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Am Surg ; 88(5): 953-958, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275764


BACKGROUND: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) has developed a grading system for emergency general surgery (EGS) conditions. We sought to validate the AAST EGS grades for patients undergoing urgent/emergent colorectal resection. METHODS: Patients enrolled in the "Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma Multicenter Colorectal Resection in EGS-to anastomose or not to anastomose" study undergoing urgent/emergent surgery for obstruction, ischemia, or diverticulitis were included. Baseline demographics, comorbidity severity as defined by Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), procedure type, and AAST grade were prospectively collected. Outcomes included length of stay (LOS) in-hospital mortality, and surgical complications (superficial/deep/organ-space surgical site infection, anastomotic leak, stoma complication, fascial dehiscence, and need for further intervention). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe outcomes and risk factors for surgical complication or mortality. RESULTS: There were 367 patients, with a mean (± SD) age of 62 ± 15 years. 39% were women. The median interquartile range (IQR) CCI was 4 (2-6). Overall, the pathologies encompassed the following AAST EGS grades: I (17, 5%), II (54, 15%), III (115, 31%), IV (95, 26%), and V (86, 23%). Management included laparoscopic (24, 7%), open (319, 87%), and laparoscopy converted to laparotomy (24, 6%). Higher AAST grade was associated with laparotomy (P = .01). The median LOS was 13 days (8-22). At least 1 surgical complication occurred in 33% of patients and the mortality rate was 14%. Development of at least 1 surgical complication, need for unplanned intervention, mortality, and increased LOS were associated with increasing AAST severity grade. On multivariable analysis, factors predictive of in-hospital mortality included AAST organ grade, CCI, and preoperative vasopressor use (odds ratio (OR) 1.9, 1.6, 3.1, respectively). The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma emergency general surgery grade was also associated with the development of at least 1 surgical complication (OR 2.5), while CCI, preoperative vasopressor use, respiratory failure, and pneumoperitoneum were not. CONCLUSION: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma emergency general surgery grading systems display construct validity for mortality and surgical complications after urgent/emergent colorectal resection. These results support incorporation of AAST EGS grades for quality benchmarking and surgical outcomes research.

Neoplasias Colorretais , Cirurgia Geral , Laparoscopia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(6): 1023-1031, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890337


OBJECTIVE: Evidence comparing stoma creation (STM) versus anastomosis after urgent or emergent colorectal resection is limited. This study examined outcomes after colorectal resection in emergency general surgery patients. METHODS: This was an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma-sponsored prospective observational multicenter study of patients undergoing urgent/emergent colorectal resection. Twenty-one centers enrolled patients for 11 months. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were recorded. χ, Mann-Whitney U test, and multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe outcomes and risk factors for surgical complication/mortality. RESULTS: A total of 439 patients were enrolled (ANST, 184; STM, 255). The median (interquartile range) age was 62 (53-71) years, and the median Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was 4 (1-6). The most common indication for surgery was diverticulitis (28%). Stoma group was older (64 vs. 58 years, p < 0.001), had a higher CCI, and were more likely to be immunosuppressed. Preoperatively, STM patients were more likely to be intubated (57 vs. 15, p < 0.001), on vasopressors (61 vs. 13, p < 0.001), have pneumoperitoneum (131 vs. 41, p < 0.001) or fecal contamination (114 vs. 33, p < 0.001), and had a higher incidence of elevated lactate (149 vs. 67, p < 0.001). Overall mortality was 13%, which was higher in STM patients (18% vs. 8%, p = 0.02). Surgical complications were more common in STM patients (35% vs. 25%, p = 0.02). On multivariable analysis, management with an open abdomen, intraoperative blood transfusion, and larger hospital size were associated with development of a surgical complication, while CCI, preoperative vasopressor use, steroid use, open abdomen, and intraoperative blood transfusion were independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: This study highlights a tendency to perform fecal diversion in patients who are acutely ill at presentation. There is a higher morbidity and mortality rate in STM patients. Independent predictors of mortality include CCI, preoperative vasopressor use, steroid use, open abdomen, and intraoperative blood transfusion. Following adjustment by clinical factors, method of colon management was not associated with surgical complications or mortality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, level IV.

Colectomia/métodos , Cirurgia Colorretal/educação , Doença Diverticular do Colo/cirurgia , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Idoso , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Colectomia/educação , Colectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Emergências , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 86(5): 864-870, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633095


BACKGROUND: Historically, hemorrhage has been attributed as the leading cause (40%) of early death. However, a rigorous, real-time classification of the cause of death (COD) has not been performed. This study sought to prospectively adjudicate and classify COD to determine the epidemiology of trauma mortality. METHODS: Eighteen trauma centers prospectively enrolled all adult trauma patients at the time of death during December 2015 to August 2017. Immediately following death, attending providers adjudicated the primary and contributing secondary COD using standardized definitions. Data were confirmed by autopsies, if performed. RESULTS: One thousand five hundred thirty-six patients were enrolled with a median age of 55 years (interquartile range, 32-75 years), 74.5% were male. Penetrating mechanism (n = 412) patients were younger (32 vs. 64, p < 0.0001) and more likely to be male (86.7% vs. 69.9%, p < 0.0001). Falls were the most common mechanism of injury (26.6%), with gunshot wounds second (24.3%). The most common overall primary COD was traumatic brain injury (TBI) (45%), followed by exsanguination (23%). Traumatic brain injury was nonsurvivable in 82.2% of cases. Blunt patients were more likely to have TBI (47.8% vs. 37.4%, p < 0.0001) and penetrating patients exsanguination (51.7% vs. 12.5%, p < 0.0001) as the primary COD. Exsanguination was the predominant prehospital (44.7%) and early COD (39.1%) with TBI as the most common later. Penetrating mechanism patients died earlier with 80.1% on day 0 (vs. 38.5%, p < 0.0001). Most deaths were deemed disease-related (69.3%), rather than by limitation of further aggressive care (30.7%). Hemorrhage was a contributing cause to 38.8% of deaths that occurred due to withdrawal of care. CONCLUSION: Exsanguination remains the predominant early primary COD with TBI accounting for most deaths at later time points. Timing and primary COD vary significantly by mechanism. Contemporaneous adjudication of COD is essential to elucidate the true understanding of patient outcome, center performance, and future research. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic, level II.

Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Exsanguinação/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/mortalidade