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Dis Markers ; 2018: 5174815, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405860


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that accounts for nearly 70% of the more than 46 million dementia cases estimated worldwide. Although there is no cure for AD, early diagnosis and an accurate characterization of the disease progression can improve the quality of life of AD patients and their caregivers. Currently, AD diagnosis is carried out using standardized mental status examinations, which are commonly assisted by expensive neuroimaging scans and invasive laboratory tests, thus rendering the diagnosis time consuming and costly. Notwithstanding, over the last decade, electroencephalography (EEG) has emerged as a noninvasive alternative technique for the study of AD, competing with more expensive neuroimaging tools, such as MRI and PET. This paper reports on the results of a systematic review on the utilization of resting-state EEG signals for AD diagnosis and progression assessment. Recent journal articles obtained from four major bibliographic databases were analyzed. A total of 112 journal articles published from January 2010 to February 2018 were meticulously reviewed, and relevant aspects of these papers were compared across articles to provide a general overview of the research on this noninvasive AD diagnosis technique. Finally, recommendations for future studies with resting-state EEG were presented to improve and facilitate the knowledge transfer among research groups.

Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia/normas , Humanos
Front Neurosci ; 12: 654, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30319337


Prepulse inhibition (PPI) test has been widely used to evaluate sensorimotor gating. In humans, deficits in this mechanism are measured through the orbicularis muscle response using electromyography (EMG). Although this mechanism can be modulated by several brain structures and is impaired in some pathologies as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, neural PPI evaluation is rarely performed in humans. Since eye blinks are a consequence of PPI stimulation, they strongly contaminate the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal. This paper describes a method to reduce muscular artifacts and enable neural PPI assessment through EEG in parallel to muscular PPI evaluation using EMG. Both types of signal were simultaneously recorded in 22 healthy subjects. PPI was evaluated by the acoustical startle response with EMG and by the P2-N1 event-related potential (ERP) using EEG in Fz, Cz, and Pz electrodes. In order to remove EEG artifacts, Independent Component Analysis (ICA) was performed using two methods. Firstly, visual inspection discarded components containing artifact characteristics as ocular and tonic muscle artifacts. The second method used visual inspection as gold standard to validate parameters in an automated component selection using the SASICA algorithm. As an outcome, EEG artifacts were effectively removed and equivalent neural PPI evaluation performance was obtained using both methods, with subjects exhibiting consistent neural as well as muscular PPI. This novel method improves PPI test, enabling neural gating mechanisms assessment within the latency of 100-200 ms, which is not evaluated by other sensory gating tests as P50 and mismatch negativity.