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1.
Mycoses ; 65(5): 517-525, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35262977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infection, particularly intraabdominal candidiasis, exerts a negative impact on the outcome of pancreas transplant recipients (PTRs). Optimal antifungal prophylaxis in this context remains unclear. METHODS: We performed a single-centre retrospective study to compare the incidence of invasive candidiasis during the first 6 post-transplant months in a cohort of 218 PTRs over two periods in which different agents for antifungal prophylaxis were used: fluconazole (Fluco-Px) from March 1995 to June 2012, and micafungin followed by fluconazole (Mica-Px) from July 2012 to December 2018. RESULTS: A total of 152 and 66 PTRs received Fluco-Px and Mica-Px. Mean age was 39.7 ± 7.8 years, 56.4% (123/218) were males, and 85.3% (186/218) underwent simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation. Invasive candidiasis occurred in 21.7% (33/152) of PTRs under Fluco-Px compared to 24.2% (16/66) of those under Mica-Px (p-value = .681). Median time from transplantation to infection was 8 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 6-16) under Fluco-Px versus 6.5 (IQR: 3.3-15.8) under Mica-Px (p-value = .623). Non-albicans Candida species comprised 27.5% (11/40) and 25.0% (4/16) of episodes under Fluco-Px and Mica-Px respectively (p-value = .849). Surgical site infection was the most common form in both groups (82.5% [33/40] and 87.5% [14/16]; p-value = .954). Multivariable analysis identified cold ischaemia time of the pancreas and kidney grafts, surgical reintervention and insulin requirement after transplantation as risks factor for invasive candidiasis. CONCLUSION: This retrospective study did not reveal a significant benefit from the initial use of micafungin-based antifungal prophylaxis over fluconazole among PTRs in terms of invasive candidiasis.


Assuntos
Candidíase Invasiva , Transplante de Pâncreas , Adulto , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida , Candidíase , Candidíase Invasiva/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Micafungina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pâncreas , Transplante de Pâncreas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplantados
2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 119: 59-68, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35331934

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the determinants of outcome of infections due to oxacillinase-48 (OXA-48) carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (OXA-48-Kp). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 117 episodes of OXA-48-Kp infection were conducted. Multivariate Cox models identified factors predicting 14-day clinical response and 30-day all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 77 (65.8%) isolates were susceptible to imipenem/meropenem. The 14-day clinical response and 30-day mortality rates were 41.9% and 28.2%. Catheter-related bloodstream infection (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 8.33; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 3.19-21.72; P-value <0.001), urinary tract infection (aHR: 3.04; 95%CI: 1.39-6.66; P-value = 0.006) and early appropriate treatment (aHR: 1.77; 95%CI: 0.97-3.22; P-value = 0.064) predicted clinical response, whereas severe sepsis had a deleterious impact (aHR: 0.22; 95%CI: 0.10-0.50; P-value <0.001). Lower respiratory tract infection (aHR: 6.58; 95%CI: 2.83-15.29; P-value <0.001) and bloodstream infection (aHR: 2.33; 95%CI: 1.05-5.15; P-value = 0.037) were associated with 30-day mortality, whereas definitive therapy including ≥1 active agent (aHR: 0.26; 95%CI: 0.11-0.63; P-value = 0.003) and source control (aHR: 0.35; 95%CI: 0.14-0.91; P-value = 0.030) were protective. Combination therapy did not seem to be associated with better outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Appropriate antimicrobial treatment was protective for 30-day mortality in OXA-48-Kp infections. Carbapenems are usually active, whereas combination therapy appeared not to confer additional benefit.

3.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 29: 215-221, 2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35339736

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-PSA) constitutes an emerging health problem. A predictive score of MDR-PSA infection would allow an early adaptation of empirical antibiotic therapy. METHODS: We performed a single-centre case-control (1:2) retrospective study including 100 patients with MDR-PSA and 200 with a non-MDR-PSA infection. Cases and controls were matched by site of infection, clinical characteristics and immunosuppression. A point risk score for prediction of MDR-PSA infection was derived from a logistic regression model. Secondary outcomes (clinical improvement, complications and discharge) were also compared. RESULTS: Cases with MDR-PSA infection were younger than controls (67.5 vs. 73.0 y; P = 0.031) and have more frequent cirrhosis (9% vs. 2%; P = 0.005). Independent risk factors for MDR-PSA infection were prior antibiotic treatment (80% vs. 50.5%; P < 0.001), prior colonisation with MDR bacteria (41% vs. 13.5%; P < 0.001), hospital-acquired infection (63% vs. 47%; P = 0.009) and septic shock at diagnosis (33% vs. 14%; P < 0.001). Adequate therapy was less frequent in MDR-PSA infections (31% vs. 66.5% for empirical therapy; P < 0.001). The risk score included: previous MDR-PSA isolation (11 points), prior antibiotic use (3 points), hospital-acquired infection (2 points) and septic shock at diagnosis (2 points). It showed an area under the curve of 0.755 (95% CI: 0.70-0.81) and allowed to classify individual risk into various categories: 0-2 points (<20%), 3-5 points (25%-45%), 7-11 points (55%-60%), 13-16 points (75%-87%) and a maximum of 18 points (93%). CONCLUSION: Infections due to MDR-PSA have a poorer prognosis than those produced by non-MDR-PSA. Our score could guide empirical therapy for MDR-PSA when P. aeruginosa is isolated.

4.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 59(2): 106517, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical experience with ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI) for treatment of infections due to multidrug or extremely resistant (MDR/XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is limited. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients with MDR/XDR P. aeruginosa infections treated with CAZ-AVI. The primary outcome was clinical cure by day 14, evaluated by logistic regression adjusted for the propensity score to receive CAZ-AVI as combination therapy. Secondary outcomes were 30-day all-cause mortality, 90-day recurrence, emerging CAZ-AVI resistance, and safety of therapy. RESULTS: Sixty-one first episodes of MDR/XDR P. aeruginosa infection were included. The most common source was lower respiratory tract infection (34.4%), 14.8% episodes developed bloodstream infection and 50.8% had sepsis at presentation. Ceftazidime-avibactam therapy was initiated at a median of 7.0 (interquartile range [IQR]: 3.5-12.0) days from symptom onset; it was used as combined therapy in 29 (47.5%) episodes. Clinical cure rate by day 14 was 54.1% and predictors of response were days to source control (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.72-0.98; P = 0.024), days until the initiation of CAZ-AVI therapy (aOR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49-0.86; P = 0.003), age (aOR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.99-1.15; P = 0.066) and CAZ-AVI combination therapy (aOR: 0.02; 95% CI: 0.01-0.38; P = 0.009). Rates of 30-day all-cause mortality and 90-day recurrence were 13.1% and 12.5%, respectively. Emergence of drug resistance to CAZ-AVI was not detected. Treatment-related adverse events occurred in three episodes (4.9%). CONCLUSIONS: CAZ-AVI constitutes a valid alternative for the treatment of infections due to MDR/XDR P. aeruginosa.


Assuntos
Infecções por Pseudomonas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Azabicíclicos/uso terapêutico , Ceftazidima/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 117: 56-64, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35081417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Controversy remains about the efficacy of tocilizumab (TCZ) for the treatment of severe COVID-19. We aimed to analyze the profile of TCZ-respondent patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of patients with severe COVID-19 who received off-label TCZ after recommendation by a local committee and were admitted to the University Hospital "12 de Octubre" until May 2020. The primary end point was a significant clinical improvement (SCI) on day 14 after administration of TCZ. Factors independently related to SCI were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: Of 428 (63.3%) patients treated with TCZ, 271 (63.3%) experienced SCI. After adjustment for factors related to unfavorable outcomes, TCZ administration within the first 48 hours from admission (odds ratio [OR]: 1.98, 95% confidence Interval [95% CI]: 1.1-3.55; P = 0.02) and ALT levels >100 UI/L at day 0 (OR: 3.28; 95% CI: 1.3-8.1; P = 0.01) were independently related to SCI. The rate of SCI significantly decreased according to the time of TCZ administration: 70.2% in the first 48 hours from admission, 58.5% on days 3-7, and 45.1% after day 7 (P = 0.03 and P = 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: TCZ improves the prognosis of patients with COVID-19 the most if treatment starts within the first 48 hours after admission.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Intern Emerg Med ; 17(2): 515-524, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914228

RESUMO

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has implacably stricken on the wellness of many countries and their health-care systems. The aim of the present study is to analyze the clinical characteristics of the initial wave of patients with COVID-19 attended in our center, and to identify the key variables predicting the development of respiratory failure. Prospective design study with concurrent data retrieval from automated medical records of all hospitalized adult patients who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rRT-PCR assay performed on respiratory samples from March 2nd to 18th, 2020. Patients were followed up to May 1st, 2020 or death. Respiratory failure was defined as a PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤ 200 mm Hg or the need for mechanical ventilation (either non-invasive positive pressure ventilation or invasive mechanical ventilation). We included 521 patients of whom 416 (81%) had abnormal Chest X-ray on admission. Median age was 64.6 ± 18.2 years. One hundred eighty-one (34.7%) developed respiratory failure after a median time from onset of symptoms of 9 days (IQR 6-11). In-hospital mortality was 23.8% (124/521). The modeling process concluded into a logistic regression multivariable analysis and a predictive score at admission. Age, peripheral pulse oximetry, lymphocyte count, lactate dehydrogenase and C-reactive protein were the selected variables. The model has a good discriminative capacity with an area under the ROC curve of 0.85 (0.82-0.88). The application of a simple and reliable score at admission seems to be a useful tool to predict respiratory failure in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Insuficiência Respiratória , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/complicações , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Respiratória/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 24(1): e13771, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that infection with the nonpathogenic human pegivirus type 1 (HPgV-1) exerts a clinical benefit in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients, which could be attributable to immunomodulatory effects. Whether this impact can be extrapolated to kidney transplantation (KT) remains largely unknown. METHODS: We measured plasma HPgV-1 RNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting the 5' untranslated region at various points (pretransplantation, day 7, months 1, 3, 6, and 12) in 199 KT recipients. Study outcomes included posttransplant serious infection, immunosuppression-related adverse event (opportunistic infection and/or de novo cancer), and acute graft rejection. RESULTS: HPgV-1 infection was demonstrated in 52 (26.1%) patients, with rates increasing from 14.7% at baseline to 19.1% by month 12 (p-value = .071). De novo infection occurred in 13.8% of patients with no detectable HPgV-1 RNA before transplantation. Double-organ (liver-kidney or kidney-pancreas) transplantation (odds ratio [OR]: 5.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.52-20.82) and donation after brain death (OR: 2.21; 95% CI: 1.00-4.88) were associated with posttransplant HPgV-1 infection, whereas pretransplant hypertension was protective (OR: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.09-0.55). There were no significant differences in the incidence of study outcomes according to HPgV-1 status. Plasma HPgV-1 RNA levels at different points did not significantly differ between patients that subsequently developed outcomes and those remaining free from these events. No correlation between HPgV-1 RNA and immune parameters or torque teno virus DNA load was observed either. CONCLUSION: Unlike patients living with HIV, HPgV-1 infection does not seem to influence patient or graft outcomes after KT.


Assuntos
Infecções por Flaviviridae , Vírus GB C , Transplante de Rim , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Cinética , Transplantados
9.
Transplant Direct ; 7(12): e794, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805496

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-specific cell-mediated immunity (SARS-CoV-2-CMI) elicited by mRNA-based vaccines in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients and its correlation with antibody responses remain poorly characterized. METHODS: We included 44 (28 kidney, 14 liver, and 2 double organ) recipients who received the full series of the mRNA-1273 vaccine. SARS-CoV-2-CMI was evaluated at baseline, before the second dose, and at 2 wk after completion of vaccination by an ELISpot-based interferon-γ FluoroSpot assay using overlapping peptides covering the S1 domain. SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G seroconversion and serum neutralizing activity against the spike protein were assessed at the same points by commercial ELISA and an angiotensin-converting enzyme-2/spike antibody inhibition method, respectively. Postvaccination SARS-CoV-2-CMI was compared with 28 healthcare workers who received the BNT162b2 vaccine. RESULTS: Positive SARS-CoV-2-CMI increased from 6.8% at baseline to 23.3% after the first mRNA-1273 dose and 59.5% after the completion of vaccination (P < 0.0001). Lower rates were observed for immunoglobulin G seroconversion (2.3%, 18.6%, and 57.1%, respectively) and neutralizing activity (2.3%, 11.6%, and 31.0%). There was a modest correlation between neutralizing titers and the magnitude of SARS-CoV-2-CMI (Spearman's rho: 0.375; P = 0.015). Fifteen recipients (35.7%) mounted SARS-CoV-2-CMI without detectable neutralizing activity, whereas 3 (7.1%) did the opposite, yielding poor categorical agreement (Kappa statistic: 0.201). Rates of positive SARS-CoV-2-CMI among SOT recipients were significantly decreased compared with nontransplant controls (82.1% and 100.0% after the first dose and completion of vaccination, respectively; P < 0.0001). Kidney transplantation, the use of tacrolimus and prednisone, and the number of immunosuppressive agents were associated with lower cell-mediated responses. Results remained unchanged when 3 recipients with prevaccination SARS-CoV-2-CMI were excluded. CONCLUSIONS: Two-thirds of SOT recipients mounted SARS-CoV-2-CMI following vaccination with mRNA-1273. Notable discordance was observed between vaccine-induced cell-mediated and neutralizing humoral immunities. Future studies should determine whether these patients with incomplete responses are effectively protected.

10.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e051208, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353808

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteraemia is a frequent condition, with high mortality rates. There is a growing interest in identifying new therapeutic regimens able to reduce therapeutic failure and mortality observed with the standard of care of beta-lactam monotherapy. In vitro and small-scale studies have found synergy between cloxacillin and fosfomycin against S. aureus. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that cloxacillin plus fosfomycin achieves higher treatment success than cloxacillin alone in patients with MSSA bacteraemia. METHODS: We will perform a superiority, randomised, open-label, phase IV-III, two-armed parallel group (1:1) clinical trial at 20 Spanish tertiary hospitals. Adults (≥18 years) with isolation of MSSA from at least one blood culture ≤72 hours before inclusion with evidence of infection, will be randomly allocated to receive either cloxacillin 2 g/4-hour intravenous plus fosfomycin 3 g/6-hour intravenous or cloxacillin 2 g/4-hour intravenous alone for 7 days. After the first week, sequential treatment and total duration of antibiotic therapy will be determined according to clinical criteria by the attending physician.Primary endpoints: (1) Treatment success at day 7, a composite endpoint comprising all the following criteria: patient alive, stable or with improved quick-Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, afebrile and with negative blood cultures for MSSA at day 7. (2) Treatment success at test of cure (TOC) visit: patient alive and no isolation of MSSA in blood culture or at another sterile site from day 8 until TOC (12 weeks after randomisation).We assume a rate of treatment success of 74% in the cloxacillin group. Accepting alpha risk of 0.05 and beta risk of 0.2 in a two-sided test, 183 subjects will be required in each of the control and experimental groups to obtain statistically significant difference of 12% (considered clinically significant). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been obtained from the Ethics Committee of Bellvitge University Hospital (AC069/18) and from the Spanish Medicines and Healthcare Product Regulatory Agency (AEMPS, AC069/18), and is valid for all participating centres under existing Spanish legislation. The results will be presented at international meetings and will be made available to patients and funders. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The protocol has been approved by AEMPS with the Trial Registration Number EudraCT 2018-001207-37. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03959345; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Fosfomicina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Adulto , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Cloxacilina/uso terapêutico , Fosfomicina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Meticilina , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Safrol/análogos & derivados , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Am J Transplant ; 21(8): 2785-2794, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092033

RESUMO

Whether immunosuppression impairs severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-specific T cell-mediated immunity (SARS-CoV-2-CMI) after liver transplantation (LT) remains unknown. We included 31 LT recipients in whom SARS-CoV-2-CMI was assessed by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) and interferon (IFN)-γ FluoroSpot assay after a median of 103 days from COVID-19 diagnosis. Serum SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were measured by ELISA. A control group of nontransplant immunocompetent patients were matched (1:1 ratio) by age and time from diagnosis. Post-transplant SARS-CoV-2-CMI was detected by ICS in 90.3% (28/31) of recipients, with higher proportions for IFN-γ-producing CD4+ than CD8+ responses (93.5% versus 83.9%). Positive spike-specific and nucleoprotein-specific responses were found by FluoroSpot in 86.7% (26/30) of recipients each, whereas membrane protein-specific response was present in 83.3% (25/30). An inverse correlation was observed between the number of spike-specific IFN-γ-producing SFUs and time from diagnosis (Spearman's rho: -0.418; p value = .024). Two recipients (6.5%) failed to mount either T cell-mediated or IgG responses. There were no significant differences between LT recipients and nontransplant patients in the magnitude of responses by FluoroSpot to any of the antigens. Most LT recipients mount detectable-but declining over time-SARS-CoV-2-CMI after a median of 3 months from COVID-19, with no meaningful differences with immunocompetent patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transplante de Fígado , Anticorpos Antivirais , Teste para COVID-19 , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , SARS-CoV-2 , Linfócitos T , Transplantados
13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 487-494, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of combination immunomodulatory therapy with systemic corticosteroids and tocilizumab (TCZ) for aged patients with COVID-19-associated cytokine release syndrome remains unclear. METHODS: A retrospective single-center study was conducted on consecutive patients aged ≥65 years who developed severe COVID-19 between 03 March and 01 May 2020 and were treated with corticosteroids at various doses (methylprednisolone 0.5mg/kg/12h to 250mg/24h), either alone (CS group) or associated with intravenous tocilizumab (400-600mg, one to three doses) (CS-TCZ group). The primary outcome was all-cause mortality by day +14, whereas secondary outcomes included mortality by day +28 and clinical improvement (discharge and/or a ≥2 point decrease on a 6-point ordinal scale) by day +14. Propensity score (PS)-based adjustment and inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTW) were applied. RESULTS: Totals of 181 and 80 patients were included in the CS and CS-TCZ groups, respectively. All-cause 14-day mortality was lower in the CS-TCZ group, both in the PS-adjusted (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.68; P=0.002) and IPTW-weighted models (odds ratio [OR]: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.21-0.68; P=0.001). This protective effect was also observed for 28-day mortality (PS-adjusted HR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.21-0.72; P=0.003). Clinical improvement by day +14 was higher in the CS-TCZ group with IPTW analysis only (OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.49-3.41; P<0.001). The occurrence of secondary infection was similar between both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of corticosteroids and TCZ was associated with better outcomes among patients aged ≥65 years with severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 23(4): e13597, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunomodulatory effects attributable to cytomegalovirus (CMV) would predispose to BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) infection after kidney transplantation (KT), although available evidence is conflicting. It has been suggested that (val)ganciclovir therapy may increase the risk of BKPyV viremia and BKPyV-associated nephropathy (BKPyVAN) as a result of drug-induced T-cell impairment. METHODS: We investigated whether CMV replication and/or (val)ganciclovir exposure (either as prophylaxis or treatment) were associated with the development of BKPyV viremia or BKPyVAN in a prospective cohort of 399 KT recipients. CMV infection (any level or high-level viremia and area under the curve of DNAemia) and (val)ganciclovir exposure (any duration of therapy and cumulative days of treatment) during the first post-transplant year were explored through separate landmark survival analyses. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of BKPyV viremia and BKPyVAN after a median follow-up of 551 days was 23.1% and 2.5%, respectively. One-year rates of CMV infection and (val)ganciclovir therapy were 47.4% and 54.1%, respectively. No differences were observed in BKPyV viremia- or BKPyVAN-free survival according to previous CMV infection or (val)ganciclovir exposure in any of the landmark analyses. Adjusted Cox models confirmed this lack of association. CONCLUSION: Our findings do not confirm the existence of a relevant impact of CMV infection or (val)ganciclovir therapy on the risk of post-transplant BKPyV events.


Assuntos
Vírus BK , Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Transplante de Rim , Nefrite Intersticial , Infecções por Polyomavirus , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Ganciclovir/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Polyomavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Valganciclovir , Viremia/epidemiologia
15.
Transplantation ; 105(6): 1372-1380, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The magnitude and kinetics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-specific cell-mediated immunity (SARS-CoV-2-CMI) in kidney transplant (KT) recipients remain largely unknown. METHODS: We enumerated SARS-CoV-2-specific interferon-γ-producing CD69+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells at months 4 and 6 from the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 21 KT recipients by intracellular cytokine staining. Overlapping peptides encompassing the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein N-terminal 1- to 643-amino acid sequence and the membrane protein were used as stimulus. SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies targeting the S1 protein were assessed by ELISA at month 6. RESULTS: Detectable (≥0.1%) SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T-cell response was found in 57.1% and 47.4% of patients at months 4 and 6. Corresponding rates for CD8+ T cells were 19.0% and 42.1%, respectively. Absolute SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell counts increased from month 4 to month 6 in CD8+ (P = 0.086) but not CD4+ subsets (P = 0.349). Four of 10 patients with any detectable response at month 4 had lost SARS-CoV-2-CMI by month 6, whereas 5 of 9 patients mounted SARS-CoV-2-CMI within this period. All but 2 patients (89.5%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Patients lacking detectable SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ response by month 6 were more likely to be under tacrolimus (100.0% versus 66.7%; P = 0.087) and to have received tocilizumab for the previous COVID-19 episode (40.0% versus 0.0%; P = 0.087). CONCLUSIONS: Although still exploratory and limited by small sample size, the present study suggests that a substantial proportion of KT recipients exhibited detectable SARS-CoV-2-CMI after 6 months from COVID-19 diagnosis.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Imunidade Celular , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Teste para COVID-19 , Feminino , Seguimentos , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transplantados
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 319-325, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A subgroup of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection was thought to have developed cytokine release syndrome and were treated with tocilizumab; however, a significant percentage of patients evolved. This study aimed to determine the usefulness of anakinra as a rescue treatment for patients with tocilizumab-refractory COVID-19 disease. METHODS: A prospective cohort of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who received anakinra as salvage therapy after failure of tocilizumab were compared (1:1) with selected controls in a historical cohort of patients treated with tocilizumab. Cases and controls were matched by age, comorbidities, pulse oximetry oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2/FiO2) ratio at baseline, and time elapsed since the initiation of treatment with tocilizumab. The primary outcome was the improvement in clinical status measured by a 6-point ordinal scale, from baseline to day 21. RESULTS: The study included 20 cases and 20 controls (mean age 65.3 ± 12.8 years, 65% males). No differences were found in the clinical improvement rates at 7, 14 and 21 days of follow-up. The in-hospital mortality rate for patients receiving anakinra was 55% vs. 45% in the control group (P = 0.527). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with anakinra was not useful in improving the prognosis of patients with tocilizumab-refractory severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , COVID-19/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Terapia de Salvação , Espanha/epidemiologia , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(6): 1209-1216, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409832

RESUMO

The aim of our study was to elucidate if SARS-CoV-2 viral load on admission, measured by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) cycle threshold (Ct) value on nasopharyngeal samples, was a marker of disease severity. All hospitalized adult patients with a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection by rRT-PCR performed on a nasopharingeal sample from March 1 to March 18 in our institution were included. The study population was divided according to the Ct value obtained upon admission in patients with high viral load (Ct < 25), intermediate viral load (Ct: 25-30) and low viral load (Ct > 30). Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables of the different groups were analyzed to assess the influence of viral load on the development of respiratory failure during admission. Overall, 455 sequential patients were included. The median Ct value was 28 (IQR: 24-32). One hundred and thirty patients (28.6%) had a high viral load, 175 (38.5%) an intermediate viral load and 150 (33%) a low viral load. Advanced age, male sex, presence of cardiovascular disease and laboratory markers such as lactate dehydrogenase, lymphocyte count and C-reactive protein, as well as a high viral load on admission, were predictive of respiratory failure. A Ct value < 25 was associated with a higher risk of respiratory failure during admission (OR: 2.99, 95%IC: 1.57-5.69). SARS-CoV-2 viral load, measured through the Ct value on admission, is a valuable tool to predict the development of respiratory failure in COVID-19 inpatients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia , Carga Viral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): 1685-1692, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although presurgical nasal decontamination with mupirocin (NDM) has been advocated as a measure for preventing postsurgical mediastinitis (PSM) due to Staphylococcus aureus, this strategy is not universally recommended due to lack of robust supporting evidence. We aimed to evaluate the role of preoperative NDM in the annual incidence of S. aureus PSM at our institution. METHODS: An interrupted time-series analysis, with an autoregressive error model, was applied to our single-center cohort by comparing preintervention (1990-2003) and postintervention (2005-2018) periods. Logistic regression was performed to analyze risk factors for S. aureus PSM. RESULTS: 12 236 sternotomy procedures were analyzed (6370 [52.1%] and 5866 [47.9%] in the pre- and postintervention periods, respectively). The mean annual percentage adherence to NDM estimated over the postintervention period was 90.2%. Only 4 of 127 total cases of S. aureus PSM occurred during the 14-year postintervention period (0.68/1000 sternotomies vs 19.31/1000 in the preintervention period; P < .0001). Interrupted time-series analysis demonstrated a statistically significant annual reduction in S. aureus PSM of -9.85 cases per 1000 sternotomies (-13.17 to -6.5; P < .0001) in 2005, with a decreasing trend maintained over the following 5 years and an estimated relative reduction of 84.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.25-74.09%). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was the single independent risk factor for S. aureus PSM (odds ratio, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.72-7.93) and was equally distributed in patients undergoing sternotomy during pre- or postintervention periods. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience suggests the implementation of preoperative NDM significantly reduces the incidence of S. aureus PSM.


Assuntos
Mediastinite , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Portador Sadio , Descontaminação , Humanos , Mediastinite/tratamento farmacológico , Mediastinite/prevenção & controle , Mupirocina/uso terapêutico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Staphylococcus aureus , Esternotomia/efeitos adversos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle
20.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 831-842, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672860

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to a massive cytokine release. The use of the anti-interleukin-6 receptor monoclonal antibody tocilizumab (TCZ) has been proposed in this hyperinflammatory phase, although supporting evidence is limited. We retrospectively analyzed 88 consecutive patients with COVID-19 pneumonia that received at least one dose of intravenous TCZ in our institution between 16 and 27 March 2020. Clinical status from day 0 (first TCZ dose) through day 14 was assessed by a 6-point ordinal scale. The primary outcome was clinical improvement (hospital discharge and/or a decrease of ≥2 points on the 6-point scale) by day 7. Secondary outcomes included clinical improvement by day 14 and dynamics of vital signs and laboratory values. Rates of clinical improvement by days 7 and 14 were 44.3% (39/88) and 73.9% (65/88). Previous or concomitant receipt of subcutaneous interferon-ß (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06-0.94; P = .041) and serum lactate dehydrogenase more than 450 U/L at day 0 (aOR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.06-0.99; P = .048) were negatively associated with clinical improvement by day 7. All-cause mortality was 6.8% (6/88). Body temperature and respiratory and cardiac rates significantly decreased by day 1 compared to day 0. Lymphocyte count and pulse oximetry oxygen saturation/FiO2 ratio increased by days 3 and 5, whereas C-reactive protein levels dropped by day 2. There were no TCZ-attributable adverse events. In this observational single-center study, TCZ appeared to be useful and safe as immunomodulatory therapy for severe COVID-19 pneumonia.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/prevenção & controle , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/mortalidade , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interferon beta/efeitos adversos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Interleucina-6/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-6/imunologia , Taxa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida
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