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1.
Theor Appl Genet ; 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607592

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Genomic selection with a multiple-year training population dataset could accelerate early-stage testcross testing by skipping the first-stage yield testing, which significantly saves the time and cost of early-stage testcross testing. With the development of doubled haploid (DH) technology, the main task for a maize breeder is to estimate the breeding values of thousands of DH lines annually. In early-stage testcross testing, genomic selection (GS) offers the opportunity of replacing expensive multiple-environment phenotyping and phenotypic selection with lower-cost genotyping and genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV)-based selection. In the present study, a total of 1528 maize DH lines, phenotyped in multiple-environment trials in three consecutive years and genotyped with a low-cost per-sample genotyping platform of rAmpSeq, were used to explore how to implement GS to accelerate early-stage testcross testing. Results showed that the average prediction accuracy estimated from the cross-validation schemes was above 0.60 across all the scenarios. The average prediction accuracies estimated from the independent validation schemes ranged from 0.23 to 0.32 across all the scenarios, when the one-year datasets were used as training population (TRN) to predict the other year data as testing population (TST). The average prediction accuracies increased to a range from 0.31 to 0.42 across all the scenarios, when the two-years datasets were used as TRN. The prediction accuracies increased to a range from 0.50 to 0.56, when the TRN consisted of two-years of breeding data and 50% of third year's data converted from TST to TRN. This information showed that GS with a multiple-year TRN set offers the opportunity to accelerate early-stage testcross testing by skipping the first-stage yield testing, which significantly saves the time and cost of early-stage testcross testing.

2.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 10(8): 2629-2639, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482728

RESUMO

Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major risk factor for human health, affecting about 30% of the world's population. To study the potential of genomic selection (GS) for maize with increased Zn concentration, an association panel and two doubled haploid (DH) populations were evaluated in three environments. Three genomic prediction models, M (M1: Environment + Line, M2: Environment + Line + Genomic, and M3: Environment + Line + Genomic + Genomic x Environment) incorporating main effects (lines and genomic) and the interaction between genomic and environment (G x E) were assessed to estimate the prediction ability (rMP ) for each model. Two distinct cross-validation (CV) schemes simulating two genomic prediction breeding scenarios were used. CV1 predicts the performance of newly developed lines, whereas CV2 predicts the performance of lines tested in sparse multi-location trials. Predictions for Zn in CV1 ranged from -0.01 to 0.56 for DH1, 0.04 to 0.50 for DH2 and -0.001 to 0.47 for the association panel. For CV2, rMP values ranged from 0.67 to 0.71 for DH1, 0.40 to 0.56 for DH2 and 0.64 to 0.72 for the association panel. The genomic prediction model which included G x E had the highest average rMP for both CV1 (0.39 and 0.44) and CV2 (0.71 and 0.51) for the association panel and DH2 population, respectively. These results suggest that GS has potential to accelerate breeding for enhanced kernel Zn concentration by facilitating selection of superior genotypes.

3.
Euphytica ; 215(4): 80, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057179

RESUMO

After drought, a major challenge to smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa is low-fertility soils with poor nitrogen (N)-supplying capacity. Many challenges in this region need to be overcome to create a viable fertilizer market. An intermediate solution is the development of maize varieties with an enhanced ability to take up or utilize N in severely depleted soils, and to more efficiently use the small amounts of N that farmers can supply to their crops. Over 400 elite inbred lines from seven maize breeding programs were screened to identify new sources of tolerance to low-N stress and maize lethal necrosis (MLN) for introgression into Africa-adapted elite germplasm. Lines with high levels of tolerance to both stresses were identified. Lines previously considered to be tolerant to low-N stress ranked in the bottom 10% under low-N confirming the need to replace these lines with new donors identified in this study. The lines that performed best under low-N yielded about 0. 5 Mg ha-1 (20%) more in testcross combinations than some widely used commercial parent lines such as CML442 and CML395. This is the first large scale study to identify maize inbred lines with tolerance to low-N stress and MLN in eastern and southern Africa.

4.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 552, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31114603

RESUMO

Tar spot complex (TSC), caused by at least two fungal pathogens, Phyllachora maydis and Monographella maydis, is one of the major foliar diseases of maize in Central and South America. P. maydis was also detected in the United States of America in 2015 and since then the pathogen has spread in the maize growing regions of the country. Although remote sensing (RS) techniques are increasingly being used for plant phenotyping, they have not been applied to phenotyping TSC resistance in maize. In this study, several multispectral vegetation indices (VIs) and thermal imaging of maize plots under disease pressure and disease-free conditions were tested using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) over two crop seasons. A strong relationship between grain yield, a vegetative index (MCARI2), and canopy temperature was observed under disease pressure. A strong relationship was also observed between the area under the disease progress curve of TSC and three vegetative indices (RDVI, MCARI1, and MCARI2). In addition, we demonstrated that TSC could cause up to 58% yield loss in the most susceptible maize hybrids. Our results suggest that the RS techniques tested in this study could be used for high throughput phenotyping of TSC resistance and potentially for other foliar diseases of maize. This may help reduce the cost and time required for the development of improved maize germplasm. Challenges and opportunities in the use of RS technologies for disease resistance phenotyping are discussed.

5.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1919, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761177

RESUMO

Drought stress (DS) is a major constraint to maize yield production. Heat stress (HS) alone and in combination with DS are likely to become the increasing constraints. Association mapping and genomic prediction (GP) analyses were conducted in a collection of 300 tropical and subtropical maize inbred lines to reveal the genetic architecture of grain yield and flowering time under well-watered (WW), DS, HS, and combined DS and HS conditions. Out of the 381,165 genotyping-by-sequencing SNPs, 1549 SNPs were significantly associated with all the 12 trait-environment combinations, the average PVE (phenotypic variation explained) by these SNPs was 4.33%, and 541 of them had a PVE value greater than 5%. These significant associations were clustered into 446 genomic regions with a window size of 20 Mb per region, and 673 candidate genes containing the significantly associated SNPs were identified. In addition, 33 hotspots were identified for 12 trait-environment combinations and most were located on chromosomes 1 and 8. Compared with single SNP-based association mapping, the haplotype-based associated mapping detected fewer number of significant associations and candidate genes with higher PVE values. All the 688 candidate genes were enriched into 15 gene ontology terms, and 46 candidate genes showed significant differential expression under the WW and DS conditions. Association mapping results identified few overlapped significant markers and candidate genes for the same traits evaluated under different managements, indicating the genetic divergence between the individual stress tolerance and the combined drought and HS tolerance. The GP accuracies obtained from the marker-trait associated SNPs were relatively higher than those obtained from the genome-wide SNPs for most of the target traits. The genetic architecture information of the grain yield and flowering time revealed in this study, and the genomic regions identified for the different trait-environment combinations are useful in accelerating the efforts on rapid development of the stress-tolerant maize germplasm through marker-assisted selection and/or genomic selection.

6.
Front Plant Sci ; 8: 1916, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29167677

RESUMO

Genomic selection is being used increasingly in plant breeding to accelerate genetic gain per unit time. One of the most important applications of genomic selection in maize breeding is to predict and select the best un-phenotyped lines in bi-parental populations based on genomic estimated breeding values. In the present study, 22 bi-parental tropical maize populations genotyped with low density SNPs were used to evaluate the genomic prediction accuracy (rMG ) of the six trait-environment combinations under various levels of training population size (TPS) and marker density (MD), and assess the effect of trait heritability (h2 ), TPS and MD on rMG estimation. Our results showed that: (1) moderate rMG values were obtained for different trait-environment combinations, when 50% of the total genotypes was used as training population and ~200 SNPs were used for prediction; (2) rMG increased with an increase in h2 , TPS and MD, both correlation and variance analyses showed that h2 is the most important factor and MD is the least important factor on rMG estimation for most of the trait-environment combinations; (3) predictions between pairwise half-sib populations showed that the rMG values for all the six trait-environment combinations were centered around zero, 49% predictions had rMG values above zero; (4) the trend observed in rMG differed with the trend observed in rMG /h, and h is the square root of heritability of the predicted trait, it indicated that both rMG and rMG /h values should be presented in GS study to show the accuracy of genomic selection and the relative accuracy of genomic selection compared with phenotypic selection, respectively. This study provides useful information to maize breeders to design genomic selection workflow in their breeding programs.

7.
Plant Genome ; 10(2)2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28724072

RESUMO

Tar spot complex (TSC) is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of maize ( L.) in tropical and subtropical areas of Central and South America, causing significant grain yield losses when weather conditions are conducive. To dissect the genetic architecture of TSC resistance in maize, association mapping, in conjunction with linkage mapping, was conducted on an association-mapping panel and three biparental doubled-haploid (DH) populations using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Association mapping revealed four quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosome 2, 3, 7, and 8. All the QTL, except for the one on chromosome 3, were further validated by linkage mapping in different genetic backgrounds. Additional QTL were identified by linkage mapping alone. A major QTL located on bin 8.03 was consistently detected with the largest phenotypic explained variation: 13% in association-mapping analysis and 13.18 to 43.31% in linkage-mapping analysis. These results indicated that TSC resistance in maize was controlled by a major QTL located on bin 8.03 and several minor QTL with smaller effects on other chromosomes. Genomic prediction results showed moderate-to-high prediction accuracies in different populations using various training population sizes and marker densities. Prediction accuracy of TSC resistance was >0.50 when half of the population was included into the training set and 500 to 1,000 SNPs were used for prediction. Information obtained from this study can be used for developing functional molecular markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and for implementing genomic selection (GS) to improve TSC resistance in tropical maize.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Genótipo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Zea mays/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Genes de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas
8.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 7(7): 2315-2326, 2017 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28533335

RESUMO

Genomic selection (GS) increases genetic gain by reducing the length of the selection cycle, as has been exemplified in maize using rapid cycling recombination of biparental populations. However, no results of GS applied to maize multi-parental populations have been reported so far. This study is the first to show realized genetic gains of rapid cycling genomic selection (RCGS) for four recombination cycles in a multi-parental tropical maize population. Eighteen elite tropical maize lines were intercrossed twice, and self-pollinated once, to form the cycle 0 (C0) training population. A total of 1000 ear-to-row C0 families was genotyped with 955,690 genotyping-by-sequencing SNP markers; their testcrosses were phenotyped at four optimal locations in Mexico to form the training population. Individuals from families with the best plant types, maturity, and grain yield were selected and intermated to form RCGS cycle 1 (C1). Predictions of the genotyped individuals forming cycle C1 were made, and the best predicted grain yielders were selected as parents of C2; this was repeated for more cycles (C2, C3, and C4), thereby achieving two cycles per year. Multi-environment trials of individuals from populations C0, C1, C2, C3, and C4, together with four benchmark checks were evaluated at two locations in Mexico. Results indicated that realized grain yield from C1 to C4 reached 0.225 ton ha-1 per cycle, which is equivalent to 0.100 ton ha-1 yr-1 over a 4.5-yr breeding period from the initial cross to the last cycle. Compared with the original 18 parents used to form cycle 0 (C0), genetic diversity narrowed only slightly during the last GS cycles (C3 and C4). Results indicate that, in tropical maize multi-parental breeding populations, RCGS can be an effective breeding strategy for simultaneously conserving genetic diversity and achieving high genetic gains in a short period of time.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Genótipo , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética , Zea mays/genética , Clima Tropical
10.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0149636, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26999525

RESUMO

We aimed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for secondary traits related to grain yield (GY) in two BC1F2:3 backcross populations (LPSpop and DTPpop) under well-watered (4 environments; WW) and drought stressed (6; DS) conditions to facilitate breeding efforts towards drought tolerant maize. GY reached 5.6 and 5.8 t/ha under WW in the LPSpop and the DTPpop, respectively. Under DS, grain yield was reduced by 65% (LPSpop) to 59% (DTPpop) relative to WW. GY was strongly associated with the normalized vegetative index (NDVI; r ranging from 0.61 to 0.96) across environmental conditions and with an early flowering under drought stressed conditions (r ranging from -0.18 to -0.25) indicative of the importance of early vigor and drought escape for GY. Out of the 105 detected QTL, 53 were overdominant indicative of strong heterosis. For 14 out of 18 detected vigor QTL, as well as for eight flowering time QTL the trait increasing allele was derived from CML491. Collocations of early vigor QTL with QTL for stay green (bin 2.02, WW, LPSpop; 2.07, DS, DTPpop), the number of ears per plant (bins 2.02, 2.05, WW, LPSpop; 5.02, DS, LPSpop) and GY (bin 2.07, WW, DTPpop; 5.04, WW, LPSpop), reinforce the importance of the observed correlations. LOD scores for early vigor QTL in these bins ranged from 2.2 to 11.25 explaining 4.6 (additivity: +0.28) to 19.9% (additivity: +0.49) of the observed phenotypic variance. A strong flowering QTL was detected in bin 2.06 across populations and environmental conditions explaining 26-31.3% of the observed phenotypic variation (LOD: 13-17; additivity: 0.1-0.6d). Improving drought tolerance while at the same time maintaining yield potential could be achieved by combining alleles conferring early vigor from the recurrent parent with alleles advancing flowering from the donor. Additionally bin 8.06 (DTPpop) harbored a QTL for GY under WW (additivity: 0.27 t/ha) and DS (additivity: 0.58 t/ha). R2 ranged from 0 (DTPpop, WW) to 26.54% (LPSpop, DS) for NDVI, 18.6 (LPSpop, WW) to 42.45% (LPSpop, DS) for anthesis and from 0 (DTPpop, DS) to 24.83% (LPSpop, WW) for GY. Lines out-yielding the best check by 32.5% (DTPpop, WW) to 60% (DTPpop, DS) for all population-by-irrigation treatment combination (except LPSpop, WW) identified are immediately available for the use by breeders.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Secas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Clima Tropical , Zea mays/fisiologia , Zea mays/genética
11.
Theor Appl Genet ; 129(4): 753-765, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26849239

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Molecular characterization information on genetic diversity, population structure and genetic relationships provided by this research will help maize breeders to better understand how to utilize the current CML collection. CIMMYT maize inbred lines (CMLs) have been widely used all over the world and have contributed greatly to both tropical and temperate maize improvement. Genetic diversity and population structure of the current CML collection and of six temperate inbred lines were assessed and relationships among all lines were determined with genotyping-by-sequencing SNPs. Results indicated that: (1) wider genetic distance and low kinship coefficients among most pairs of lines reflected the uniqueness of most lines in the current CML collection; (2) the population structure and genetic divergence between the Temperate subgroup and Tropical subgroups were clear; three major environmental adaptation groups (Lowland Tropical, Subtropical/Mid-altitude and Highland Tropical subgroups) were clearly present in the current CML collection; (3) the genetic diversity of the three Tropical subgroups was similar and greater than that of the Temperate subgroup; the average genetic distance between the Temperate and Tropical subgroups was greater than among Tropical subgroups; and (4) heterotic patterns in each environmental adaptation group estimated using GBS SNPs were only partially consistent with patterns estimated based on combining ability tests and pedigree information. Combining current heterotic information based on combining ability tests and the genetic relationships inferred from molecular marker analyses may be the best strategy to define heterotic groups for future tropical maize improvement. Information resulting from this research will help breeders to better understand how to utilize all the CMLs to select parental lines, replace testers, assign heterotic groups and create a core set of breeding germplasm.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Vigor Híbrido , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Zea mays/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Frequência do Gene , Endogamia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
Interciencia ; 31(3): 202-205, mar. 2006. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-449244

RESUMO

La incidencia de la raza venezolana del virus del mosaico enanizante del maíz (MDMV-V) se ha incrementado desde 1970 en los campos comerciales y experimentales de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor) y maíz (Zea mays). El MDMV-V es el virus más importante en las áreas maiceras de Venezuela, con una alta incidencia. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el modo de herencia de la resistencia al MDMV-V, cuantificando la importancia relativa de los efectos genéticos en un grupo de líneas endocriadas de maíz. Las líneas resistentes CML-49, CML-161 y CML-264 fueron cruzadas con la susceptible CML-247; se obtuvieron sus correspondientes poblaciones F2 y retrocruzas con los parentales susceptible y resistente. Todas las generaciones fueron evaluadas en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. La unidad experimental consistió de 50 plantas para los parentales resistente y susceptible y para la generación F1, 100 plantas para las retrocruzas y 400 para la generación F2. Los análisis genéticos, basados en uno o dos genes, no se ajustaron a las relaciones de segregación observadas en las poblaciones F2 y retrocruzas, sugiriendo un modo de herencia más complejo para la resistencia al MDMV-V. Los análisis de medias generacionales indicaron que la variación genética para la resistencia al virus se explica adecuadamente por un modelo aditivo-dominante, donde los efectos aditivos son los más importantes


Assuntos
Fatores R , Vírus , Zea mays , Venezuela
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