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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(7): e2220039, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35796152

RESUMO

Importance: In the Comparison of Outcomes of Antibiotic Drugs and Appendectomy (CODA) trial, which found antibiotics to be noninferior, approximately half of participants randomized to receive antibiotics had outpatient management with hospital discharge within 24 hours. If outpatient management is safe, it could increase convenience and decrease health care use and costs. Objective: To assess the use and safety of outpatient management of acute appendicitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study, which is a secondary analysis of the CODA trial, included 776 adults with imaging-confirmed appendicitis who received antibiotics at 25 US hospitals from May 1, 2016, to February 28, 2020. Exposures: Participants randomized to antibiotics (intravenous then oral) could be discharged from the emergency department based on clinician judgment and prespecified criteria (hemodynamically stable, afebrile, oral intake tolerated, pain controlled, and follow-up confirmed). Outpatient management and hospitalization were defined as discharge within or after 24 hours, respectively. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes compared among patients receiving outpatient vs inpatient care included serious adverse events (SAEs), appendectomies, health care encounters, satisfaction, missed workdays at 7 days, and EuroQol 5-dimension (EQ-5D) score at 30 days. In addition, appendectomy incidence among outpatients and inpatients, unadjusted and adjusted for illness severity, was compared. Results: Among 776 antibiotic-randomized participants, 42 (5.4%) underwent appendectomy within 24 hours and 8 (1.0%) did not receive their first antibiotic dose within 24 hours, leaving 726 (93.6%) comprising the study population (median age, 36 years; range, 18-86 years; 462 [63.6%] male; 437 [60.2%] White). Of these participants, 335 (46.1%; site range, 0-89.2%) were discharged within 24 hours, and 391 (53.9%) were discharged after 24 hours. Over 7 days, SAEs occurred in 0.9 (95% CI, 0.2-2.6) per 100 outpatients and 1.3 (95% CI, 0.4-2.9) per 100 inpatients; in the appendicolith subgroup, SAEs occurred in 2.3 (95% CI, 0.3-8.2) per 100 outpatients vs 2.8 (95% CI, 0.6-7.9) per 100 inpatients. During this period, appendectomy occurred in 9.9% (95% CI, 6.9%-13.7%) of outpatients and 14.1% (95% CI, 10.8%-18.0%) of inpatients; adjusted analysis demonstrated a similar difference in incidence (-4.0 percentage points; 95% CI, -8.7 to 0.6). At 30 days, appendectomies occurred in 12.6% (95% CI, 9.1%-16.7%) of outpatients and 19.0% (95% CI, 15.1%-23.4%) of inpatients. Outpatients missed fewer workdays (2.6 days; 95% CI, 2.3-2.9 days) than did inpatients (3.8 days; 95% CI, 3.4-4.3 days) and had similar frequency of return health care visits and high satisfaction and EQ-5D scores. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings support that outpatient antibiotic management is safe for selected adults with acute appendicitis, with no greater risk of complications or appendectomy than hospital care, and should be included in shared decision-making discussions of patient preferences for outcomes associated with nonoperative and operative care. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02800785.


Assuntos
Apendicite , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Apendicectomia/efeitos adversos , Apendicite/complicações , Apendicite/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
2.
Ann Surg ; 2022 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35815898

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare secondary patient reported outcomes of perceptions of treatment success and function for patients treated for appendicitis with appendectomy vs. antibiotics at 30 days. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The Comparison of Outcomes of antibiotic Drugs and Appendectomy trial found antibiotics noninferior to appendectomy based on 30-day health status. To address questions about outcomes among participants with lower socioeconomic status, we explored the relationship of sociodemographic and clinical factors and outcomes. METHODS: We focused on 4 patient reported outcomes at 30 days: high decisional regret, dissatisfaction with treatment, problems performing usual activities, and missing >10 days of work. The randomized (RCT) and observational cohorts were pooled for exploration of baseline factors. The RCT cohort alone was used for comparison of treatments. Logistic regression was used to assess associations. RESULTS: The pooled cohort contained 2062 participants; 1552 from the RCT. Overall, regret and dissatisfaction were low whereas problems with usual activities and prolonged missed work occurred more frequently. In the RCT, those assigned to antibiotics had more regret (Odd ratios (OR) 2.97, 95% Confidence intervals (CI) 2.05-4.31) and dissatisfaction (OR 1.98, 95%CI 1.25-3.12), and reported less missed work (OR 0.39, 95%CI 0.27-0.56). Factors associated with function outcomes included sociodemographic and clinical variables for both treatment arms. Fewer factors were associated with dissatisfaction and regret. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, participants reported high satisfaction, low regret, and were frequently able to resume usual activities and return to work. When comparing treatments for appendicitis, no single measure defines success or failure for all people. The reported data may inform discussions regarding the most appropriate treatment for individuals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02800785.

3.
Ann Surg ; 276(1): 22-29, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703455

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) as a predictor of long-term outcomes after injury. BACKGROUND: The SVI is a measure used in emergency preparedness to identify need for resources in the event of a disaster or hazardous event, ranking each census tract on 15 demographic/social factors. METHODS: Moderate-severely injured adult patients treated at 1 of 3 level-1 trauma centers were prospectively followed 6 to 14 months post-injury. These data were matched at the census tract level with overall SVI percentile rankings. Patients were stratified based on SVI quartiles, with the lowest quartile designated as low SVI, the middle 2 quartiles as average SVI, and the highest quartile as high SVI. Multivariable adjusted regression models were used to assess whether SVI was associated with long-term outcomes after injury. RESULTS: A total of 3153 patients were included [54% male, mean age 61.6 (SD = 21.6)]. The median overall SVI percentile rank was 35th (IQR: 16th-65th). compared to low SVI patients, high SVI patients were more likely to have new functional limitations [odds ratio (OR), 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19-1.92), to not have returned to work (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.40-2.89), and to screen positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.12-2.17). Similar results were obtained when comparing average with low SVI patients, with average SVI patients having significantly worse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The SVI has potential utility in predicting individuals at higher risk for adverse long-term outcomes after injury. This measure may be a useful needs assessment tool for clinicians and researchers in identifying communities that may benefit most from targeted prevention and intervention efforts.


Assuntos
Vulnerabilidade Social , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Centros de Traumatologia
4.
JAMA Surg ; 157(7): 598-607, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35612859

RESUMO

Importance: For adults with appendicitis, several randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that antibiotics are an effective alternative to appendectomy. However, it remains unknown how the characteristics of patients in such trials compare with those of patients who select their treatment and whether outcomes differ. Objective: To compare participants in the Comparison of Outcomes of Antibiotic Drugs and Appendectomy (CODA) randomized clinical trial (RCT) with a parallel cohort study of participants who declined randomization and self-selected treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants: The CODA trial was conducted in 25 US medical centers. Participants were enrolled between May 3, 2016, and February 5, 2020; all participants were eligible for at least 1 year of follow-up, with all follow-up ending in 2021. The randomized cohort included 1094 adults with appendicitis; the self-selection cohort included patients who declined participation in the randomized group, of whom 253 selected appendectomy and 257 selected antibiotics. In this secondary analysis, characteristics and outcomes in both self-selection and randomized cohorts are described with an exploratory analysis of cohort status and receipt of appendectomy. Interventions: Appendectomy vs antibiotics. Main Outcomes and Measures: Characteristics among participants randomized to either appendectomy or antibiotics were compared with those of participants who selected their own treatment. Results: Clinical characteristics were similar across the self-selection cohort (510 patients; mean age, 35.8 years [95% CI, 34.5-37.1]; 218 female [43%; 95% CI, 39%-47%]) and the randomized group (1094 patients; mean age, 38.2 years [95% CI, 37.4-39.0]; 386 female [35%; 95% CI, 33%-38%]). Compared with the randomized group, those in the self-selection cohort were less often Spanish speaking (n = 99 [19%; 95% CI, 16%-23%] vs n = 336 [31%; 95% CI, 28%-34%]), reported more formal education (some college or more, n = 355 [72%; 95% CI, 68%-76%] vs n = 674 [63%; 95% CI, 60%-65%]), and more often had commercial insurance (n = 259 [53%; 95% CI, 48%-57%] vs n = 486 [45%; 95% CI, 42%-48%]). Most outcomes were similar between the self-selection and randomized cohorts. The number of patients undergoing appendectomy by 30 days was 38 (15.3%; 95% CI, 10.7%-19.7%) among those selecting antibiotics and 155 (19.2%; 95% CI, 15.9%-22.5%) in those who were randomized to antibiotics (difference, 3.9%; 95% CI, -1.7% to 9.5%). Differences in the rate of appendectomy were primarily observed in the non-appendicolith subgroup. Conclusions and Relevance: This secondary analysis of the CODA RCT found substantially similar outcomes across the randomized and self-selection cohorts, suggesting that the randomized trial results are generalizable to the community at large. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02800785.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Apendicectomia , Apendicite , Adulto , Apendicite/complicações , Apendicite/tratamento farmacológico , Apendicite/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
JAMA Surg ; 157(6): 532-539, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35385071

RESUMO

Importance: Social determinants of health have been shown to be key drivers of disparities in access to surgical care and surgical outcomes. Though the concept of social responsibility has received growing attention in the medical field, little has been published contextualizing social responsibility in surgery. In this narrative review, we define social responsibility as it relates to surgery, explore the duty of surgeons to society, and provide examples of social factors associated with adverse surgical outcomes and how they can be mitigated. Observations: The concept of social responsibility in surgery has deep roots in medical codes of ethics and evolved alongside changing views on human rights and the role of social factors in disease. The ethical duty of surgeons to society is based on the ethical principles of benevolence and justice and is grounded within the framework of the social contract. Surgeons have a responsibility to understand how factors such as patient demographics, the social environment, clinician awareness, and the health care system are associated with inequitable patient outcomes. Through education, we can empower surgeons to advocate for their patients, address the causes and consequences of surgical disparities, and incorporate social responsibility into their daily practice. Conclusions and Relevance: One of the greatest challenges in the field of surgery is ensuring that surgical care is provided in an equitable and sustainable way. Surgeons have a duty to understand the factors that lead to health care disparities and use their knowledge, skills, and privileged position to address these issues at the individual and societal level.


Assuntos
Cidadania , Cirurgiões , Humanos , Responsabilidade Social
6.
J Surg Res ; 276: 323-330, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35427910

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to assess the practice and perceptions of shared decision-making (SDM) by both faculty and residents at Boston Medical Center and explore barriers and facilitators to implementing SDM at our institution. METHODS: We created and distributed an online survey assessing provider demographic and training characteristics, experiences with the informed consent process, practices in SDM, and perceptions about SDM. We used descriptive statistics to summarize provider characteristics and survey responses and univariate analysis to determine associations between them. RESULTS: Fifteen surgeons and 19 surgical residents completed the survey (49% response rate). Most respondents were aware of and had a positive attitude toward SDM (91% and 76%, respectively); 35% reported having SDM training. Providers had varying levels of engagement with different SDM practices, and there were inconsistent associations between provider characteristics and the use of SDM. Often providers thought the patient's health literacy, foreign primary language, clinical condition, and socioeconomic factors were barriers to the SDM process. CONCLUSIONS: Although most general surgery faculty and residents at our institution had a positive view of SDM, they engaged in SDM behaviors inconsistently, with no clear association between clinician characteristics and specific behaviors. We identified several barriers to SDM consistent with those identified by providers in other specialties. This highlights the need for further research to study live general surgery provider-patient interactions, as well as structured SDM education to train general surgery providers to reliably engage their patients in effective SDM.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Pacientes , Tomada de Decisões , Docentes , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Participação do Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Surg Res ; 276: 100-109, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35339778

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Following the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic, there were reports of decreased trauma hospitalizations, although violent crime persisted. COVID-19 has had the greatest impact on minoritized and vulnerable communities. Decreases in traumatic events may not extend to these communities, given pandemic-related socioeconomic and psychological burdens that increase the risk of exposure to trauma and violence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study (n = 1634) of all trauma activations presenting to our institution January 1, 2020 to May 31, 2020, and same time periods in 2018 and 2019. Census tracts and associated Social Vulnerability Index quartiles were determined from patient addresses. Changes in trauma activations pre and post Massachusetts' state-of-emergency declaration compared to a historical control were analyzed using a difference-in-differences methodology. RESULTS: Weekly all-cause trauma activations fell from 26.44 to 8.25 (rate ratio = 0.36 [0.26, 0.50]) postdeclaration, with significant difference-in-differences compared to a historical control (P < 0.0001). Nonviolent trauma activations significantly decreased from 21.11 to 5.17 after the declaration (rate ratio = 0.27 [0.37, 0.91]; P < 0.0001), whereas there was no significant decrease in violent injury (5.33 to 3.08 rate ratio = 0.69 [0.39, 1.22]; P = 0.20). Stratified by vulnerability, the most vulnerable quartile had an increased proportion of all-cause trauma postdeclaration and had no decrease in violent trauma activations following the declaration compared to the historical control (rate ratio = 0.84 [0.38-1.86]; P = 0.67). CONCLUSIONS: The state-of-emergency declaration was associated with significant decreases in overall trauma, to a greater extent in nonviolent injuries. Among those living in the most socially vulnerable communities, there was no decrease in violent trauma. These findings highlight the need for violence and injury prevention programs in vulnerable communities, particularly in times of crisis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Provedores de Redes de Segurança , Vulnerabilidade Social
8.
Am J Surg ; 224(1 Pt B): 584-589, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35300857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to decreased access to care and social isolation, which have the potential for negative psychophysical effects. We examine the impact of the pandemic on physical and mental health outcomes after trauma. METHODS: Patients in a prospective study were included. The cohort injured during the pandemic was compared to a cohort injured before the pandemic. We performed regression analyses to evaluate the association between the COVID-19 pandemic and physical and mental health outcomes. RESULTS: 1,398 patients were included. In adjusted analysis, patients injured during the pandemic scored significantly worse on the SF-12 physical composite score (OR 2.21; [95% CI 0.69-3.72]; P = 0.004) and were more likely to screen positive for depression (OR 1.46; [1.02-2.09]; P = 0.03) and anxiety (OR 1.56; [1.08-2.26]; P = 0.02). There was no significant difference in functional outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Patients injured during the COVID-19 pandemic had worse mental health outcomes but not physical health outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia
9.
J Surg Res ; 275: 172-180, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35279583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) is defined as a total measure of an individual's economic or social position in relation to others. Income and educational level are often used as quantifiable objective measures of SES but are inherently limited. Perceived SES (p-SES), refers to an individual's perception of their own SES. Herein, we assess the correlation between objective SES (o-SES) as defined by income and educational level and p-SES after injury and compare their associations with long-term outcomes after injury. METHODS: Moderate-to-severely injured patients admitted to a Level 1 trauma center were asked to complete a phone-based survey assessing functional and mental health outcomes, social dysfunction, chronic pain, and return to work/school 6-12 mo postinjury. o-SES was determined by income and educational level (low educational level: high school or lower; low income: live in zip code with median income/household lower than the national median). p-SES was determined by asking patients to categorize their SES. The correlation coefficient between o-SES and p-SES was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression models were built to determine the associations between o-SES and p-SES and long-term outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 729 patients were included in this study. Patients who reported a low p-SES were younger, more likely to suffer penetrating injuries, and to have a weak social support network. Twenty-one percent of patients with high income and high educational level classified their p-SES as low or mid-low, and conversely, 46% of patients with low education and low income classified their p-SES as high or mid-high. The correlation coefficient between p-SES and o-SES was 0.2513. After adjusting for confounders, p-SES was a stronger predictor of long-term outcomes, including functional limitations, social dysfunction, mental health outcomes, return to work/school, and chronic pain than was o-SES. CONCLUSIONS: Patient-reported p-SES correlates poorly with o-SES indicating that the commonly used calculation of income and education may not accurately capture an individuals' SES. Furthermore, we found p-SES to be more strongly correlated with long-term outcome measures than o-SES. As we strive to improve long-term outcomes after injury, p-SES may be an important variable in the early identification of individuals who are likely to suffer from worse long-term outcomes after injury.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Escolaridade , Humanos , Renda , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Centros de Traumatologia
10.
J Am Coll Surg ; 234(3): 377-383, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35213502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ICD codes are used to identify patients with appendicitis and to classify disease severity for reimbursement and research purposes. We sought to compare the accuracy of ICD-9 vs ICD-10 codes in classifying appendicitis as uncomplicated vs complicated (defined as perforated, necrotic, or abscess) compared with the clinical gold standard: surgeon characterization of the appendix in the operative report. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective review of operative reports and discharge ICD-9/10 codes for patients 18 years or older who underwent noninterval, nonincidental appendectomy from January 2012 to December 2019 at a tertiary referral center. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were calculated for ICD-9/10 codes to classify appendicitis as complicated when compared with surgeon description. Chi-square testing was used to compare agreement between ICD-9/10 codes and surgeon description. RESULTS: A total of 1,585 patients underwent appendectomy. ICD-9 codes had higher sensitivity than ICD-10 codes for complicated appendicitis (sensitivity 0.84 and 0.54, respectively) and a similar positive predictive value (0.77 and 0.76, respectively). Overall, 91% of ICD-9 codes agreed with surgical description of disease, but 84.4% of ICD-10 codes agreed with surgical description (p < 0.01). Among cases classified as complicated by the surgeon, 84% (79/94) had an accurate ICD-9 code for complicated disease, but only 53.8% (57/106) of cases had an accurate ICD-10 code (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with ICD-9 codes, ICD-10 codes were less accurate in characterizing severity of appendicitis. The ICD-10 coding schema does not provide an accurate representation of disease severity. Until this system is improved, significant caution is needed for people who rely on these data for billing, quality improvement, and research purposes.


Assuntos
Apendicite , Doença Aguda , Apendicectomia , Apendicite/diagnóstico , Apendicite/cirurgia , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
J Surg Res ; 275: 35-42, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35219249

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Multiple factors signifying higher social vulnerability, including lower socioeconomic status and minority race, have been associated with presentation with complicated appendicitis (CA). In this study, we compared the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) of our population by appendicitis severity (uncomplicated appendicitis [UA] versus CA). We hypothesized that SVI would be similar between patients with UA and CA presenting to our institution, a safety-net hospital in a state with high healthcare insurance coverage. METHODS: We included all patients at our hospital aged 18 y and older who underwent appendectomy for acute appendicitis between 2012 and 2016. SVI values were determined based on the 2010 census data using ArcMap software. We used nonparametric univariate statistics to compare the SVI of patients with CA versus UA and multivariable regression to model the likelihood of operative CA. RESULTS: A total of 997 patients met inclusion criteria, of which 177 had CA. The median composite SVI score for patients with CA was lower than for patients with UA (80% versus 83%, P = 0.004). UA was associated with higher socioeconomic (83% versus 80%, P = 0.007), household/disability (68% versus 55%, P = 0.037), and minority/language SVI scores (91% versus 89%, P = 0.037). On multivariable analysis controlling for age, sex, ethnicity, insurance status, relevant comorbidities, and chronicity of symptoms, there was an inverse association between SVI and the likelihood of CA (odds ratio 0.59, 95% confidence interval 0.4-0.87, P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: In the setting of high healthcare insurance and a medical center experienced in caring for vulnerable populations, patients presenting with UA have a higher composite SVI, and thus greater social vulnerability, than patients presenting with CA.


Assuntos
Apendicite , Seguro , Apendicectomia/efeitos adversos , Apendicite/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , 34658 , Populações Vulneráveis
12.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(3): 581-587, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Firearm injury remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Because of prior lack of comprehensive data sources, there is a paucity of literature on nonfatal firearm injury. Associations have previously been shown between state-level firearm laws and firearm fatalities, but few studies have examined the effects of these laws on nonfatal firearm hospitalization rates. Our objective was to examine the relationship between state firearm laws and firearm injury-related hospitalization rates across all 50 states over a 17-year period. METHODS: In this panel study design, we used fixed effects multivariate regression models to analyze the relationship between 12 laws and firearm state-level injury-related hospitalization rates from 2000 to 2016 using the RAND Corporation Inpatient Hospitalizations for Firearm Injury Database. We used difference-in-differences to determine the impact of law passage in a given state compared with those states without the law, controlling for state-level covariates. The main outcome measure was the change in annual firearm injury-related inpatient hospitalization rates after passage or repeal of a state-level firearm law. RESULTS: Examining each law individually, passage of violent misdemeanor, permitting, firearm removal from domestic violence offenders, and 10-round limit laws were associated with significant firearm injury-related hospitalization rate reductions. Examining multiple laws in the same model, passage of violent misdemeanor laws was associated with a 19.9% (confidence interval, 11.6%-27.4%) reduction, and removal of firearms from domestic violence offenders was associated with a 17.0% (confidence interval, 9.9%-23.6%) reduction in hospitalization rates. CONCLUSION: State laws related to preventing violent offenders from possessing firearms are associated with firearm injury-related hospitalization rate reductions. Given significant physical, mental, and social burdens of nonfatal firearm injury, determining the efficacy of firearm-related policy is critical to violence and injury prevention efforts. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and Epidemiologic; Level IV.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo/legislação & jurisprudência , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Ann Surg ; 274(6): 913-920, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334655

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Determine the proportion and characteristics of traumatic injury survivors who perceive a negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their recovery and to define post-injury outcomes for this cohort. BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has precipitated physical, psychological, and social stressors that may create a uniquely difficult recovery and reintegration environment for injured patients. METHODS: Adult (≥18 years) survivors of moderate-to-severe injury completed a survey 6 to 14 months post-injury during the COVID-19 pandemic. This survey queried individuals about the perceived impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on injury recovery and assessed post-injury functional and mental health outcomes. Regression models were built to identify factors associated with a perceived negative impact of the pandemic on injury recovery, and to define the relationship between these perceptions and long-term outcomes. RESULTS: Of 597 eligible trauma survivors who were contacted, 403 (67.5%) completed the survey. Twenty-nine percent reported that the COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted their recovery and 24% reported difficulty accessing needed healthcare. Younger age, lower perceived-socioeconomic status, extremity injury, and prior psychiatric illness were independently associated with negative perceived impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on injury recovery. In adjusted analyses, patients who reported a negative impact of the pandemic on their recovery were more likely to have new functional limitations, daily pain, lower physical and mental component scores of the Short-Form-12 and to screen positive for PTSD and depression. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic is negatively impacting the recovery of trauma survivors. It is essential that we recognize the impact of the pandemic on injured patients while focusing on directed efforts to improve the long-term outcomes of this already at-risk population.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Qualidade de Vida , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
15.
J Am Coll Surg ; 233(6): 764-775.e1, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older patients with frailty syndrome have a greater risk of poor postoperative outcomes. In this study, we used a RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) framework to implement an assessment tool to identify frail patients and targeted interventions to improve their outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: We implemented a 5-question frailty assessment tool for patients 65 years and older admitted to the general and vascular surgery services from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2019. Identified frail patients received evidence-based clinical orders and nursing care plan interventions tailored to optimize recovery. A RE-AIM framework was used to assess implementation effectiveness through provider and nurse surveys, floor audits, and chart review. RESULTS: Of 1,158 patients included in this study, 696 (60.1%) were assessed for frailty. Among these, 611 patients (87.8%) scored as frail or intermediately frail. After implementation, there were significant increases in the completion rates of frailty-specific care orders for frail patients, including delirium precautions (52.1% vs 30.7%; p < 0.001), aspiration precautions (50.0% vs 26.9%; p < 0.001), and avoidance of overnight vitals (32.5% vs 0%). Floor audits, however, showed high variability in completion of care plan components by nursing staff. Multivariate analysis showed significant decreases in 30-day complication rates (odds ratio 0.532; p < 0.001) after implementation. CONCLUSIONS: A frailty assessment was able to identify elderly patients for provision of targeted, evidence-based frailty care. Despite limited uptake of the assessment by providers and completion of care plan components by nursing staff, implementation of the assessment and care interventions was associated with substantial decreases in complications among elderly surgical patients.


Assuntos
Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Avaliação Geriátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Fragilidade/terapia , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Urbanos/organização & administração , Hospitais Urbanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Melhoria de Qualidade , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/organização & administração , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 91(2): 260-264, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397950

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Violence continues to be a significant public health burden, but little is known about the long-term outcomes of these patients. Our goal was to determine the impact of violence-related trauma on long-term functional and psychosocial outcomes. METHODS: We identified trauma patients with moderate to severe injuries (Injury Severity Score, ≥9) treated at one of three level 1 trauma centers. These patients were asked to complete a survey over the phone between 6 and 12 months after injury evaluating both functional and psychosocial outcomes (12-item Short Form Survey, Trauma Quality of Life, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] screen, chronic pain, return to work). Patients were classified as having suffered a violent injury if the mechanism of injury was a stab, gunshot, or assault. Self-inflicted wounds were excluded. Adjusted logistic regression models were built to determine the association between a violent mechanism of injury and long-term outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 1,050 moderate to severely injured patients were successfully followed, of whom 176 (16.8%) were victims of violence. For the victims of violence, mean age was 34.4 years (SD, 12.5 years), 85% were male, and 57.5% were Black; 30.7% reported newly needing help with at least one activity of daily living after the violence-related event. Fifty-nine (49.2%) of 120 patients who were working before their injury had not yet returned to work; 47.1% screened positive for PTSD, and 52.3% reported chronic pain. On multivariate analysis, a violent mechanism was significantly associated with PTSD (odds ratio, 2.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.59-4.17; p < 0.001) but not associated with chronic pain, return to work, or functional outcomes. CONCLUSION: The physical and mental health burden after violence-related trauma is not insignificant. Further work is needed to identify intervention strategies and social support systems that may be beneficial to reduce this burden. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and epidemiological, level III.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Retorno ao Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Violência/classificação , Ferimentos e Lesões/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Surg Res ; 266: 373-382, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inpatient cholecystectomy is associated with higher cost and morbidity relative to ambulatory cholecystectomy, yet the latter may be underutilized by minority and underinsured patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of race, income, and insurance status on receipt of and outcomes following ambulatory cholecystectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort study of patients 18-89 undergoing cholecystectomy for benign indications in Florida, Iowa, and New York, 2011-2014 using administrative databases. The primary outcome of interest was odds of having ambulatory cholecystectomy; secondary outcomes included intraoperative and postoperative complications, and 30-day unplanned admissions following ambulatory cholecystectomy. RESULTS: Among 321,335 cholecystectomies, 190,734 (59.4%) were ambulatory and 130,601 (40.6%) were inpatient. Adjusting for age, sex, insurance, income, residential location, and comorbidities, the odds of undergoing ambulatory versus inpatient cholecystectomy were significantly lower in black (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI [0.69, 0.73], P< 0.001) and Hispanic (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI [0.69, 0.72], P< 0.001) patients compared to white patients, and significantly lower in Medicare (aOR = 0.77, 95% CI [0.75, 0.80] P < 0.001), Medicaid (aOR = 0.56, 95% CI [0.54, 0.57], P< 0.001) and uninsured/self-pay (aOR = 0.28, 95% CI [0.27, 0.28], P< 0.001) patients relative to privately insured patients. Patients with Medicaid and those classified as self-pay/uninsured had higher odds of postoperative complications and unplanned admission as did patients with Medicare compared to privately insured individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Racial and ethnic minorities and the underinsured have a higher likelihood of receiving inpatient as compared to ambulatory cholecystectomy. The higher incidence of postoperative complications in these patients may be associated with unequal access to ambulatory surgery.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Colecistectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Classe Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
J Surg Res ; 264: 117-123, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute cholecystitis is a common reason for emergency general surgery admission. The declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic may have resulted in treatment delays and corresponding increases in severity of disease. This study compared cholecystitis admissions and disease severity pre- and postdeclaration of pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of adult acute cholecystitis admissions (January 1,2020-May 31, 2020). Corresponding time periods in 2018 and 2019 comprised the historical control. Difference-in-differences analysis compared biweekly cholecystitis admissions pre- and postdeclaration in 2020 to the historical control. Odds of increased severity of disease presentation were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Cholecystitis admissions decreased 48.7% from 5.2 to 2.67 cases (RR 0.51 [0.28,0.96], P = 0.04) following pandemic declaration when comparing 2020 to historical control (P = 0.02). After stratifying by severity, only Tokyo I admissions declined significantly postdeclaration (RR 0.42 [0.18,0.97]), when compared to historical control (P = 0.02). There was no change in odds of presenting with severe disease after the pandemic declaration (aOR 1.00 [95% CI 0.30, 3.38] P < 0.99) despite significantly longer lengths of symptoms reported in mild cases. CONCLUSIONS: Postpandemic declaration we experienced a significant decrease in cholecystitis admissions without corresponding increases in disease severity. The pandemic impacted healthcare-seeking behaviors, with fewer mild presentations. Given that the pandemic did not increase odds of presenting with increased severity of disease, our data suggests that not all mild cases of cholecystitis progress to worsening disease and some may resolve without medical or surgical intervention.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Colecistite/diagnóstico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Boston/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Colecistite/epidemiologia , Colecistite/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hospitais Urbanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Admissão do Paciente/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
J Surg Educ ; 78(5): 1583-1592, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Many medical students hold negative perceptions about the surgical field that deter them from pursuing surgical training. We hypothesize that these perceptions can be sustainably changed with preclinical surgical education. DESIGN: Students were administered a 10-question survey before the educational experience, immediately after completing the experience, and 1-3 years later. Survey questions focused on perceptions about surgery. Changes in responses over time were measured and analyzed. SETTING: The study was performed in the setting of a voluntary preclinical surgical education experience. PARTICIPANTS: Surveys were administered to 217 first-year medical students who all participated in the preclinical surgical education experience from 2017 to 2019. Follow-up surveys were administered to all cohorts simultaneously and anonymously via email. RESULTS: Nine of the ten questions demonstrated statistically significant changes in perceptions from pre-experience to immediately post-experience (p < 0.048). Though attenuation was seen over time, changes in perception regarding the workload and time investment of surgical training, the role of women in surgery, and the relationships between surgeons and their patients were sustained over time (p < 0.044). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that our model of surgical education could effect long-term changes in negative perceptions about the surgical field. Many of these negative perceptions are highly concerning to medical students. As such, success in changing perceptions about length and difficulty of training, gender inclusivity, and patient-centered care in surgery is important in increasing student interest in the surgical field. This becomes relevant in the current climate of a nationwide shortage of surgeons and the need to better attract students to this profession.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Escolha da Profissão , Feminino , Humanos , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga de Trabalho
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