Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 251
Filtrar
1.
Int Braz J Urol ; 482022 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861538

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The therapeutic role of pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) in prostate cancer (PCa) is unknown due to absence of randomized trials. OBJECTIVE: to present a critical review on the therapeutic benefits of PLND in high risk localized PCa patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search of the literature on PLND was performed using PubMed, Cochrane, and Medline database. Articles obtained regarding diagnostic imaging and sentinel lymph node dissection, PLND extension, impact of PLND on survival, PLND in node positive "only" disease and PLND surgical risks were critically reviewed. RESULTS: High-risk PCa commonly develops metastases. In these patients, the possibility of presenting lymph node disease is high. Thus, extended PLND during radical prostatectomy may be recommended in selected patients with localized high-risk PCa for both accurate staging and therapeutic intent. Although recent advances in detecting patients with lymph node involvement (LNI) with novel imaging and sentinel node dissection, extended PLND continues to be the most accurate method to stage lymph node disease, which may be related to the number of nodes removed. However, extended PLND increases surgical time, with potential impact on perioperative complications, hospital length of stay, rehospitalization and healthcare costs. Controversy persists on its therapeutic benefit, particularly in patients with high node burden. CONCLUSION: The impact of PLND on biochemical recurrence and PCa survival is unclear yet. Selection of patients may benefit from extended PLND but the challenge remains to identify them accurately. Only prospective randomized study would answer the precise role of PLND in high-risk pelvis confined PCa patients.

3.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039653

RESUMO

The complement system plays a complex role in cancer. In clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), local production of complement proteins drives tumor progression, but the mechanisms by which they do this are poorly understood. We found that complement activation, as reflected by high plasma C4d or as C4d deposits at the tumor site, was associated with poor prognosis in 2 cohorts of patients with ccRCC. High expression of the C4-activating enzyme C1s by tumor cells was associated with poor prognosis in 3 cohorts. Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that the prognostic value of C1s was independent from complement deposits, suggesting the possibility of complement cascade-unrelated, pro-tumoral functions for C1s. Silencing of C1s in cancer cell lines resulted in decreased proliferation and viability of the cells and in increased activation of T cells in in vitro co-cultures. Tumors expressing high levels of C1s showed high infiltration of macrophages and T cells. Modification of the tumor cell phenotype and T-cell activation were independent of extracellular C1s levels, suggesting that C1s was acting in an intracellular, non-canonical manner. In conclusion, our data point to C1s playing a dual role in promoting ccRCC progression by triggering complement activation and by modulating the tumor cell phenotype and tumor microenvironment in a complement cascade-independent, non-canonical manner. Overexpression of C1s by tumor cells could be a new escape mechanism to promote tumor progression.

4.
Int Braz J Urol ; 472021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003610

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common oncologic disease among men. Radical treatment with curative intent provides good oncological results for PCa survivors, although definitive therapy is associated with significant number of serious side-effects. In modern-era of medicine tissue-sparing techniques, such as focal HIFU, have been proposed for PCa patients in order to provide cancer control equivalent to the standard-of-care procedures while reducing morbidities and complications. The aim of this systematic review was to summarise the available evidence about focal HIFU therapy as a primary treatment for localized PCa. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive literature review of focal HIFU therapy in the MEDLINE database (PROSPERO: CRD42021235581). Articles published in the English language between 2010 and 2020 with more than 50 patients were included. RESULTS: Clinically significant in-field recurrence and out-of-field progression were detected to 22% and 29% PCa patients, respectively. Higher ISUP grade group, more positive cores at biopsy and bilateral disease were identified as the main risk factors for disease recurrence. The most common strategy for recurrence management was definitive therapy. Six months after focal HIFU therapy 98% of patients were totally continent and 80% of patients retained sufficient erections for sexual intercourse. The majority of complications presented in the early postoperative period and were classified as low-grade. CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights that focal HIFU therapy appears to be a safe procedure, while short-term cancer control rate is encouraging. Though, second-line treatment or active surveillance seems to be necessary in a significant number of patients.

5.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039652

RESUMO

The complement system is a powerful and druggable innate immune component of the tumor microenvironment. Nevertheless, it is challenging to elucidate the exact mechanisms by which complement affects tumor growth. In this study, we examined the processes by which the master complement regulator factor H (FH) affects clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and lung cancer, two cancers in which complement overactivation predicts poor prognosis. FH was present in two distinct cellular compartments: the membranous (mb-FH) and intracellular (int-FH) compartments. Int-FH resided in lysosomes and colocalized with C3. In ccRCC and lung adenocarcinoma, FH exerted protumoral action through an intracellular, noncanonical mechanism. FH silencing in ccRCC cell lines resulted in decreased proliferation, due to cell-cycle arrest and increased mortality, and this was associated with increased p53 phosphorylation and NFκB translocation to the nucleus. Moreover, the migration of the FH-silenced cells was reduced, likely due to altered morphology. These effects were cell type-specific because no modifications occurred upon CFH silencing in other FH-expressing cells tested: tubular cells (from which ccRCC originates), endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells), and squamous cell lung cancer cells. Consistent with this, in ccRCC and lung adenocarcinoma, but not in lung squamous cell carcinoma, int-FH conferred poor prognosis in patient cohorts. Mb-FH performed its canonical function of complement regulation but had no impact on tumor cell phenotype or patient survival. The discovery of intracellular functions for FH redefines the role of the protein in tumor progression and its use as a prognostic biomarker or potential therapeutic target.See article by Daugan et al. (36).

6.
Curr Urol Rep ; 22(7): 36, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031793

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To compare laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) and robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) performed in two European tertiary centers using the classic optimal surgical definition - "MIC" - and a new optimal surgical definition: the "Novel TRIFECTA" (NT) concept. We sought to strengthen the PN evidence and to test the NT's performance. RECENT FINDINGS: The study population comprehended 505 cases of localized kidney cancer from two tertiary centers between 2012 and 2019. The NT achievement was higher in the RAPN group when compared to LPN (70.5 vs. 87.4%; p = 0.004), while no differences were found when considering the MIC criteria. Also, a similar high-grade complications rate (Clavien-Dindo > III) and operative time (105 min vs. 100 min; p = NS) were found. In the multivariable regression, the RAPN approach was a predictor of NT achievement (OR 2.45; p = 0.008). NT achievement was higher in the RAPN group, while similar results were found when evaluating the MIC criteria. The NT definition could be more sensitive to the individual-specific responses related to the PN.

7.
Eur Urol ; 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020829

RESUMO

In 2012, the European Association of Urology (EAU) Ad Hoc Panel proposed a standardised methodology on reporting and grading complications after urological surgical procedures. The aim of the current study was to assess the impact of this implementation on complications reporting for patients undergoing robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC). A systematic review of all English-language original articles published on RARC until March 2020 was performed using PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. The study selection process followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) criteria. The quality of reporting and grading complication was evaluated according to the EAU recommendations. Our analysis failed to observe a statistically significant improvement in reporting outcomes after the EAU guidelines recommendations except for three of the 14 criteria proposed (ie, follow-up duration, utilisation of a severity grade system, and risk factors included in the analyses). A lower statistically significant adherence to outcome reporting in terms of inclusion of readmissions and causes (p = 0.02), was observed. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this study, we evaluated the impact of the proposed European Association of Urology (EAU) standardised reporting tool for urological complications, in patients treated with robot-assisted radical cystectomy. A low adherence to EAU guidelines recommendations for complications reporting was observed.

10.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000001787, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890485

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessed whether prostate cancer (PCa) location might affect oncologic outcomes after focal therapy (FT) for PCa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 274 men receiving FT for PCa using either high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or cryotherapy at a high volume center between 2009 and 2018. Survival analyses using Kaplan-Meier method were used to assess any additional treatment and radical treatment rates according to PCa location. Propensity-score match analysis was used to compare oncologic outcomes of HIFU vs cryotherapy according to PCa location. Covariates were prostate specific antigen, clinical stage, prostate volume, Gleason score, maximum cancer core length, percentage of positive cores and treatment modality. RESULTS: A total of 166 and 108 men received FT with HIFU and cryotherapy, respectively. Overall, 39% (106) and 31% (85) received at least an additional treatment and a radical treatment after FT, respectively, with a median followup of 51 months. The 36 months any additional treatment-free survival was 71%, 75%, and 69% for patient with basal, mid-prostate and apical disease, respectively (p=0.7). At MVA PCa location was not significantly associated with higher risk of either any additional treatment or radical treatment (all p >0.4). After matching, there was no difference between HIFU vs cryotherapy in terms of any additional treatment rates according to PCa location. CONCLUSIONS: The PCa location does not significantly affect the rate of failure after FT. The presence of an apical lesion should not be considered an exclusion criteria for FT. Both HIFU and cryotherapy likely achieve similar medium-term oncologic results regardless of PCa location.

11.
Eur Urol Focus ; 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, only one trial compared focal therapy and active surveillance (AS) for low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). In addition, long-term outcomes of focal cryotherapy (FC) are lacking. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate long-term outcomes of FC and compare them with AS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We included two prospective series of 121 (FC) and 459 (AS) consecutive patients (2008-2018) for low- to intermediate-risk PCa. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Study outcomes were radical therapy-free or androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)-free, any treatment-free, metastasis-free, and overall survival. A matched pair analysis was performed using seven covariates. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The median FC follow-up was 85 mo (interquartile range 58-104); 92 (76%) men had International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grade 1. Among matched variables, no significant differences were present except for cT stage and year of entry (both p < 0.01). Ten-year radical therapy-free or ADT-free, any treatment-free, metastasis-free, and overall survival were 51%, 40.2%, 93.9%, and 97%, respectively for FC. No differences were noted with AS (all p > 0.05), with the exception of time to radical therapy, time to radical therapy and ADT, and time to any treatment, all being shorter for AS (all p < 0.01). Freedom from radical treatment or ADT was higher for FC (AS 10 yr 39.3%; p = 0.04). Complications were relatively rare (26.5%) and mainly of low grade (Clavien >2, n = 3); three men developed incontinence (p = 0.0814), while both International Index of Erectile Function 5 and International Prostate Symptom Score scores increased (p = 0.0287 and p = 0.0165, respectively). Limitations include absence of randomization. CONCLUSIONS: At an early long-term follow-up, FC in the context of mainly low-risk PCa is safe and increases time to radical therapy but does not provide meaningful oncological advantages compared with AS. PATIENT SUMMARY: We compared focal cryotherapy with active surveillance mainly for low-risk prostate cancer. Focal cryotherapy, despite having fewer complications, did not yield meaningful advantages over active surveillance at 10 yr. Active surveillance should be preferred to focal cryotherapy for these patients.

12.
Urol Oncol ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the advancement of imaging technology, focal therapy (FT) has been gaining acceptance for the treatment of select patients with localized prostate cancer (CaP). We aim to provide details of a formal physician consensus on the utilization of FT for patients with CaP who are discontinuing active surveillance (AS). METHODS: A 3-stage Delphi consensus on CaP and FT was conducted. Consensus was defined as agreement by ≥80% of physicians. An in-person meeting was attended by 17 panelists to formulate the consensus statement. RESULTS: Fifty-six respondents participated in this interdisciplinary consensus study (82% urologist, 16% radiologist, 2% radiation oncology). The participants confirmed that there is a role for FT in men discontinuing AS (48% strongly agree, 39% agree). The benefit of FT over radical therapy for men coming off AS is: less invasive (91%), has a greater likelihood to preserve erectile function (91%), has a greater likelihood to preserve urinary continence (91%), has fewer side effects (86%), and has early recovery post-treatment (80%). Patients will need to undergo mpMRI of the prostate and/or a saturation biopsy to determine if they are potential candidates for FT. Our limitations include respondent's biases and that the participants of this consensus may not represent the larger medical community. CONCLUSIONS: FT can be offered to men coming off AS between the age of 60 to 80 with grade group 2 localized cancer. This consensus from a multidisciplinary, multi-institutional, international expert panel provides a contemporary insight utilizing FT for CaP in select patients who are discontinuing AS.

14.
Urol Oncol ; 39(5): 296.e21-296.e29, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salvage radical prostatectomy (sRP) historically yields poor functional outcomes and high complication rates. However, recent reports on robotic sRP show improved results. Our objectives were to evaluate sRP oncological outcomes and predictors of positive margins and biochemical recurrence (BCR). METHODS: We retrospectively collected data of sRP for recurrent prostate cancer after local nonsurgical treatment at 18 tertiary referral centers in United States, Australia and Europe, from 2000 to 2016. SM and BCR were evaluated in a univariate and multivariable analysis. Overall and cancer-specific survival were also assessed. RESULTS: We included 414 cases, 63.5% of them performed after radiotherapy. Before sRP the majority of patients had biopsy Gleason score (GS) ≤7 (55.5%) and imaging negative or with prostatic bed involvement only (93.3%). Final pathology showed aggressive histology in 39.7% (GS ≥9 27.6%), with 52.9% having ≥pT3 disease and 16% pN+. SM was positive in 29.7%. Five years BCR-Free, cancer-specific survival and OS were 56.7%, 97.7% and 92.1%, respectively. On multivariable analysis pathological T (pT3a odds ratio [OR] 2.939, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.469-5.879; ≥pT3b OR 2.428-95% CI 1.333-4.423) and N stage (pN1 OR 2.871, 95% CI 1.503-5.897) were independent predictors of positive margins. Pathological T stage ≥T3b (OR 2.348 95% CI 1.338-4.117) and GS (up to OR 7.183, 95% CI 1.906-27.068 for GS >8) were independent predictors for BCR. Limitations include the retrospective nature of the study and limited follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In a contemporary series, sRP showed promising oncological control in the medium term despite aggressive pathological features. BCR risk increased in case of locally advanced disease and higher GS. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings.

15.
Pract Radiat Oncol ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422681

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Focal brachytherapy (F-BT) is a suitable technique for focal therapy in localized prostate cancer. It has the ability to adapt the seed implantation to the volume and location of the tumor. The aim of this study was to assess F-BT oncologic, functional, and toxicity midterm outcomes in men who underwent prostate cancer treatment. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The study included 39 men with low- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with F-BT between 2010 and 2015. The dose prescription was 145 Gy. Failure was defined as the presence of any residual prostate cancer in the treated area. The primary and secondary endpoints were the F-BT oncologic and functional outcomes, respectively. A 2-sided P value < .05 indicated statistical significance. RESULTS: The mean follow-up time was 65 months (range, 43-104 months). After 24 months, 34 patients underwent control biopsies and 5 patients refused. The biopsies were negative in 27 cases (79%) and positive in 7 cases (21%), all outside the volume treated. Biochemical relapse-free survival at 5 years, disease-free survival, and overall survival were 96.8% ± 0.032%, 79.5% ± 0.076%, and 100%, respectively. The mean International Prostate Symptom Score at 2 months was significantly higher than initially (P = .0003), with no significant difference later. No late urinary, sexual, or rectal toxicity was observed. Salvage treatment was possible with good tolerance at 3.4 years of follow-up. Limitations of this study include the retrospective nature and lack of randomization. CONCLUSIONS: F-BT is a safe and effective treatment for selected patients presenting with low- or intermediate-risk localized prostate cancer.

16.
World J Urol ; 39(3): 729-739, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388878

RESUMO

Focal therapy is growing as an alternative management options for men with clinically localized prostate cancer. Parallel to the increasing popularity of active surveillance (AS) as a treatment for low-risk disease, there has been an increased interest towards providing focal therapy for patients with intermediate-risk disease. Focal therapy can act as a logical "middle ground" in patients who seek treatment while minimizing potential side effects of definitive whole-gland treatment. The aim of the current review is to define the rationale of focal therapy in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer and highlight the importance of patient selection in focal therapy candidacy.

17.
Eur Urol Focus ; 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402314

RESUMO

Robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) continues to expand, and several surgeons start training for this complex procedure. This calls for the development of a structured training program, with the aim to improve patient safety during RARC learning curve. A modified Delphi consensus process was started to develop the curriculum structure. An online survey based on the available evidence was delivered to a panel of 28 experts in the field of RARC, selected according to surgical and research experience, and expertise in running training courses. Consensus was defined as ≥80% agreement between the responders. Overall, 96.4% experts completed the survey. The structure of the RARC curriculum was defined as follows: (1) theoretical training; (2) preclinical simulation-based training: 5-d simulation-based activity, using models with increasing complexity (ie, virtual reality, and dry- and wet-laboratory exercises), and nontechnical skills training session; (3) clinical training: modular console activity of at least 6 mo at the host center (a RARC case was divided into 11 steps and steps of similar complexity were grouped into five modules); and (4) final evaluation: blind review of a video-recorded RARC case. This structured training pathway will guide a starting surgeon from the first steps of RARC toward independent completion of a full procedure. Clinical implementation is urgently needed. PATIENT SUMMARY: Robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) is a complex procedure. The first structured training program for RARC was developed with the goal of aiding surgeons to overcome the learning curve of this procedure, improving patients' safety at the same time.

18.
Minerva Urol Nefrol ; 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Focal Therapy (FT) for Prostate Cancer (PCa) is promising. However, long-term oncological results are awaited and there is no consensus on follow-up strategies. Molecular biomarkers (MB) may be useful in selecting, treating and following up men undergoing FT, though there is limited evidence in this field to guide practice. We aimed to conduct a consensus meeting, endorsed by the Focal Therapy Society, amongst a large group of experts, to understand the potential utility of MB in FT for localised PCa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 38-item questionnaire was built following a literature search. The authors then performed three rounds of a Delphi Consensus using DelphiManager, using the GRADE grid scoring system, followed by a face-to-face expert meeting. Three areas of interest were identified and covered concerning MB for FT, i) the current/present role; ii) the potential/future role; iii) the recommended features for future studies. Consensus was defined using a 70% agreement threshold. RESULTS: Of 95 invited experts, 42 (44.2%) completed the three Delphi rounds. Twenty-four items reached a consensus and they were then approved at the meeting involving (n=15) experts. Fourteen items reached a consensus on uncertainty, or they did not reach a consensus. They were re-discussed, resulting in a consensus (n=3), a consensus on a partial agreement (n=1), and a consensus on uncertainty (n=10). A final list of statements were derived from the approved and discussed items, with the addition of three generated statements, to provide guidance regarding MB in the context of FT for localised PCa. Research efforts in this field should be considered a priority. CONCLUSIONS: The present study detailed an initial consensus on the use of MB in FT for PCa. This is until evidence becomes available on the subject.

20.
J Urol ; 205(1): 129-136, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119421

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Focal instead of whole gland ablation for prostate cancer has been proposed to decrease treatment morbidity. We sought to determine differences in erectile function and urinary continence after focal and whole gland ablation for prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2009 to 2018, 346 patients underwent high intensity focused ultrasound or cryotherapy for prostate cancer. Urinary continence was defined as use of no pads and sexual potency as enough erection for sexual penetration. Logistic regressions to treatment groups and covariates age, prostate specific antigen, International Society of Urological Pathology grading, prostate volume and energy modality were performed to access the effect of focal therapy in sexual potency and urinary continence after 3 and 12 months. IIEF-5 (International Index of Erectile Function) and I-PSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) questionnaires were evaluated. Propensity score matching was performed to adjust for potential baseline differences between groups. RESULTS: After exclusion, 195 post-focal therapy and 105 post-whole gland therapy patients were included in analysis. No significant difference was seen in baseline I-PSS and IIEF-5 scores. In multivariate models focal therapy was the most important factor related to sexual potency at 3 (OR 7.7) and 12 months (OR 3.9). Median IIEF-5 score at 3 months was 12 and 5 (p <0.001), and at 12 months was 13 and 9 (p=0.04) in focal therapy and whole gland therapy groups, respectively. Focal therapy was the only factor related to continence (OR 0.7, p <0.001). Results remained significant after propensity score matching. CONCLUSIONS: Focal ablation instead of whole gland therapy is the most important factor related to better sexual and urinary continence recovery after high intensity focused ultrasound and cryotherapy for prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Ablação/efeitos adversos , Criocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Disfunção Erétil/diagnóstico , Ablação por Ultrassom Focalizado de Alta Intensidade/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Incontinência Urinária/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Ablação/métodos , Idoso , Criocirurgia/métodos , Disfunção Erétil/epidemiologia , Disfunção Erétil/etiologia , Disfunção Erétil/prevenção & controle , Seguimentos , Ablação por Ultrassom Focalizado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Incontinência Urinária/epidemiologia , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia , Incontinência Urinária/prevenção & controle
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...