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1.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(2): 283-296, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745239

RESUMO

Adverse posttraumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) are common among civilian trauma survivors and military veterans. These APNS, as traditionally classified, include posttraumatic stress, postconcussion syndrome, depression, and regional or widespread pain. Traditional classifications have come to hamper scientific progress because they artificially fragment APNS into siloed, syndromic diagnoses unmoored to discrete components of brain functioning and studied in isolation. These limitations in classification and ontology slow the discovery of pathophysiologic mechanisms, biobehavioral markers, risk prediction tools, and preventive/treatment interventions. Progress in overcoming these limitations has been challenging because such progress would require studies that both evaluate a broad spectrum of posttraumatic sequelae (to overcome fragmentation) and also perform in-depth biobehavioral evaluation (to index sequelae to domains of brain function). This article summarizes the methods of the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA (AURORA) Study. AURORA conducts a large-scale (n = 5000 target sample) in-depth assessment of APNS development using a state-of-the-art battery of self-report, neurocognitive, physiologic, digital phenotyping, psychophysical, neuroimaging, and genomic assessments, beginning in the early aftermath of trauma and continuing for 1 year. The goals of AURORA are to achieve improved phenotypes, prediction tools, and understanding of molecular mechanisms to inform the future development and testing of preventive and treatment interventions.

2.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(1): 118-121, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378411

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tools to measure physical activity, such as pedometers, have become more prevalent and attracted popular interest in recent years. Despite this trend, research has not yet quantified pedometer-measured physical activity among Emergency Physicians. This study aims to provide the first characterization of physical activity among on-duty Emergency Physicians in terms of step count. METHODS: Emergency Physicians wore Empatica E4 research-grade accelerometers while performing routine clinical care in the Emergency Department. A publicly available algorithm was used to estimate the number of steps taken. RESULTS: Fifty-one Emergency Physicians, including thirty-four residents and seventeen attending physicians, contributed over 1500 h of accelerometer data. On average, this cohort took 577 steps per hour (SD: 72.6), totaling 4950 steps per recorded shift (SD: 737.8), which is approximately 2.6 miles (SD: 0.31). Residents walked more than attending physicians (595.9 steps per hour (SD: 99.7) vs 563.0 steps per hour (SD: 89.0), respectively; p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: The average emergency physician in this cohort walked roughly half the daily recommended number of steps during their recorded shift. Residents walk significantly more than attending physicians.

4.
BMJ Qual Saf ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding factors that drive admissions is critical to containing cost and optimising hospital operations. We hypothesised that, due to multiple factors, emergency physicians would be more likely to admit a patient seen later in their shift. METHODS: Retrospective study examining all patient visits at a large academic hospital from July 2010 to July 2016. Patients with missing data (n=191) were excluded. 294 031 emergency department (ED) visits were included in the final analysis. The exposure of interest was the time during the shift at which a patient was first evaluated by the clinician, and outcome was hospital admission. We used a generalised estimating equation with physician as the clustering level to adjust for patient age, gender, Emergency Severity Index (ESI, 1=most severe illness, 5=least severe illness) and 24 hours clock time. We also conducted a stratified analysis by three ESI categories. RESULTS: From the 294 031 ED visits, 5977 were seen in the last hour of the shift. Of patients seen in the last shift hour, 43% were admitted versus 39% seen at any other time during the shift. There was a significant association between being evaluated in the last hour (RR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.06) and last quarter (RR 1.02, 1.01 to 1.03) of shift and the likelihood of admission. Patients with an ESI Score of 4-5 saw the largest effect sizes (RR 1.62, 0.996-2.635 for last hour and RR 1.24, 0.996-1.535 for last quarter) but these were not statistically significant. Additionally, there was a trend towards increased likelihood of admission later in shift; the relative risk of admission was 1.04 in hour 6, (1.02-1.05), 1.03 in hour 7 (1.01-1.05), 1.04 in hour 8 (1.01-1.06) and 1.06 in hour 9 (1.013-1.101). CONCLUSIONS: There is a small but significant association between a patient being evaluated later in an emergency physician's shift and their likelihood of being admitted to the hospital.

5.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(10): e13909, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of physician burnout, particularly in emergency medicine, has garnered national attention in recent years. Objective means of measuring stress while at work can facilitate research into stress reduction interventions, and wearable photoplethysmography (PPG) technology has been proposed as a potential solution. However, the use of low-burden wearable biosensors to study training and clinical practice among emergency physicians (EP) remains untested. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study aimed to (1) determine the feasibility of recording on-shift photoplethysmographic data from EP, (2) assess the quality of these data, and (3) calculate standard pulse rate variability (PRV) metrics from the acquired dataset and examine patterns in these variables over the course of an academic year. METHODS: A total of 21 EP wore PPG biosensors on their wrists during clinical work in the emergency department during a 9-hour shift. Recordings were collected during the first quarter of the academic year, then again during the fourth quarter of the same year for comparison. The overall rate of usable data collection per time was computed. Standard pulse rate (PR) and PRV metrics from these two time points were calculated and entered into Student t tests. RESULTS: More than 400 hours of data were entered into these analyses. Interpretable data were captured during 8.54% of the total recording time overall. In the fourth quarter of the academic year compared with the first quarter, there was no significant difference in median PR (75.8 vs 76.8; P=.57), mean R-R interval (0.81 vs 0.80; P=.32), SD of R-R interval (0.11 vs 0.11; P=.93), root mean square of successive difference of R-R interval (0.81 vs 0.80; P=.96), low-frequency power (3.5×103 vs 3.4×103; P=.79), high-frequency power (8.5×103 vs 8.3×103; P=.91), or low-frequency to high-frequency ratio (0.42 vs 0.41; P=.43), respectively. Power estimates for each of these tests exceeded .90. A secondary analysis of the resident-only subgroup similarly showed no significant differences over time, despite power estimates greater than .80. CONCLUSIONS: Although the use of PPG biosensors to record real-time physiological data from EP while providing clinical care seems operationally feasible, this study fails to support the notion that such an approach can efficiently provide reliable estimates of metrics of interest. No significant differences in PR or PRV metrics were found at the end of the year compared with the beginning. Although these methods may offer useful applications to other domains, it may currently have limited utility in the contexts of physician training and wellness.

6.
Chronobiol Int ; 36(12): 1646-1657, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530024

RESUMO

We performed large-scale analyses of circadian and infradian cycles of human body temperature, focusing on changes over the day, week, and year. Temperatures (n= 93,225) were collected using temporal artery thermometers from a Boston emergency department during 2009-2012 and were statistically analyzed using regression with cyclic splines. The overall mean body temperature was 36.7°C (98.1°F), with a 95% confidence interval of 36.7-36.7°C (98.1-98.1°F) and a standard deviation of 0.6°C (1.1°F). Over the day, mean body temperature followed a steady cycle, reaching its minimum at 6:00-8:00 and its maximum at 18:00-20:00. Across days of the week, this diurnal cycle was essentially unchanged, even though activities and sleeping hours change substantially during the weekly cycles of human behavior. Over the year, body temperatures were slightly colder in winter than summer (~0.2°C difference), consistent with most prior studies. We propose these seasonal differences might be due to ambient effects on body temperature that are not eliminated because they fall within the tolerance range of the thermoregulatory system. Over the year, bathyphase (daily time of minimum temperature) appeared to parallel sunrise times, as expected from sunrise's zeitgeber role in circadian rhythms. However, orthophase (daily time of maximum temperature) and sunset times followed opposite seasonal patterns, with orthophase preceding nightfall in summer and following nightfall in winter. Throughout the year, bathyphase and orthophase remained separated by approximately 12 h, suggesting this interval might be conserved. Finally, although 37.0°C (98.6°F) is widely recognized as the mean or normal human body temperature, analysis showed mean temperature was <37.0°C during all times of day, days of the week, and seasons of the year, supporting prior arguments that the 37.0°C standard has no scientific basis. Overall, this large study showed robust and consistent behavior of the human circadian cycle at the population level, providing a strong example of circadian homeostasis.

7.
J Emerg Med ; 55(2): 244-251, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29954634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transitions of care and patient hand-offs between physicians have important implications for patient care. However, what effect caring for signed-out patients has on providing care to new patients and education is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether the number of patients a physician receives in sign-out affects productivity. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study, conducted at an emergency medicine residency program. A general estimation equation was constructed to model productivity, defined as new patients evaluated and relative value units (RVUs) generated per shift, relative to the number of sign-outs received, and training year. A secondary analysis evaluated the effect of signed-out patients in observation. RESULTS: We evaluated 19,389 shifts from July 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017. Postgraduate year (PGY)-1 residents without sign-out evaluated 10.3 patients (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.83 to 10.7), generating 31.6 RVUs (95% CI 30.5 to 32.7). Each signed-out patient was associated with -0.07 new patients (95% CI -0.12 to -0.01), but no statistically significant decrease in RVUs (95% CI -0.07 to 0.28). PGY-2 residents without sign-out evaluated 13.6 patients (95% CI 12.6 to 14.6), generating 47.7 RVUs (95% CI 45.1 to 50.3). Each signed-out patient was associated with -0.25 (95% CI -0.40 to -0.10) new patients, and -0.89 (95% CI -1.22 to -0.55) RVUs. For all residents, observation patients were associated with more substantial decreases in new patients (-0.40; 95% CI -0.47 to -0.33) and RVUs (-1.11; 95% CI -1.40 to -0.82). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, sign-out burden is associated with a small decrease in resident productivity, except for observation patients. Program faculty should critically examine how signed-out patients are distributed to address residents' educational needs, throughput, and patient safety.


Assuntos
Eficiência , Internato e Residência , Transferência da Responsabilidade pelo Paciente/normas , Transferência de Pacientes/normas , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internato e Residência/métodos , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Transferência de Pacientes/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carga de Trabalho/normas , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Clin Chem ; 64(7): 1005, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29954780
9.
Intern Emerg Med ; 13(7): 1105-1110, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29516433

RESUMO

Admission handoff is a high-risk component of patient care. Previous studies have shown that a standardized physician electronic signout ("eSignout") may improve ED-to-inpatient handoff safety and efficiency in teaching hospitals. This model has not yet been studied in non-teaching hospitals. The objectives of the study were to determine the efficiency of an eSignout platform at a community affiliate hospital by comparing ED length of stay (LOS) for a 5-month period before and after implementation and to compare the quality assurance (QA) events among admitted patients for the same time period. A retrospective, interventional study was conducted with the main outcome measures including ED LOS with calculation of 95% CI, mean comparison (t test), and number of QA events before and after implementation of the eSignout model. Prior to eSignout implementation, 1045 patients were admitted [mean ED LOS 330.0 min (95% CI 318.6-341.4)]. Following implementation, 1106 patients were admitted [mean ED LOS 338.9 min (95% CI 327.4-350.4, p = 0.2853)]. Nine pre-implementation QA events and six post-implementation events were identified. Use of a physician eSignout in a non-teaching hospital had no statistically significant effect on ED LOS for the admitted patients. The effect of an electronic interdepartmental handoff tool for patient safety and clinical operations in the non-teaching setting is unclear.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Admissão do Paciente/normas , Transferência da Responsabilidade pelo Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/legislação & jurisprudência , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations/legislação & jurisprudência , Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations/organização & administração , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Transferência da Responsabilidade pelo Paciente/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
10.
Am J Emerg Med ; 36(6): 1036-1039, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29502975

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The personality traits of emergency physicians are infrequently studied, though interest in physician wellness is increasing. The objective of this study is to acquire pilot data about the amount of grit, anxiety, and stress in emergency physicians using established psychological survey instruments, and to examine their associations of each of these traits with each other. METHODS: Thirty-six emergency medicine resident and attending physicians from an urban academic medical center consented for enrollment. Participants were administered the Duckworth 12-point Grit Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), which measure grit, anxiousness, and perceived stress, respectively. These are the gold standard psychological instruments for each of their areas. We analyzed the results with descriptive statistics, Spearman correlations, and linear regression. RESULTS: Nineteen residents and 17 attending physicians completed the surveys during the first quarter of a new academic year. The mean grit score was 3.7 (95% CI 3.5-3.8, SD: 0.56), the mean trait-anxiety score was 32.61 (95% CI 30.15-35.07, SD: 7.26), and the mean PSS score was 12.28 (95% CI 10.58-13.97, SD: 4.99). Only trait-anxiety and perceived stress were significantly correlated (Spearman's rho: 0.70, p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study at a single institution, emergency physicians demonstrated a range of grit, trait-anxiety, and perceived stress. Trait-anxiety and stress were strongly associated, and individuals who were more anxious reported more stress. Levels of grit were not associated with trait-anxiety. These psychological concepts should be studied further as they relate to the function and health of emergency medicine providers.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Médicos/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Emerg Med J ; 35(5): 317-322, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29545355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Emergency physician productivity, often defined as new patients evaluated per hour, is essential to planning clinical operations. Prior research in this area considered this a static quantity; however, our group's study of resident physicians demonstrated significant decreases in hourly productivity throughout shifts. We now examine attending physicians' productivity to determine if it is also dynamic. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study, conducted from 2014 to 2016 across three community hospitals in the north-eastern USA, with different schedules and coverage. Timestamps of all patient encounters were automatically logged by the sites' electronic health record. Generalised estimating equations were constructed to predict productivity in terms of new patients per shift hour. RESULTS: 207 169 patients were seen by 64 physicians over 2 years, comprising 9822 physician shifts. Physicians saw an average of 15.0 (SD 4.7), 20.9 (SD 6.4) and 13.2 (SD 3.8) patients per shift at the three sites, with 2.97 (SD 0.22), 2.95 (SD 0.24) and 2.17 (SD 0.09) in the first hour. Across all sites, physicians saw significantly fewer new patients after the first hour, with more gradual decreases subsequently. Additional patient arrivals were associated with greater productivity; however, this attenuates substantially late in the shift. The presence of other physicians was also associated with slightly decreased productivity. CONCLUSIONS: Physician productivity over a single shift follows a predictable pattern that decreases significantly on an hourly basis, even if there are new patients to be seen. Estimating productivity as a simple average substantially underestimates physicians' capacity early in a shift and overestimates it later. This pattern of productivity should be factored into hospitals' staffing plans, with shifts aligned to start with the greatest volumes of patient arrivals.


Assuntos
Eficiência , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/psicologia , Modelos Teóricos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Medicina de Emergência/normas , Medicina de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Recursos Humanos
12.
West J Emerg Med ; 19(1): 128-133, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29383067

RESUMO

Introduction: Resident productivity is an important educational and operational measure in emergency medicine (EM). The ability to continue effectively seeing new patients throughout a shift is fundamental to an emergency physician's development, and residents are integral to the workforce of many academic emergency departments (ED). Our previous work has demonstrated that residents make gains in productivity over the course of intern year; however, it is unclear whether this is from experience as a physician in general on all rotations, or specific to experience in the ED. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study, conducted in an urban academic hospital ED, with a three-year EM training program in which first-year residents see new patients ad libitum. We evaluated resident shifts for the total number of new patients seen. We constructed a generalized estimating equation to predict productivity, defined as the number of new patients seen per shift, as a function of the week of the academic year, the number of weeks spent in the ED, and their interaction. Off-service residents' productivity in the ED was analyzed in a secondary analysis. Results: We evaluated 7,779 EM intern shifts from 7/1/2010 to 7/1/2016. Interns started at 7.16 (95% confidence interval [CI] [6.87 - 7.45]) patients per nine-hour shift, with an increase of 0.20 (95% CI [0.17 - 0.24]) patients per shift for each week in the ED, over 22 weeks, leading to 11.5 (95% CI [10.6 - 12.7]) patients per shift at the end of their training in the ED. The effects of the week of the academic year and its interaction with weeks in the ED were not significant. We evaluated 2,328 off-service intern shifts, in which off-service residents saw 5.43 (95% CI [5.02 - 5.84]) patients per nine-hour shift initially, with 0.46 additional patients per week in the ED (95% CI [0.25 - 0.68]). The weeks of the academic year were not significant. Conclusion: Intern productivity in EM correlates with time spent training in the ED, and not with experience on other rotations. Accordingly, an EM intern's productivity should be evaluated relative to their aggregate time in the ED, rather than the time in the academic year.


Assuntos
Eficiência , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Internato e Residência , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
J Emerg Med ; 54(5): 702-710.e1, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29454714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency physicians differ in many ways with respect to practice. One area in which interphysician practice differences are not well characterized is emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS). OBJECTIVE: To describe how ED LOS differs among physicians. METHODS: We performed a 3-year, five-ED retrospective study of non-fast-track visits evaluated primarily by physicians. We report each provider's observed LOS, as well as each provider's ratio of observed LOS/expected LOS (LOSO/E); we determined expected LOS based on site average adjusted for the patient characteristics of age, gender, acuity, and disposition status, as well as the time characteristics of shift, day of week, season, and calendar year. RESULTS: Three hundred twenty-seven thousand, seven hundred fifty-three visits seen by 92 physicians were eligible for analysis. For the five sites, the average shortest observed LOS was 151 min (range 106-184 min), and the average longest observed LOS was 232 min (range 196-270 min); the average difference was 81 min (range 69-90 min). For LOSO/E, the average lowest LOSO/E was 0.801 (range 0.702-0.887), and the average highest LOSO/E was 1.210 (range 1.186-1.275); the average difference between the lowest LOSO/E and the highest LOSO/E was 0.409 (range 0.305-0.493). CONCLUSION: There are significant differences in ED LOS at the level of the individual physician, even after accounting for multiple confounders. We found that the LOSO/E for physicians with the lowest LOSO/E at each site averaged approximately 20% less than predicted, and that the LOSO/E for physicians with the highest LOSO/E at each site averaged approximately 20% more than predicted.


Assuntos
Medicina de Emergência/métodos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
AEM Educ Train ; 2(Suppl Suppl 1): S40-S47, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607378

RESUMO

Background: Physicians and trainees in academic health care settings face unique challenges to maintaining and enhancing their well-being compared to their community practice counterparts. Objective: Our objective was to develop a research agenda focused on well-being, resilience, and career longevity issues specific to practicing emergency medicine in an academic setting. Methods: We convened an expert group of academic emergency physicians prior to the 2018 annual meeting of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine to determine a set of uniformly accepted research priorities in the field by consensus. Results: Three themes emerged as components of a comprehensive research agenda: 1) origins and natural history of burnout, resilience, well-being and other related concepts; 2) influence of early training and the learning environment; and 3) impact of burnout, attrition, and lack of organizational or system support for wellness on operations. Conclusion: We believe that this agenda will inform future research and effective interventions to support physician and trainee well-being.

16.
J Emerg Med ; 53(1): 142-150, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28506546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient handoffs between units can introduce risk and time delays. Verbal communication is the most common mode of handoff, but requires coordination between different parties. OBJECTIVE: We present an asynchronous patient handoff process supported by a structured electronic signout for admissions from the emergency department (ED) to the inpatient medicine service. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients admitted to the medical service from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2015 at a tertiary referral center with 520 inpatient beds and 57,000 ED visits annually. We developed a model for structured electronic, asynchronous signout that includes an option to request verbal communication after review of the electronic handoff information. RESULTS: During the 2010 academic year (AY) all admissions used verbal communication for signout. The following academic year, electronic signout was implemented and 77.5% of admissions were accepted with electronic signout. The rate increased to 87.3% by AY 2014. The rate of transfer from floor to an intensive care unit within 24 h for the year before and 4 years after implementation of the electronic signout system was collected and calculated with 95% confidence interval. There was no statistically significant difference between the year prior and the years after the implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Our handoff model sought to maximize the opportunity for asynchronous signout while still providing the opportunity for verbal signout when deemed necessary. The process was rapidly adopted with the majority of patients being accepted electronically.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/instrumentação , Transferência da Responsabilidade pelo Paciente/normas , Comunicação , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transferência da Responsabilidade pelo Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Am J Emerg Med ; 35(10): 1500-1502, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28460805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variceal hemorrhage is associated with high morbidity and mortality. A balloon tamponade device (BTD), such as the Sengstaken-Blakemore or Minnesota tube, may be used in cases of variceal hemorrhage. While these devices may be effective at controlling acute bleeding, the effect on patient outcomes remains less clear. We sought to describe the number of patients with variceal hemorrhage and a BTD who survive to discharge, survive to one-year, and develop complications related to a BTD. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we identified patients at a single, tertiary care center who underwent placement of a BTD for upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage between 2003 and 2014. Patient characteristics and outcomes were summarized using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: 34 patients with a BTD were identified. Median age was 57.5 (IQR 47-63) and 76% (26/34) were male. Approximately 59% (20/34) of patients survived to discharge, and 41% (13/32) were alive after one year. Two patients were lost to follow-up. Of those surviving to discharge, 95% (19/20) had undergone transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), while 36% (5/14) of patients who did not survive to discharge had TIPS (p<0.01). One complication, an esophageal perforation, was identified and managed conservatively. CONCLUSION: In this cohort of patients undergoing BTD placement for variceal hemorrhage, approximately 59% of patients were alive at discharge and 41% were alive after one year. Placement of a BTD as a temporizing measure in the management of acute variceal hemorrhage may be helpful, particularly when utilized as a bridge to more definitive therapy.


Assuntos
Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/terapia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Idoso , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/diagnóstico , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Emerg Med ; 53(2): 252-259, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28412072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency medicine residents need to be staffed in a way that balances operational needs with their educational experience. Key to developing an optimal schedule is knowing a resident's expected productivity, a poorly understood metric. OBJECTIVE: We sought to measure how a resident's busiest (peak) workload affects their overall productivity for the shift. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational study of resident productivity at an urban, tertiary care center with a 3-year Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-approved emergency medicine training program, with 55,000 visits annually. We abstracted resident productivity data from a database of patient assignments from July 1, 2010 to June 20, 2015, utilizing a generalized estimation equation method to evaluate physician shifts. Our primary outcome measure was the total number of patients seen by a resident over a shift. The secondary outcome was the number of patients seen excluding those in the peak hour. RESULTS: A total of 14,361 shifts were evaluated. Multivariate analysis showed that the total number of patients seen was significantly associated with the number of patients seen during the peak hour, level of training, the timing of the shift, but most prominently, lower variance in patients seen per hour (coefficient of variation < 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: A resident's peak productivity can be a strong predictor of their overall productivity, but the substantial negative effect of variability favors a steadier pace. This suggests that resident staffing and patient assignments should generally be oriented toward a more consistent workload, an effect that should be further investigated with attending physicians.


Assuntos
Eficiência , Médicos/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Médicos/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Recursos Humanos , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Carga de Trabalho/normas
19.
Crit Care Med ; 45(6): e575-e582, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28333759

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates whether emergency department septic shock patients without a fever (reported or measured) receive less IV fluids, have decreased antibiotic administration, and suffer increased in-hospital mortality. DESIGN: This was a secondary analysis of a prospective, observational study of patients with shock. SETTING: The study was conducted in an urban, academic emergency department. PATIENTS: The original study enrolled consecutive adult (aged 18 yr or older) emergency department patients from November 11, 2012, to September 23, 2013, who met one of the following shock criteria: 1) systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg after at least 1L IV fluids, 2) new vasopressor requirement, or 3) systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg and IV fluids held for concern of fluid overload. The current study is limited to patients with septic shock. Patients were grouped as febrile if they had a subjective fever or a measured temperature >100.4°F documented in the emergency department; afebrile patients lacked both. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 378 patients with septic shock, 207 of 378 (55%; 50-60%) were febrile by history or measurement. Afebrile patients had lower rates of antibiotic administration in the emergency department (81% vs 94%; p < 0.01), lower mean volumes of IV fluids (2,607 vs 3,013 mL; p < 0.01), and higher in-hospital mortality rates (33% vs 11%; p < 0.01). After adjusting for bicarbonate less than 20 mEq/L, lactate concentration, respiratory rate greater than or equal to 24 breaths/min, emergency department antibiotics, and emergency department IV fluids volume, being afebrile remained a significant predictor of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 4.3; 95% CI, 2.2-8.2; area under the curve = 0.83). CONCLUSIONS: In emergency department patients with septic shock, afebrile patients received lower rates of emergency department antibiotic administration, lower mean IV fluids volume, and suffered higher in-hospital mortality.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Febre/epidemiologia , Hidratação/métodos , Choque Séptico/epidemiologia , Choque Séptico/terapia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Choque Séptico/mortalidade
20.
West J Emerg Med ; 18(2): 258-266, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28210362

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lactate levels are increasingly used to risk stratify emergency department (ED) patients with and without infection. Whether a serum lactate provides similar prognostic value across diseases is not fully elucidated. This study assesses the prognostic value of serum lactate in ED patients with and without infection to both report and compare relative predictive value across etiologies. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational study of ED patients displaying abnormal vital signs (AVS) (heart rate ≥130 bpm, respiratory rate ≥24 bpm, shock index ≥1, and/or systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg). The primary outcome, deterioration, was a composite of acute renal failure, non-elective intubation, vasopressor administration or in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Of the 1,152 patients with AVS who were screened, 488 patients met the current study criteria: 34% deteriorated and 12.5% died. The deterioration rate was 88/342 (26%, 95% CI: 21 - 30%) for lactate < 2.5 mmol/L, 47/90 (52%, 42 - 63%) for lactate 2.5 - 4.0 mmol/L, and 33/46 (72%, 59 - 85%) for lactate >4.0mmol/L. Trended stratified lactate levels were associated with deterioration for both infected (p<0.01) and non-infected (p<0.01) patients. In the logistic regression models, lactate > 4mmol/L was an independent predictor of deterioration for patients with infection (OR 4.8, 95% CI: 1.7 - 14.1) and without infection (OR 4.4, 1.7 - 11.5). CONCLUSION: Lactate levels can risk stratify patients with AVS who have increased risk of adverse outcomes regardless of infection status.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Sepse/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/mortalidade , Triagem , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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