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1.
Liver Int ; 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Introduction of highly efficacious pan-genotypic therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has made the elimination of the disease an attainable goal. This study assessed progress made in 45 high-income countries towards meeting the World Health Organization's targets for HCV elimination by 2030. METHODS: A Markov model developed to forecast annual HCV-infected population was populated with demographic and epidemiological inputs, with historical incidence calibrated to reported prevalence of chronic HCV for each country. Future incidence was assumed to be a linear function of overall prevalence (or prevalence of minimal fibrosis in countries with treatment restrictions). 2017 levels of diagnosis and treatment were assumed constant in the future. The analysis estimated the year countries would meet HCV elimination targets for 80% reduction in incidence, 65% reduction in liver-related deaths, 90% diagnosis coverage and 80% treatment among the treatment-eligible population. RESULTS: Of the 45 countries analyzed, nine (Australia, France, Iceland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland and the United Kingdom) are on track towards meeting the HCV elimination targets by 2030. While Austria, Germany and Malta could also reach the targets with expanded screening efforts, 30 countries are not projected to eliminate HCV before 2050. Incidence was the most difficult target to achieve, followed by liver-related deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Even with introduction of curative therapies, 80% of high-income countries are not on track to meet HCV elimination targets by 2030, and 67% are off track by at least 20 years. Immediate action to improve HCV screening and treatment is needed globally to make HCV elimination attainable.

2.
Value Health ; 22(6): 669-676, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the impact of cures for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection on organ donation in the United Kingdom. Curing CHC infection reduces the need for liver transplants and enables cured individuals to donate organs of all types. METHODS: We adapted a double-queuing model of organ allocation to estimate the effects of CHC infection cures on liver, lung, heart, and kidney transplants in the United Kingdom. We assumed that cured individuals would donate organs at similar rates as the general population and no longer require liver transplants because of CHC infection. We estimated how curing CHC infection influences waitlist lengths for each organ and the annual net present value to society on the basis of quality-adjusted life-years gained through additional transplants under opt-in and opt-out organ donation policies. RESULTS: Curing CHC generates the most value for patients on the liver waitlist, because it increases the number of transplantable livers and reduces the need for transplants. Under the current opt-in policy, liver waitlist length falls by 24%, generating £34.3 million of annual net present value. Growth in the number of uninfected lungs, hearts, and kidneys generates an additional £19.2 million annually, with £18.7 million from kidneys. Implementing the opt-out policy, liver waitlist length would decrease by 75%, implying that treating CHC eliminates one-third of the excess liver waitlist due to an opt-in policy. CONCLUSIONS: Treating CHC has large positive spillovers to uninfected individuals by reducing the need for liver transplants and allowing cured individuals to donate organs. These spillovers have not been included in traditional value assessments of CHC treatment.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica/terapia , Transplantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Coração , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Rim , Fígado , Pulmão , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Listas de Espera
3.
Infect Dis Ther ; 8(2): 285-299, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771220

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Japan has one of the highest prevalence rate of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in the industrialized world. However, the burden of CHC treatment is poorly understood. Thus, the healthcare resource utilization and costs of treated versus untreated patients, and patients with early versus delayed treatment initiation, were assessed in Japan. METHODS: Adult patients with ≥ 2 CHC diagnoses were identified from the Medical Data Vision hospital claims database (1 April 2008-31 May 2016). The presence or absence of antiviral treatment claims was used to form the treated and untreated cohorts, respectively. Among treated patients, the presence of a cirrhosis-related diagnosis was used as an indicator of delayed treatment. The index date was defined as the date of the first antiviral claim for treated patients and randomized to any date with a medical visit for untreated patients. Annualized total healthcare costs and costs associated with hepatic manifestations (HMs) or extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs) were evaluated from the index date to the last observed medical visit. RESULTS: Of 100,125 patients with CHC, 12,984 were treated (early: 8104, delayed: 4880) and 87,141 were untreated. After adjusting for covariates, untreated patients had ¥613,034 ($5456 USD; ¥1 = $0.0089) higher annual medical costs compared with treated patients (P < 0.001), a difference driven by higher inpatient costs. Between 65% (treated patients) and 70% (untreated patients) of medical costs were EHM-related and between 14% (untreated patients) and 15% (treated patients) were HM-related. Patients in the delayed treatment cohort had ¥114,347 ($1018) higher annual medical costs (P < 0.001) versus those in the early treatment cohort. About 95% of these costs were EHM-related, and 64% were HM-related. CONCLUSION: Withholding or delaying antiviral treatment initiation for Japanese patients with CHC increases the clinical and economic burden associated with HMs and EHMs. FUNDING: AbbVie.

4.
Infect Dis Ther ; 7(4): 473-484, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368684

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection is associated with extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs) which can affect renal, cardiovascular and other comorbidities. The effect of CHC treatment with short-duration regimens on these EHMs is not well defined. Hence, we examined longitudinal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), triglycerides and glucose values to assess the impact of short-duration CHC therapy on renal, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, respectively. METHODS: We conducted analyses of all patients without cirrhosis treated with glecaprevir and pibrentasvir (G/P) for 8 weeks in two phase 3 clinical trials. In addition, one phase 3 trial was carried out to explore the effects of treatment on renal EHMs in patients with advanced renal impairment at baseline. As a sensitivity analysis, we included all CHC patients treated with G/P for 8 or 12 weeks enrolled across five phase 3 trials. Adjusting for baseline demographics and clinical properties via mixed regression models enabled evaluation of changes in EHMs through end of treatment. RESULTS: G/P treatment for 8 weeks resulted in statistically significant declines in triglycerides (- 28.6 mg/dl) and glucose (- 11.2 mg/dl), while there was no statistically significant decline in eGFR. Biomarker improvements were greatest among patients with elevated triglycerides and elevated glucose at baseline. Similar effects were observed across all patients treated with G/P for 8 or 12 weeks. CONCLUSION: Short-duration treatment with G/P resulted in stable renal function and improvements in cardiovascular and metabolic EHM markers, especially in patients with severe EHMs at baseline. FUNDING: AbbVie Inc.

5.
Hepat Med ; 10: 73-85, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30214325

RESUMO

Purpose: To analyze the hepatitis C virus (HCV) burden in Lebanon and the value of comprehensive screening and treatment for different age groups and fibrosis stages. Methods: We used a multicohort, health-state-transition model to project the number of HCV genotype 1 and 4 patients achieving a sustained virologic response 12 weeks after treatment or progressing to compensated cirrhosis (CC), decompensated cirrhosis (DCC), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), or liver-related death (LrD) from 2016 to 2036. In the low/medium/high screening scenarios, the proportion of patients screened for HCV was projected to increase to 60%/85%/99%, respectively, by 2036. We analyzed four treatment strategies: 1) no treatment, 2) all-oral direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) given to F3-F4 (CC) patients only, 3) all-oral DAAs to F2-F3-F4 (CC) patients, and 4) all-oral DAAs to all fibrosis patients. Results: Low, medium, and high HCV screening scenarios projected that 3,838, 5,665, and 7,669 individuals will be diagnosed with HCV infection, respectively, from 2016 to 2036, or 40% of those aged 18-39 years, and 60% of those aged 40-80 years. With no treatment, the projected number of patients reaching CC, DCC, HCC, or LrD in 2036 was 899, 147, 131, and 147, respectively, for the 18-39 years age group. For the 40-80 years age group, these projections were substantially greater: 2,828 CC, 736 DCC, 668 HCC, and 958 LrD. The overall economic burden without treatment reached 150 million EUR. However, introducing DAAs for F0-F4 patients was projected to increase the proportion of remaining life-years spent in sustained virologic response 12 weeks after treatment by 43% and 62% compared to DAAs given at F2-F4 or F3-F4 only, respectively. Conclusion: An enhanced screening policy combined with broader access to DAAs can diminish the future clinical and economic burden of HCV in the Lebanese population and, for the middle-aged and elderly, provide the greatest health benefit with net cost savings.

6.
Infect Dis Ther ; 7(3): 327-338, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29923033

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: German data regarding the burden of complications from chronic hepatitis C (CHC) virus infection are limited. To address this issue, this study evaluates the clinical and economic burden of hepatic and extrahepatic complications (EHCs) associated with CHC in Germany. METHODS: This retrospective, cross-sectional study used claims data from the Betriebskrankenkasse German sickness fund (2007-2014) to assess the risks and medical costs of hepatic complications and EHCs, including conditions that are prevalent and behavioral factors associated with CHC. Prevalence, incidence, and risks were calculated for 1:1 matched patients with and without CHC (n = 3994). All-cause cost, medical costs related to hepatic and EHCs, as well as CHC-related and non-CHC-related pharmacy costs (adjusted to the 2016 Euro rate), were calculated and compared between 1:5 matched patients with (n = 8425) and without CHC (n = 42,125). RESULTS: Patients with CHC had a 3-fold higher risk for any EHC (OR = 3.0; P < 0.05) and higher EHC-related medical costs (adjusted difference, €1606; P < 0.01) compared with patients without CHC. Total costs (€10,108 vs. €5430), hepatic complication-related medical costs (€1425 vs. €556), EHC-related costs (€3547 vs. €1921), CHC-related pharmacy costs (€577 vs. €116), and non-CHC-related pharmacy costs (€3719 vs. €1479) were all significantly greater for patients with CHC compared with patients without CHC. EHC-related medical costs were a major contributor to the higher all-cause medical (84.4%) and total (44.3%) cost differences between patients with CHC and the matched sample of patients without CHC. CONCLUSION: CHC is associated with substantial clinical and economic burden in Germany, largely due to hepatic complications and EHCs. FUNDING: Abbvie Inc.

7.
Infect Dis Ther ; 7(3): 339-352, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29923034

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: German data regarding the economic burden of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and potential benefits of CHC treatment are limited. To address this issue, we evaluated the role of treatment in mitigating the economic burden of hepatic and extrahepatic complications (EHCs) from CHC virus infection in Germany. METHODS: This retrospective, cross-sectional study used claims data from the Betriebskrankenkasse German sickness fund (2007-2014) to assess the medical costs of hepatic complications and EHCs, including conditions that are prevalent and behavioral factors associated with CHC. All-cause costs, medical costs related to hepatic and EHCs, and CHC-related and non-CHC-related pharmacy costs (adjusted to the 2016 euro rate) were calculated and compared between CHC patients' treated (n = 1714) and untreated time (n = 7124) and CHC patients that initiated treatment early (i.e., without cirrhosis; n = 1552) vs. late (i.e., with cirrhosis; n = 162). RESULTS: CHC treatment was associated with an average adjusted savings of €1885 in annual all-cause medical costs per patient, with a significant proportion attributed to EHC-related cost savings (adjusted difference, €1363; P < 0.01). Although initiating CHC treatment early was economically beneficial compared with initiating treatment late, the total cost savings were not significantly different (annual average adjusted difference, €3831; P = 0.27). However, nearly 60% of these savings were EHC related (adjusted difference, €2255; P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: CHC is associated with a significant economic burden in Germany, largely due to EHCs. Antiviral treatment may reduce the burden of CHC and result in significant cost savings, even when initiated at earlier stages of liver disease. FUNDING: AbbVie Inc.

8.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 12(2.1): 27S, 2018 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805002

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As few reliable data on the burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) are available from the Middle East, we analyzed HCV burden in the Lebanese population and the value of comprehensive screening and treatment at different age groups and fibrosis stages. METHODOLOGY: A multi-cohort, health-state-transition model was developed to project the number of HCV patients achieving a sustained virologic response 12 weeks after treatment (SVR12) or progressing to compensated cirrhosis (CC), decompensated cirrhosis (DCC), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and liver-related death (LrD) from 2016 to 2036. Epidemiology and mortality data were extracted from the Ministry of Health bulletin while costs were collected from insurance claims. The proportion of patients screened for HCV was projected to increase to 60%/85%/99% (low/medium/high screening scenarios) in 2036, with a new cohort being diagnosed each year. SVR12 rates were extracted from clinical trials. Separate models were used for 18-39 and 40- 80 age groups to account for different prevalence and screening rates. RESULTS: Low, medium and high HCV screening scenarios showed that 3,838, 5,665 and 7,669 individuals would be diagnosed with HCV infection from 2016 to 2036, 40% aged 18-39 and 60% aged 40-80. In the absence of treatment, the projected number of patients reaching CC, DCC, HCC and LrD in 2036 was 899, 147, 131 and 147 respectively for the 18-39 age groups. In the 40-80 age groups, these projections were substantially greater: 2,828 CC, 736 DCC, 668 HCC and 958 LrD. The overall economic burden of these complications would reach 150 million €. However, introducing direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for F0-F4 patients would increase by 43% and 62% the proportion of remaining life-years (LYs) spent in SVR12 compared to DAAs given to F2-F4 or to F3-F4 only, respectively. Although DAAs for F0-F4 increase the cost of HCV treatment, they also provide the greatest health benefit and lowest cost per LY gained in SVR12. Compared to no treatment and screening, adopting the high screening variant and DAAs access to F0-F4 would cost an additional 1,957 € for every LY gained in SVR12 for patients aged 18-39 and -168 € for the 40-80 age group. CONCLUSION: An enhanced screening policy coupled with broader access to DAAs will diminish the future burden of HCV in the Lebanese population and provide the greatest health benefits among middle-aged and elder adults with net cost savings.

9.
Infect Dis Ther ; 6(4): 515-529, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28939957

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We analyzed phase 3 trial data of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir (3D) ± ribavirin (RBV) in genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C patients to investigate the impact of 3D ± RBV on renal, cardiovascular and metabolic extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs), including persistency 52 weeks post treatment and differential impact by EHM disease severity. METHODS: Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), fasting triglyceride and fasting glucose values from clinical trials were used to assess renal, cardiovascular and metabolic EHMs, respectively. Two placebo-controlled trials were used to study the effect of treatment, while the pooled sample of treated patients was used to study the persistency and differential effect of treatment by baseline EHM disease severity, as defined by baseline values of respective EHM biomarkers. Changes in EHM outcomes from baseline were assessed with mixed models adjusting for patient baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Treatment with 3D ± RBV resulted in statistically significant declines from baseline of triglycerides and glucose and no statistical change in eGFR. By 52 weeks post treatment patients with elevated triglycerides (-35.3 mg/dl), pre-diabetes (-4.4 mg/dl), diabetes (-34.2 mg/dl) and CKD stage 3 (+1.6 ml/min/1.73 m2) at baseline experienced a statistically significant improvement in their respective EHM values. Patients with CKD stages 2, 4 and 5 experienced no statistically significant change in eGFR from baseline. CONCLUSION: Treatment with 3D ± RBV resulted in improvement or no worsening of cardiovascular, metabolic and renal EHM markers, especially in patients with severe EHMs at baseline, which persisted until 52 weeks post treatment. FUNDING: Abbvie Inc.

10.
Value Health ; 20(6): 736-744, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28577690

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore the trade-offs society and payers make when expanding treatment access to patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in early stages of disease as well as to vulnerable, high-risk populations, such as people who inject drugs (PWID) and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM-HIV). METHODS: A discrete time Markov model simulated HCV progression and treatment over 20 years. Population cohorts were defined by behaviors that influence the risk of HCV exposure: PWID, MSM-HIV, an overlap cohort of individuals who are both PWID and MSM-HIV, and all other adults. Six different treatment scenarios were modeled, with varying degrees of access to treatment at different fibrosis stages and to different risk cohorts. Benefits were measured as quality-adjusted life-years and a $150,000/quality-adjusted life-year valuation was used to assess social benefits. RESULTS: Compared with limiting treatment to METAVIR fibrosis stages F3 or F4 and excluding PWID, expanding treatment to patients in all fibrosis stages and including PWID reduces cumulative new infections by 55% over a 20-year horizon and reduces the prevalence of HCV by 93%. We find that treating all HCV-infected individuals is cost saving and net social benefits are over $500 billion greater compared with limiting treatment. Including PWID in treatment access saves 12,900 to 41,200 lives. CONCLUSIONS: Increased access to treatment brings substantial value to society and over the long-term reduces costs for payers, as the benefits accrued from long-term reduction in prevalent and incident cases, mortality, and medical costs outweigh the cost of treatment.


Assuntos
Assistência Integral à Saúde/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Hepatite C Crônica/terapia , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Adulto , Redução de Custos , Progressão da Doença , Usuários de Drogas , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/economia , Hepatite C Crônica/patologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/economia , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Prevalência , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
11.
J Med Econ ; 20(2): 162-170, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27590836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the public health impact of comprehensive hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening and access to all-oral, interferon (IFN)-free direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in the French baby-boomer population (1945-1965 birth cohorts). METHODS: A sequential, multi-cohort, health-state transition model was developed to assess the impact of different hepatitis C screening and treatment strategies on clinical and economic outcomes in the 1945-1965 birth cohorts. Patients newly-diagnosed with chronic HCV were projected each year from 2016 to 2036 under three screening scenarios (70% [low], 75% [intermediate], and 80% [high] HCV awareness in 2036). Healthcare costs and clinical outcomes (number of liver-related deaths, quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs], life-years [LYs] spent in sustained virologic response [SVR] or with decompensated cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, or liver transplant) were compared among five treatment strategies (no antiviral therapy; IFN + ribavirin + protease inhibitor for fibrosis stages F2-F4, IFN-based DAAs for stages F2-F4, IFN-free DAAs for stages F2-F4, and IFN-free DAAs for stages F0-F4). RESULTS: Diagnosis of HCV genotype 1 was projected for 4,953, 6,600, and 8,368 individuals in the low, intermediate, and high screening scenarios, respectively. In the intermediate scenario, IFN-free DAAs for stages F0-F4 had a favorable cost-effectiveness profile vs IFN-based or IFN-free treatment strategies for F2-F4 and offered the greatest return on investment (0.899 LYs gained in SVR and 0.933 QALYs per €10,000 invested). CONCLUSION: Comprehensive HCV screening and access to all-oral, IFN-free DAAs is a cost-effective strategy that could help diminish the upcoming burden of HCV in the French baby-boomer population.


Assuntos
Antivirais/economia , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Saúde Pública , Idoso , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , França , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico
12.
Infect Dis Ther ; 5(4): 491-508, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27783223

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The goal of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treatment is to achieve a sustained virologic response (SVR). The new generation of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) offers 90-100% SVR rates. However, access to these treatments is generally limited to patients with advanced liver disease. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the clinical and economic benefits of achieving SVR and to better understand the full value of CHC treatment in all stages of liver disease. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was performed using the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases to identify articles examining the clinical, economic, and quality of life benefits associated with SVR. Articles were limited to those published in English language from January 2006 through January 2016. Inclusion criteria were (1) patients with CHC, (2) retrospective and prospective studies, (3) reporting of mortality, liver morbidity, extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs), and economic outcomes and, (4) availability of an abstract or full-text publication. RESULTS: Overall this review identified 354 studies involving more than 500,000 CHC patients worldwide. Evidence from 38 studies (n = 73,861) shows a significant mortality benefit of achieving SVR in patients with all stages of fibrosis. Long-term studies with follow-up of 5-12 years suggest that, particularly among non-cirrhotic patients, there is a significant decrease in mortality in SVR versus non-SVR groups. Ninety-nine studies conducted in 235,891 CHC patients in all stages of fibrosis show that SVR reduces liver-related mortality, incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and decompensation. A total of 233 studies show that chronic HCV infection is associated with several serious EHMs, some of which can have high mortality. Evidence from four modeling studies shows that delaying treatment to CHC patient populations could significantly increase mortality, morbidity, and medical costs. CONCLUSIONS: There is a robust body of evidence demonstrating diverse sources of value from achieving SVR in all stages of liver disease. While access to treatment is generally limited to late-stage patients, less restrictive treatment strategies that target HCV eradication have the potential to abate the burdens of mortality, liver morbidity and extrahepatic manifestations, and the associated healthcare costs.

13.
J Med Econ ; 19(8): 795-805, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27063573

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study compared the cost-effectiveness of direct-acting antiviral therapies currently recommended for treating genotypes (GT) 1 and 4 chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients in the US. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis of treatments for CHC from a US payer's perspective over a lifelong time horizon was performed. A Markov model based on the natural history of CHC was used for a population that included treatment-naïve and -experienced patients. Treatment alternatives considered for GT1 included ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir + dasabuvir ± ribavirin (3D ± R), sofosbuvir + ledipasvir (SOF/LDV), sofosbuvir + simeprevir (SOF + SMV), simeprevir + pegylated interferon/ribavirin (SMV + PR) and no treatment (NT). For GT4 treatments, ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir + ribavirin (2D + R), SOF/LDV and NT were compared. Transition probabilities, utilities and costs were obtained from published literature. Outcomes included rates of compensated cirrhosis (CC), decompensated cirrhosis (DCC), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver-related death (LrD), total costs, life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Costs and QALYs were used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. RESULTS: In GT1 patients, 3D ± R and SOF-containing regimens have similar long-term outcomes; 3D ± R had the lowest lifetime risks of all liver disease outcomes: CC = 30.2%, DCC = 5.0 %, HCC = 6.8%, LT = 1.9% and LrD = 9.2%. In GT1 patients, 3D ± R had the lowest cost and the highest QALYs. As a result, 3D ± R dominated these treatment options. In GT4 patients, 2D + R had lower rates of liver morbidity and mortality, lower cost and more QALYs than SOF/LDV and NT. LIMITATIONS: While the results are based on input values, which were obtained from a variety of heterogeneous sources-including clinical trials, the findings were robust across a plausible range of input values, as demonstrated in probabilistic sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Among currently recommended treatments for GT1 and GT4 in the US, 3D ± R (for GT1) and 2D + R (for GT4) have a favorable cost-effectiveness profile.


Assuntos
Antivirais/economia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anilidas/economia , Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Benzimidazóis/economia , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Carbamatos/economia , Carbamatos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/economia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Fibrose/economia , Fibrose/epidemiologia , Fluorenos/economia , Fluorenos/uso terapêutico , Genótipo , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/economia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Compostos Macrocíclicos/economia , Compostos Macrocíclicos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econométricos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Ribavirina/economia , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Simeprevir , Sofosbuvir/economia , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/economia , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Uracila/economia , Uracila/uso terapêutico
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