondiabetic porcine model. Empagliflozin switches myocardial fuel utilization away from glucose toward KB, FFA, and BCAA, thereby improving myocardial energetics, enhancing LV systolic function, and ameliorating adverse LV remodeling.

12.
Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J ; 19(4): 140-144, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794927

RESUMO

AIMS: Riata® implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads from St. Jude Medical are prone to malfunction. This study aimed to describe the rate of this lead's malfunction in a very long-term follow-up. METHODS: This single-centre observational study included 50 patients who received a Riata 7Fr dual-coil lead between 2003 and 2008. Follow-up was conducted both in person and remotely, and analysed at 8-month intervals. We evaluated the rates of cable externalization (CE), electrical failure (EF), and the interaction of these two complications. Structural lead failure was defined as radiographic CE. Oversensing of non-cardiac signal or sudden changes in impedance, sensing, or pacing thresholds constituted EF. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 10.2 ±â€¯2.9 years, 16 patients (32%) died. We observed lead malfunction in 13 patients (26%): three (23%) due to CE, six (46%) to EF and four (31%) to both complications. Of the malfunctioning leads, 77% failed after seven years of follow-up. The incidence rate (IR) of overall malfunction per 100 patients per year was 0.9 during the first seven years post-implantation, increased to 7.0 after the 7th year and more than doubled (to 16.7) after 10 years. Beyond seven years post-implantation, IR per 100 patient-years increased in both EF and CE (from 0.6 to 5.6 vs. 0.3 to 4.2, respectively). Presence of CE was associated with a 4-fold increase in the proportion of EF. CONCLUSION: The incidence of Riata ICD lead malfunction, both for EF and CE, increased dramatically after seven years and then more than doubled after 10 years post-implantation.

13.
Basic Res Cardiol ; 114(2): 5, 2019 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635778

RESUMO

There is scarce evidence for pulmonary artery denervation (PADN) as a potential treatment for chronic postcapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH). We aimed to perform a proof-of-concept of PADN in a translational model of chronic PH. Nineteen pigs with chronic postcapillary PH (secondary to pulmonary vein banding) were randomized to surgical-PADN (using bipolar radiofrequency clamps) or sham procedure. Additionally, 6 healthy animals underwent percutaneous-PADN to compare the pulmonary artery (PA) lesion generated with both approaches. In the surgical-PADN arm, hemodynamic evaluation and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) were performed at baseline and at 2 and 3-month follow-up. Histological assessment was carried out at the completion of the protocol. Eighteen pigs (6 following surgical-PADN, 6 sham and 6 percutaneous-PADN) completed the protocol. A complete transmural PA lesion was demonstrated using surgical clamps, whereas only focal damage to adventitial fibers was observed after percutaneous-PADN. In the surgical-PADN arm, the hemodynamic profile did not significantly differ between groups neither at baseline [mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) median values of 32.0 vs. 27.5 mmHg, P = 0.394 and indexed pulmonary vascular resistance (iPVR) 5.9 vs. 4.7 WU m2, P = 0.394 for PADN/sham groups, respectively] nor at any follow-up (mPAP of 35.0 vs. 35.0 mmHg, P = 0.236 and iPVR of 8.3 vs. 6.7 WU m2, P = 0.477 at third month in PADN/sham groups, respectively). Surgical-PADN was not associated with any benefit in RV anatomy or function on CMR/histology. In a large-animal model of chronic postcapillary PH, transmural PADN with surgical clamps was associated with a neutral pulmonary hemodynamic effect.


Assuntos
Denervação/métodos , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Artéria Pulmonar/inervação , Artéria Pulmonar/cirurgia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
14.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 17(1): 19-29, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451034

RESUMO

Introduction: Regular endurance exercise over the course of many years appears to increase the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). These data challenge the notion that the benefits of physical activity have no appreciable limits. The incidence of exercise-induced AF is expected to increase as a consequence of the popularity of extreme endurance sports. Actions to reduce its impact are warranted. Areas covered: This review focuses on exercise-induced AF and reviews the existing data regarding the prevention, screening, and treatment of this disease, with the aim of elucidating the best options for this group of patients. Expert commentary: To date, strategies to deal with exercise-induced AF are unsatisfactory. Improved knowledge of AF pathology and better classification schemes are needed to address current pitfalls.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Exercício/fisiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Teste de Esforço , Humanos
16.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 8(8): 708-716, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29119801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum soluble AXL (sAXL) and its ligand, Growth Arrest-Specific 6 protein (GAS6), intervene in tissue repair processes. AXL is increased in end-stage heart failure, but the role of GAS6 and sAXL in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To study the association of sAXL and GAS6 acutely and six months following STEMI with heart failure and left ventricular remodelling. METHODS: GAS6 and sAXL were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at one day, seven days and six months in 227 STEMI patients and 20 controls. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance was performed during admission and at six months to measure infarct size and left ventricular function. RESULTS: GAS6, but not sAXL, levels during admission were significantly lower in STEMI than in controls. AXL increased progressively over time (p<0.01), while GAS6 increased only from day 7. GAS6 or sAXL did not correlate with brain natriuretic peptide or infarct size. However, patients with heart failure (Killip >1) had higher values of sAXL at day 1 (48.9±11.9 vs. 44.0±10.7 ng/ml; p<0.05) and at six months (63.3±15.4 vs. 55.9±13.7 ng/ml; p<0.05). GAS6 levels were not different among subjects with heart failure or left ventricular remodelling. By multivariate analysis including infarct size, Killip class and sAXL at seven days, only the last two were independent predictors of left ventricular remodelling (odds ratio 2.24 (95% confidence interval: 1.08-4.63) and odds ratio 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.08) respectively). CONCLUSION: sAXL levels increased following STEMI. Patients with heart failure and left ventricular remodelling have higher sAXL levels acutely and at six month follow-up. These findings suggest a potential role of the GAS6-AXL system in the pathophysiology of left ventricular remodelling following STEMI.

17.
Rev Port Cardiol ; 37(10): 865.e1-865.e4, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30355462

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) is an infrequent finding. Revascularization is recommended in the presence of demonstrated viability or ischemia. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has long been considered the preferred option. Patients with previous CABG due to LMCA disease with occlusion of one graft and progression of the LMCA to CTO constitute a special population, as just one ischemic artery remains. For these patients, there is no other option for revascularization other than cardiac surgery (requiring resternotomy) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the LMCA. METHODS AND RESULTS: Out of 620 patients with CTO diagnosed in our center, we identified five with previous CABG due to LMCA disease for a retrospective case series. They had occlusion of one graft and progression of the LMCA to CTO. All five underwent PCI. Each patient received a functional classification for angina, myocardial ischemic tests, and a follow-up coronary angiogram during a median follow-up of 63 months. Coronary angiogram showed CTO of the semi-protected LMCA lesions with two CABGs previously performed in all patients, one occluded and the other patent. Three patients had occluded saphenous vein grafts to the circumflex coronary artery, and the rest had left internal mammary artery-left anterior descending artery CABG failure. Ischemia and viability were demonstrated. Surgery was ruled out due to high surgical risk. PCI due to CTO of the LMCA with drug-eluting stents was performed. In a five-year follow-up period, four patients remained asymptomatic and event free. One post-PCI death occurred from non-cardiovascular cause. CONCLUSIONS: PCI due to CTO of the LMCA following CABG can be successful and safe and can provide sustained clinical improvements in selected cases.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 70(12): 1067-1073, dic. 2017. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-169305

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: El tratamiento óptimo de pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca aguda (ICA) y síndrome cardiorrenal tipo 1 (SCR-1) no está bien definido. La hipoperfusión arterial y la congestión venosa tienen un papel fundamental en la fisiopatología del SCR-1. El antígeno carbohidrato 125 (CA125) ha emergido como marcador indirecto de sobrecarga de volumen en la ICA. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar la utilidad del CA125 para el ajuste del tratamiento diurético de pacientes con SCR-1. Métodos: Ensayo clínico multicéntrico, abierto y paralelo, que incluye a pacientes con ICA y creatinina ≥ 1,4 mg/dl al ingreso, aleatorizados a: a) estrategia convencional: titulación basada en la evaluación clínica y bioquímica habitual, o b) estrategia basada en CA125: dosis altas de diuréticos si CA125 > 35 U/ml y bajas en caso contrario. El objetivo principal es el cambio en la función renal a las 24 y las 72 h tras el comienzo del tratamiento. Como objetivos secundarios: a) cambios clínicos y bioquímicos a las 24 y las 72 h, y b) cambios en la función renal y eventos clínicos mayores a 30 días. Resultados: Los resultados de este estudio aportarán datos relevantes sobre la utilidad del CA125 para guiar el tratamiento diurético en el SCR-1. Además, permitirá ampliar el conocimiento de la fisiopatología de esta compleja entidad clínica. Conclusiones: La hipótesis del presente estudio es que las concentraciones de CA125 aumentadas pueden identificar a una población de pacientes con SCR-1 para quienes una estrategia diurética más intensa puede ser beneficiosa. Por el contrario, las concentraciones bajas de esta glucoproteína seleccionarían a los pacientes para los que serían perjudiciales las dosis altas de diuréticos (AU)


Introduction and objectives: The optimal treatment of patients with acute heart failure (AHF) and cardiorenal syndrome type 1 (CRS-1) is far from being well-defined. Arterial hypoperfusion in concert with venous congestion plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of CRS-I. Plasma carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) has emerged as a surrogate of fluid overload in AHF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of CA125 for tailoring the intensity of diuretic therapy in patients with CRS-1. Methods: Multicenter, open-label, parallel clinical trial, in which patients with AHF and serum creatinine ≥ 1.4 mg/dL on admission will be randomized to: a) standard diuretic strategy: titration-based on conventional clinical and biochemical evaluation, or b) diuretic strategy based on CA125: high dose if CA125 > 35 U/mL, and low doses otherwise. The main endpoint will be renal function changes at 24 and 72 hours after therapy initiation. Secondary endpoints will include: a) clinical and biochemical changes at 24 and 72 hours, and b) renal function changes and major clinical events at 30 days. Results: The results of this study will add important knowledge on the usefulness of CA125 for guiding diuretic treatment in CRS-1. In addition, it will pave the way toward a better knowledge of the pathophysiology of this challenging situation. Conclusions: We hypothesize that higher levels of CA125 will identify a patient population with CRS-1 who could benefit from the use of a more intense diuretic strategy. Conversely, low levels of this glycoprotein could select those patients who would be harmed by high diuretic doses (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Nefropatias/complicações , Biomarcadores , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Análise Estatística
19.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; : 2048872617741708, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29120239

RESUMO

In the era of primary percutaneous coronary intervention, mechanical complications after acute myocardial infarction are extremely rare, with an incidence of less than 0.5%. Rupture of the ventricular septum is the least frequent occurrence. Nevertheless, current mortality remains high and a prompt diagnosis and treatment are imperative to increase survival. Despite early surgical repair, mortality still remains high.

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