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1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 152, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424116

RESUMO

The literature on non-genetic peripheral biomarkers for major mental disorders is broad, with conflicting results. An umbrella review of meta-analyses of non-genetic peripheral biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease, autism spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia, including first-episode psychosis. We included meta-analyses that compared alterations in peripheral biomarkers between participants with mental disorders to controls (i.e., between-group meta-analyses) and that assessed biomarkers after treatment (i.e., within-group meta-analyses). Evidence for association was hierarchically graded using a priori defined criteria against several biases. The Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) instrument was used to investigate study quality. 1161 references were screened. 110 met inclusion criteria, relating to 359 meta-analytic estimates and 733,316 measurements, on 162 different biomarkers. Only two estimates met a priori defined criteria for convincing evidence (elevated awakening cortisol levels in euthymic BD participants relative to controls and decreased pyridoxal levels in participants with schizophrenia relative to controls). Of 42 estimates which met criteria for highly suggestive evidence only five biomarker aberrations occurred in more than one disorder. Only 15 meta-analyses had a power >0.8 to detect a small effect size, and most (81.9%) meta-analyses had high heterogeneity. Although some associations met criteria for either convincing or highly suggestive evidence, overall the vast literature of peripheral biomarkers for major mental disorders is affected by bias and is underpowered. No convincing evidence supported the existence of a trans-diagnostic biomarker. Adequately powered and methodologically sound future large collaborative studies are warranted.

2.
Genet Med ; 22(1): 132-141, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363180

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Multimorbidity is increasing in younger adults but is understudied in this population. We used 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) as a genetic model to investigate multimorbidity in young to middle-aged adults. METHODS: Using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification System and setting five or more concurrent prescription medications as a proxy for multimorbidity, we compared data on 264 adults with 22q11.2DS (median age 27.8, range 17.3-68.3 years) with that for a community-based Canadian general population sample (n = 25,287). We used logistic regression to examine possible predictors of multimorbidity in 22q11.2DS. RESULTS: Multimorbidity in 22q11.2DS in the 25-44 year age group (34.7%) was significantly more prevalent than in the general population, both for the same age group (2.9%, prevalence ratio [PR] = 11.9, 95% CI 8.4-17.1) and compared with those aged 45-64 years (16.4%, PR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.6-2.7). Neuropsychiatric and endocrinological medication classes predominated. Within 22q11.2DS, older age and psychotic illness, but not sex, major congenital heart disease, or intellectual disability, were significant predictors of multimorbidity. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that adults with 22q11.2DS have a significant burden of illness with levels of multimorbidity comparable with those of the general population several decades older. In younger adults with multimorbidity, certain disease patterns may help identify genetic disorders in "big data."

3.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 270(1): 11-22, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428862

RESUMO

Although clozapine is the main antipsychotic medication for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, 40-70% of patients on clozapine have persistent psychotic symptoms (i.e. ultra-treatment-resistant schizophrenia, UTRS). We aimed to examine clozapine response/non-response patterns in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia, as well as determine patient clinico-demographic factors associated with long-term clozapine non-response. Clinico-demographic characteristics of 241 patients on clozapine were collected through a retrospective chart review. The median (interquartile range, IQR) follow-up from illness onset was 25.0 (IQR = 24.0) years. Clozapine response was assessed at median 10.8 (IQR = 14.0) months (Time 1, T1) and 7.2 (IQR = 13.5) years (Time 2, T2) after its initiation. It was evaluated by chart reviewers based on the information provided in clinical notes. Binomial logistic regression was used to determine clinico-demographic factors associated with clozapine non-response at both T1 and T2 (i.e. stable UTRS, S-UTRS) compared to clozapine response at both times (i.e. stable clozapine responders, S-ClozResp). Among clozapine responders (n = 122) at T1, 83.6% remained clozapine responsive and 16.4% became non-responsive at T2. In the UTRS group (n = 119) at T1, 87.4% remained clozapine non-responsive and 12.6% became responsive at T2. Duration of delay in clozapine initiation (OR = 0.94, Wald χ2 = 5.33, p = 0.021) and number of pre-clozapine hospitalizations (OR = 0.95, Wald χ2 = 5.20, p = 0.023) were associated with S-UTRS. Most UTRS patients were non-responsive to clozapine from the start of treatment. Preventing delay in initiating clozapine and relapses could help promote long-term clozapine response in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Future longitudinal studies are required to explore the neuropathological correlates of relapses and delay in clozapine initiation.

4.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 205: 107587, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600617

RESUMO

AIM: To establish whether the population-level pattern of cannabis use by quantity is similar to the distributions previously reported for alcohol, in which a small subset of drinkers accounts for a majority of total population alcohol consumption. METHOD: The current study pooled Waves 1-3 of the 2018 National Cannabis Survey (n = 18,900; 2584 past-three-month cannabis users), a set of stratified, population-based surveys designed to assess cannabis consumption and related behaviors in Canada. Each survey systematically measured self-reported cannabis consumption by quantity across seven of the major cannabis-product types. In order to enable the conversion of self-reported consumption of non-flower cannabis products into a standard joint equivalent (SJE: equal to 0.5 g of dried cannabis), we created conversion metrics for physical production equivalencies across cannabis products. RESULTS: Similar to the findings in the alcohol literature, study results show that cannabis consumption is highly concentrated in a small subset of users: the upper 10% of cannabis users accounted for approximately two-thirds of all cannabis consumed in the country. Males reported consuming more cannabis by volume than females (approximately 60% versus 40%), with young males (15-34 years old) being disproportionately represented in the heaviest-using subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the cannabis used in Canada is consumed by a relatively small population of very heavy cannabis users. Future research should attempt to identify the characteristics of the heaviest-using groups, as well as how population-level cannabis consumption patterns relate to the calculus of cannabis-related harms in society.

5.
J Gambl Stud ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471835

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the differences in gambling exposure and onset of gambling problems among male and female gamblers by comparing their demographic and behavioral profiles. This study utilized data from the gambling section of the First Brazilian National Alcohol Survey and Related Behaviors. Interviews were conducted with 3007 participants who were recruited after screening for at-risk gambling behaviors. Individuals who tested positive for at-risk gambling behaviors completed the Gambling Progression Questionnaire comprising items on games of chance, and were evaluated using the DSM-IV pathological gambling criteria. The participants' "lifetime gambling exposure" was 12.5%, with 4% having experienced gambling problems during their lifetime. Majority of the male at-risk gamblers (78%) reported that they began gambling in their 20 s and took approximately 3 years to start experiencing gambling-related problems. Contrastingly, female at-risk gamblers started gambling in their 30 s and they took about 12 years to start experiencing gambling-related problems. The present results show that men were 2.3 times more at risk of gambling exposure and 3.6 times more likely to experience gambling-related problems. Male at-risk male gamblers seemed to be lonelier and to have a low socioeconomic status, while women seemed to have lower income and social insertion. Considering these significant differences, more studies evaluating gender differences in gambling behavior are necessary.

6.
BJPsych Open ; 5(5): e77, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The waiting room in psychiatric services can provide an ideal setting for offering evidence-based psychological interventions that can be delivered through electronic media. Currently, there is no intervention available that have been developed or tested in mental health. AIMS: This proof-of-concept study aimed to evaluate a pilot design of RESOLVE (Relaxation Exercise, SOLving problem and cognitiVe Errors) to test the procedure and obtain outcome data to inform future, definitive trials (trial registration at Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02536924, REB Number: PSIY-477-15). METHOD: Forty participants were enrolled and equally randomised to the intervention, RESOLVE plus treatment as usual arm (TAU), or to a control group (TAU only). Those in the intervention group watched RESOLVE in a room adjacent to the waiting area. Participants in the control received routine care. Outcome measures included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluations outcome measure; and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule. These measures were performed by a masked assessor at baseline and at 6-week follow-up. Additionally, we measured the number of contacts with mental health services during the prior 4 weeks. Both intention-to-treat and per protocol analyses were performed. RESULTS: The study proved feasible. We were able to recruit the required number of participants. There was a statistically significant improvement in depression (P < 0.001), anxiety (P < 0.001), general psychopathology (P < 0.001) and disability (P = 0.0361) in favour of the intervention group. People in the intervention group were less likely to contact the service (P = 0.012) post-intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide preliminary evidence that evidence-based psychosocial interventions can be delivered through electronic media in a waiting-room setting. The outcome data from this study will be used for future definitive trials. DECLARATION OF INTEREST: None.

7.
Schizophr Res ; 210: 52-58, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248749

RESUMO

The experience sampling method (ESM) has revealed associations between fluctuations in stress and positive symptoms in psychosis. It is unknown, however, how negative symptoms including anhedonia respond to stress. Stress is divided according to its source: event-related stress stemming from negative events, and activity-related stress stemming from engaging in tasks beyond one's skill or control. Anhedonia is divided into consummatory and anticipatory anhedonia, reflecting a lack of pleasure in current and expected activities. This study uses ESM to determine whether each form of anhedonia increases in response to stress. Antipsychotic-naïve individuals with first episode psychosis (n = 39), clinical high-risk states for psychosis (n = 44), and healthy controls (n = 34) responded to daily prompts on a palmtop computer for up to ten days by indicating levels of stress and anhedonia. Time-lagged multilevel modelling was employed to explore increases in anhedonia following increases in stress while controlling for prior levels of anhedonia. Mean levels of anhedonia were also compared across groups. Only activity-related stress produced increases in anhedonia. This effect did not vary between groups. Clinical groups showed greater overall levels of anhedonia than healthy controls, but did not differ from each other. Anhedonia responds only to activity-related stressors, suggesting that this form of stress has a specific causal role in anhedonia. The results also provide further evidence for global increases in anhedonia in antipsychotic-naïve psychosis spectrum individuals.

8.
Lancet Public Health ; 4(6): e281-e290, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Firearm mortality is a leading, and largely avoidable, cause of death in the USA, Mexico, Brazil, and Colombia. We aimed to assess the changes over time and demographic determinants of firearm deaths in these four countries between 1990 and 2015. METHODS: In this comparative analysis of firearm mortality, we examined national vital statistics data from 1990-2015 from four publicly available data repositories in the USA, Mexico, Brazil, and Colombia. We extracted medically-certified deaths and underlying population denominators to calculate the age-specific and sex-specific firearm deaths and the risk of firearm mortality at the national and subnational level, by education for all four countries, and by race or ethnicity for the USA and Brazil. Analyses were stratified by intent (homicide, suicide, unintentional, or undetermined). We quantified avoidable mortality for each country using the lowest number of subnational age-specific and period-specific death rates. FINDINGS: Between 1990 and 2015, 106·3 million medically-certified deaths were recorded, including 2 472 000 firearm deaths, of which 851 000 occurred in the USA, 272 000 in Mexico, 855 000 in Brazil, and 494 000 in Colombia. Homicides accounted for most of the firearm deaths in Mexico (225 000 [82·7%]), Colombia (463 000 [93·8%]), and Brazil (766 000 [89·5%]). Suicide accounted for more than half of all firearm deaths in the USA (479 000 [56·3%]). In each country, firearm mortality was highest among men aged 15-34 years, accounting for up to half of the total risk of death in that age group. During the study period, firearm mortality risks increased in Mexico and Brazil but decreased in the USA and Colombia, with marked national and subnational geographical variation. Young men with low educational attainment were at increased risk of firearm homicide in all four countries, and in the USA and Brazil, black and brown men, respectively, were at the highest risk. The risk of firearm homicide was 14 times higher in black men in the USA aged 25-34 years with low educational attainment than comparably-educated white men (1·52% [99% CI 1·50-1·54] vs 0·11% [0·10-0·12]), and up to four times higher than in comparably-educated men in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico. In the USA, the risk of firearm homicide was more than 30 times higher in black men with post-secondary education than comparably educated white men. If countries could achieve the same firearm mortality rates nationally as in their lowest-burden states, 1 777 800 firearm deaths at all ages and in both sexes could be avoided, including 1 028 000 deaths in men aged 15-34 years. INTERPRETATION: Firearm mortality in the USA, Mexico, Brazil, and Colombia is highest among young adult men, and is strongly associated with race and ethnicity, and low education levels. Reductions in firearm deaths would improve life expectancy, particularly for black men in the USA, and would reduce racial and educational disparities in mortality. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the University of Toronto Connaught Global Challenge.

9.
NPJ Schizophr ; 5(1): 8, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036809

RESUMO

Impaired illness awareness (Imp-IA) in schizophrenia is associated with interhemispheric imbalance, resulting in left hemisphere dominance, primarily within the posterior parietal area (PPA). This may represent an interhemispheric "disconnection syndrome" between PPAs. To test this hypothesis, we aimed to determine if diffusion-based measures of white matter integrity were disrupted in the corpus callosal tracts linking PPAs (i.e., splenium) in patients with Imp-IA in schizophrenia. T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted scans were acquired on a 1.5T GE scanner for 100 participants with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia and 134 healthy controls aged 18 to 79 years. The corpus callosal white matter tracts were compared among patients with Imp-IA (n = 40), intact illness awareness (n = 60), and healthy controls. White matter disruption was measured with fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). Group differences in FA were found in the splenium, with patients with Imp-IA having the lowest FA, which remained significant after controlling for sex, age, global cognition, and premorbid intelligence. No group differences in MD were observed. Splenial white matter tracts of the corpus callosum appear compromised in patients with Imp-IA. Transcallosal interhemispheric PPA white matter disruption may represent a "disconnection syndrome", manifesting as Imp-IA in schizophrenia. Future studies are required to investigate the effects of noninvasive brain stimulation interventions, such as transcranial direct current or magnetic stimulation, on Imp-IA in association with white matter changes in patients with schizophrenia.

10.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 197: 65-72, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30780068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Given that alcohol-related victimization is highly prevalent among young adults, the current study aimed to assess the potential impacts of Minimum Legal Drinking Age (MLDA) laws on police-reported violent victimization events among young people. DESIGN: A regression-discontinuity (RD) approach was applied to victimization data from the Canadian Uniform Crime Reporting 2 (UCR2) Incident-based survey from 2009-2013. Participants/cases: All police-reported violent victimization events (females: n = 178,566; males: n = 156,803) among youth aged 14-22 years in Canada. MEASUREMENTS: Violent victimization events, primarily consisting of homicide, physical assault, sexual assault, and robbery. RESULTS: In comparison to youth slightly younger than the drinking age, both males and females slightly older than MLDA had significant and immediate increases in police-reported violent victimization events (females: 13.5%, 95% CI: 7.5%-19.5%, p < 0.001; males: 11.6%, 95% CI: 6.6%-16.7%, p < 0.001). Victimizations occurring in the evening rose sharply immediately after the MLDA by 22.8% (95% CI: 9.9%-35.7%, p = 0.001) for females and 19.3% (95% CI: 11.5%-27.2%, p < 0.001) for males. Increases in violent victimization immediately after MLDA were most prominent in bar/restaurant/open-air settings, with victimizations rising sharply by 44.9% (95% CI: 29.5%-60.2%, p < 0.001) among females and 18.3% (95% CI: 7.7%-29.0%, p = 0.001) among males. CONCLUSIONS: Young people gaining minimum legal drinking age incur immediate increases in police-reported violent victimizations, especially those occurring in the evening and at bar/restaurant/open-air settings. Evidence suggests that increasing the MLDA may attenuate patterns of violent victimization in newly restricted age groups.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/legislação & jurisprudência , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polícia , Restaurantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
11.
J. Bras. Patol. Med. Lab. (Online) ; 55(1): 20-31, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1002364

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction and objective: Peritoneal washing cytology is part of pathological staging of adenocarcinomas of the endometrium and ovary. The objective of this study was to verify the prevalence of cytology positive for malignancy in patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the endometrium or ovary, as well as to verify the association between the positive cytology and the variables age of the patient, histological type of the neoplasm and degree of tumor differentiation. Method: A retrospective and prospective cross-sectional study was carried out through the analysis of peritoneal washing cytology reports and the anatomopathological reports of 43 patients diagnosed with ovarian or endometrial adenocarcinoma, provided by the Pathology Center of Curitiba. Results: In relation to endometrial adenocarcinoma, the prevalence of positive cytologies was 7%. Neither the degree of tumor differentiation (p = 1) nor age (p = 0.233) demonstrated association with such positivity. In relation to ovarian adenocarcinoma, the prevalence of positive cytologies was 20%. The degree of tumor differentiation showed a significant positive association with this positivity (p = 0.044). Age did not show association (p = 0.804). It was not possible to verify association with the histological type of neoplasms due to non-applicability of the statistical test. Conclusion: The prevalence of peritoneal lavage cytology positive for malignancy was 7% in endometrial adenocarcinoma and 20% in ovarian adenocarcinoma. Only the degree of tumor differentiation of ovarian adenocarcinomas showed a significant association with peritoneal washing positivity.


RESUMEN Introducción y objetivo: La citología del lavadoperitoneal es parte de la estadificación de los adenocarcinomas de endometrio y ovario. El objetivo de este trabajo es estimar la prevalencia de citologías positivas para malignidad en pacientes con diagnóstico de adenocarcinoma de endometrio y/u ovario, así como la asociación entre positividadde la citologíay las variables edaddel paciente, tipo histológico de la neoplasiay grado de diferenciación tumoral. Método: Se realizó un estudio transversal retrospectivoy prospectivo mediante el análisis de los reportes citológicos de lavado peritoneal y hallazgos anatomopatológicos de 43 pacientes con diagnóstico de adenocarcinoma ovárico o endometrial, puestos a disposición por el Centro de Patologia de Curitiba. Resultados: En cuanto al adenocarcinoma de endometrio, la prevalencia de citologías positivas fue 7%. Ni el grado de diferenciación tumoral (p = 1) ni la edad (p = 0,233) mostraron asociación con la positividad. En cuanto al adenocarcinoma de ovario, la prevalencia de citologías positivas fue 20%. El grado de diferenciación tumoral mostró asociación positiva significativa con esa positividad (p = 0,044); la edad no mostró asociación (p = 0,804). No fue posible verificar la asociación con tipo histológico de las neoplasias por cuanto el test estadístico no sería aplicable. Conclusión: La prevalencia de citologías de lavado peritoneal positivas para malignidad fue 7% en el adenocarcinoma de endometrio y 20% en el adenocarcinoma de ovario. Solamente el grado de diferenciación tumoral de los adenocarcinomas ováricos demostró asociación significativa con la positividad del lavado peritoneal.


RESUMO Introdução e objetivo: A citologia de lavado peritoneal faz parte do estadiamento patológico dos adenocarcinomas de endométrio e ovário. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a prevalência de citologias positivas para malignidade em pacientes com diagnóstico de adenocarcinoma de endométrio e/ou ovário, bem como a associação entre apositividade da citologia e as variáveis idade da paciente, tipo histológico da neoplasia e grau de diferenciação tumoral. Método: Foi realizado um estudo transversal retrospectivo e prospectivo por meio da análise dos laudos de citologia de lavado peritoneal e dos laudos anatomopatológicos de 43 pacientes com diagnóstico de adenocarcinoma ovariano ou endometrial, disponibilizados pelo Centro de Patologia de Curitiba. Resultados: Em relação ao adenocarcinoma de endométrio, a prevalência de citologias positivas foi de 7%. Nem o grau de diferenciação tumoral (p = 1) nem a idade (p = 0,233) demonstram associação com a positividade. Em relação ao adenocarcinoma de ovário, a prevalência de citologias positivas foi de 20%. O grau de diferenciação tumoral demonstrou associação positiva significativa com essa positividade (p = 0,044); a idade não demonstrou associação (p = 0,804). Não foi possível verificar a associação com o tipo histológico das neoplasias por não aplicabilidade do teste estatístico. Conclusão: A prevalência de citologias de lavado peritoneal positivas para malignidade foi de 7% no adenocarcinoma de endométrio e de 20% no adenocarcinoma de ovário. Somente o grau de diferenciação tumoral dos adenocarcinomas ovarianos demonstrou associação significativa com a positividade do lavado peritoneal.

12.
Front Neuroinform ; 12: 77, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459587

RESUMO

Investigations of mental illness have been enriched by the advent and maturation of neuroimaging technologies and the rapid pace and increased affordability of molecular sequencing techniques, however, the increased volume, variety and velocity of research data, presents a considerable technical and analytic challenge to curate, federate and interpret. Aggregation of high-dimensional datasets across brain disorders can increase sample sizes and may help identify underlying causes of brain dysfunction, however, additional barriers exist for effective data harmonization and integration for their combined use in research. To help realize the potential of multi-modal data integration for the study of mental illness, the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) constructed a centralized data capture, visualization and analytics environment-the CAMH Neuroinformatics Platform-based on the Ontario Brain Institute (OBI) Brain-CODE architecture, towards the curation of a standardized, consolidated psychiatric hospital-wide research dataset, directly coupled to high performance computing resources.

13.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 112, 2018 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is a prevalent and disabling mental disorder that frequently co-occurs with a wide range of chronic conditions. Evidence has suggested that depression could be associated with excess all-cause mortality across different settings and populations, although the causality of these associations remains unclear. METHODS: We conducted an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase electronic databases were searched through January 20, 2018. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses that investigated associations of depression and all-cause and cause-specific mortality were selected for the review. The evidence was graded as convincing, highly suggestive, suggestive, or weak based on quantitative criteria that included an assessment of heterogeneity, 95% prediction intervals, small-study effects, and excess significance bias. RESULTS: A total of 26 references providing 2 systematic reviews and data for 17 meta-analytic estimates met inclusion criteria (19 of them on all-cause mortality); data from 246 unique studies (N = 3,825,380) were synthesized. All 17 associations had P < 0.05 per random effects summary effects, but none of them met criteria for convincing evidence. Associations of depression and all-cause mortality in patients after acute myocardial infarction, in individuals with heart failure, in cancer patients as well as in samples from mixed settings met criteria for highly suggestive evidence. However, none of the associations remained supported by highly suggestive evidence in sensitivity analyses that considered studies employing structured diagnostic interviews. In addition, associations of depression and all-cause mortality in cancer and post-acute myocardial infarction samples were supported only by suggestive evidence when studies that tried to adjust for potential confounders were considered. CONCLUSIONS: Even though associations between depression and mortality have nominally significant results in all assessed settings and populations, the evidence becomes weaker when focusing on studies that used structured interviews and those that tried to adjust for potential confounders. A causal effect of depression on all-cause and cause-specific mortality remains unproven, and thus interventions targeting depression are not expected to result in lower mortality rates at least based on current evidence from observational studies.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Depressão/mortalidade , Depressão/patologia , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Taxa de Sobrevida , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
14.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 79(4)2018 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924506

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Augmentation with aripiprazole is an effective pharmacotherapy for treatment-resistant late-life depression (LLD). However, aripiprazole can cause extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) such as akathisia and parkinsonism; these symptoms are distressing and can contribute to treatment discontinuation. We investigated the clinical trajectories and predictors of akathisia and parkinsonism in older patients receiving aripiprazole augmentation for treatment-resistant LLD. METHODS: Between 2009 and 2013, depressed older adults who did not remit with venlafaxine were randomized to aripiprazole or placebo in a 12-week trial. Participants were 60 years or older and met DSM-IV-TR criteria for major depressive episode with at least moderate symptoms. The presence of akathisia and parkinsonism was measured at each visit using the Barnes Akathisia Scale (BAS) and Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS), respectively. In an exploratory analysis, we examined a broad set of potential clinical predictors and correlates: age, sex, ethnicity, weight, medical comorbidity, baseline anxiety severity, depression severity, concomitant medications including rescue medications, and aripiprazole dosage. RESULTS: Twenty-four (26.7%) of 90 participants randomized to aripiprazole and who had akathisia scores available developed akathisia compared to 11 (12.2%) of 90 randomized to placebo. Greater depression severity was the main predictor of treatment-emergent akathisia. Most participants who developed akathisia improved over time, especially with reductions in dosage. Fifteen (16.5%) of 91 participants taking aripiprazole and who had parkinsonism scores available developed parkinsonism, but no clinical predictors or correlates were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Akathisia is a common side effect of aripiprazole, but it is typically mild and responds to dose reduction. Patients with greater baseline depression may warrant closer monitoring for akathisia. More research is needed to understand the course and predictors of treatment-emergent EPS with antipsychotic augmentation for treatment-resistant LLD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00892047.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Aripiprazol/efeitos adversos , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Início Tardio/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Acatisia Induzida por Medicamentos/complicações , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Aripiprazol/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos de Início Tardio/complicações , Masculino , Doença de Parkinson Secundária/induzido quimicamente , Doença de Parkinson Secundária/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Tob Control ; 27(e2): e105-e111, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29332007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, the US Institute of Medicine has proposed that raising the minimum age for tobacco purchasing/sales to 21 years would likely lead to reductions in smoking behavior among young people. Surprisingly few studies, however, have assessed the potential impacts of minimum-age tobacco restrictions on youth smoking. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impacts of Canadian minimum age for tobacco sales (MATS) laws on youth smoking behaviour. DESIGN: A regression-discontinuity design, using seven merged cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2000-2014. PARTICIPANTS: Survey respondents aged 14-22 years (n=98 320). EXPOSURE: Current Canadian MATS laws are 18 years in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Quebec, the Yukon and Northwest Territories, and 19 years of age in the rest of the country. MAIN OUTCOMES: Current, occasional and daily smoking status; smoking frequency and intensity; and average monthly cigarette consumption. RESULTS: In comparison to age groups slightly younger than the MATS, those just older had significant and abrupt increases immediately after the MATS in the prevalence of current smokers (absolute increase: 2.71%; 95% CI 0.70% to 4.80%; P=0.009) and daily smokers (absolute increase: 2.43%; 95% CI 0.74% to 4.12%; P=0.005). Average past-month cigarette consumption within age groups increased immediately following the MATS by 18% (95% CI 3% to 39%; P=0.02). There was no evidence of significant increases in smoking intensity for daily or occasional smokers after release from MATS restrictions. CONCLUSION: The study provides relevant evidence supporting the effectiveness of Canadian MATS laws for limiting smoking among tobacco-restricted youth.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Canadá/epidemiologia , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fumar/tendências , Fumar Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto Jovem
16.
AMIA Annu Symp Proc ; 2018: 989-997, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30815142

RESUMO

Mental healthcare settings have lagged behind other care areas in their adoption of patient portals. One of the commonly cited reasons for this lower adoption rate is the perceptions and comfort level of mental health professionals in sharing their clinical notes with this population. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of mental health professionals' perceptions of a) whether mental health patients should have access to a patient portal; b) whether their documentation might change as a result of mental health patients having access to a patient portal, and c) whether access to a patient portal by mental health patients makes them feel uncomfortable. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 250 health professionals employed in a mental health teaching hospital in Toronto, Canada. Multiple linear regression and content analysis were performed.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Portais do Paciente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Psiquiatria
17.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 49(1): 100-108, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28500434

RESUMO

This study compared the multicomponent Coping Power (group) program to individualized parent-child treatment with respect to changing the parenting efficacy and satisfaction of parents of children with conduct problems. One hundred fourteen parents of 9-12-year-old children with conduct problems were randomized to Coping Power or individualized treatment at an urban children's mental health clinic. Parents reported their pre- and post-treatment parenting efficacy and parenting satisfaction (Parent Sense of Competence Scale). Mixed effect models revealed that parenting efficacy and satisfaction significantly increased from pre- to post-treatment, and there was no evidence that this effect is different between Coping Power and individualized treatment, even after controlling for initial severity of child symptomatology. Findings support the effectiveness of Coping Power as an intervention for parenting efficacy and satisfaction among parents of children aged 9-12 years with conduct problems.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
BMJ Open ; 7(11): e017044, 2017 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162572

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Primary care settings are often the first and only point of contact for persons with mental health and/or substance use problems. However, staff experience and training in this area are often limited. These factors as well as a multitude of other components such as structural and systemic stigma experienced by staff can lead to clients being stigmatised, leading to poorer outcomes. By developing a comprehensive intervention for primary care staff working at community health centres (CHCs) aimed at reducing stigma towards people with mental health and substance use problems (MHSUP), we sought to test an innovative and contact-based intervention consisting of staff training, raising awareness, a recovery-focused art programme and an analysis of internal policies and procedures. All of these components can inform and support staff so they can provide better care for people who are experiencing MHSUP. CHC staff members and clients will be included in this project as active participants. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This mixed-methods project will consist of repeated surveys of staff and clients, as well as in-depth, semistructured interviews with a sample of clients and staff. A cluster randomised control trial design will test the effectiveness of an antistigma intervention for CHCs in Toronto, Canada. Six CHCs-three receiving the intervention and three controls-will be included in the study. Using a variety of measures, including the Opening Minds Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC), Mental Illness: Clinicians Attitudes (MICA) Scale, Modified Bogardus Social Distance Scale, Perceived Devaluation-Discrimination Scale, Discrimination Experience subscale of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) Scale and the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS), we hope to gain a thorough understanding of staff members' attitudes and beliefs and clients' perceptions of staff beliefs and behaviours. In-depth interviews will reveal important themes related to clients' experiences of stigma both within and outside the healthcare setting. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: If demonstrated to be successful, this intervention can be used as a model for future initiatives aimed at reducing MHSUP-related stigma among healthcare providers in an organisational context. Adapting this work in other settings is a key strategic goal of this project. The project will also advance knowledge about stigma reduction and the experience of encountering stigma within a healthcare setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03043417; Post-results.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Centros Comunitários de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estigma Social , Estereotipagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adulto , Terapia pela Arte , Conscientização , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Ontário , Projetos de Pesquisa , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci ; 15(4): 343-351, 2017 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29073746

RESUMO

Objective: Impulsivity is a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) that likely arises from combined genetic and environmental influences. The interaction of the low activity variant of the monoamine oxidase-A (MAOA-L) gene and early childhood adversity has been shown to predict aggression in clinical and non-clinical populations. Although impulsivity is a risk factor for aggression in BPD and ASPD, little research has investigated potential gene-environment (G×E) influences impacting its expression in these conditions. Moreover, G×E interactions may differ by diagnosis. Methods: Full factorial analysis of variance was employed to investigate the influence of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) genotype, childhood abuse, and diagnosis on Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) scores in 61 individuals: 20 subjects with BPD, 18 subjects with ASPD, and 23 healthy controls. Results: A group×genotype×abuse interaction was present (F(2,49)=4.4, p=0.018), such that the interaction of MAOA-L and childhood abuse predicted greater BIS-11 motor impulsiveness in BPD. Additionally, BPD subjects reported higher BIS-11 attentional impulsiveness versus ASPD participants (t(1,36)=2.3, p=0.025). Conclusion: These preliminary results suggest that MAOA-L may modulate the impact of childhood abuse on impulsivity in BPD. Results additionally indicate that impulsiveness may be expressed differently in BPD and ASPD.

20.
Br J Psychiatry ; 211(3): 137-143, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28522434

RESUMO

BackgroundAs definitions of relapse differ substantially between studies, in investigations involving data aggregation, total scores on clinical rating scales provide a more generalisable outcome.AimsTo compare total symptom trajectories for antipsychotic versus placebo treatment over a 1-year period of maintenance treatment in schizophrenia.MethodRandomised controlled trials with antipsychotic and placebo treatment arms in patients with stable schizophrenia that reported Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale total scores at more than one time point were included. Meta-regression analyses were employed using a mixed model.ResultsA total of 11 studies involving 2826 patients were included. Meta-regression analyses revealed significant interactions between group and time (PS<0.0001); both standardised total scores and per cent score changes remained almost unchanged in patients continuing antipsychotic treatment, whereas symptoms continuously worsened over time in those switching to placebo treatment.ConclusionsWhen considering long-term antipsychotic treatment of schizophrenia, clinicians must balance symptomatic and functional outcomes.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Placebos/farmacologia , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Prevenção Secundária/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
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