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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS) have high rates of shoulder instability, which place them at increased risk for instability-related arthropathy. Many studies have assessed outcomes for both primary and revision shoulder instability procedures in this patient population but there is a paucity of data regarding the outcome of shoulder arthroplasty in EDS patients. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results and complications of shoulder arthroplasty (SA) performed in a cohort of patients with EDS and compare them to a matched cohort of patients with no EDS. METHODS: Over an 11-year period, 10 patients with EDS were identified at a single institution who underwent primary SA (6 anatomic total shoulder arthroplasties (aTSA), 4 reverse shoulder arthroplasties (RTSA)). Shoulders were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 60 months (range 25-97 months). This cohort was matched 1:2 based on age, sex, and year of surgery with patients who underwent SA for either primary osteoarthritis (OA) for aTSA or cuff tear arthropathy for RTSA. EDS patients had a mean age of 55 years, mean BMI of 26.1, and were all female. The primary outcome measures were postoperative pain, range of motion, complications, and reoperations. RESULTS: SA produced similar postoperative pain, range of motion, complications, and reoperations in patients with EDS vs. controls. EDS patients improved pre- to postoperative VAS pain (6.5 to 1.7, p<0.001), elevation (96° to 138°, p=0.04), and external rotation (36° to 57°, p=0.16). Three EDS patients sustained postoperative complications (2 instability and 1 acromial fracture); however, no shoulder underwent reoperation. CONCLUSIONS: EDS patients undergoing SA can expect comparable outcomes compared to patients with primary OA or cuff tear arthropathy, with clinically meaningful improvements in pain and range of motion. Although EDS patients had no statistically significant increase in complications when compared to controls, their absolute rate of overall complications (3/10 patients; 30%) and postoperative instability (2/10 patients; 20%) in this small case series was relatively high and should be considered when performing SA.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An assessment of the pathoanatomic parameters of the arthritic glenohumeral joint (GHJ) has the potential to identify discriminating metrics to differentiate glenoid types in primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis (PGHOA). The aim was to identify the morphometric differences and threshold-values between glenoid types including normal and arthritic with the various types of the Walch-classification. We hypothesized that there would be clear morphometric discriminators between the various glenoid types, and that specific numeric threshold values would allow identification of each glenoid type. METHODS: 707 shoulders CT-scans were analyzed. 585 were obtained from shoulders with PGHOA, 122 from shoulders without glenohumeral pathology. Glenoid morphology was classified according to the Walch-classification. All CT-scans were imported in a dedicated automatic 3-software program that references measurements to the scapular body plane. Glenoid and humeral modelling was performed using the best fit-sphere (BFS) method, and the root mean square (RMS) error was calculated. The direction and orientation of the glenoid and humerus described glenohumeral relationships. RESULTS: In PGHOA, 90% of the glenoids and 85% of the humeral heads were directed posteriorly in reference to the scapular body plane. Several discriminatory pathoanatomic parameters were identified: GHJ narrowing under 3mm was a discriminatory metric for A-type glenoids. Posterior humeral subluxation over 70% discriminated B1-type from normal GHJ. The RMSerror was a discriminatory metric to identify B2-types from A-types, B3-types and normal GHJ. B3 were differed from A2 by greater retroversion (over 13°) and subluxation (over 71%). The C-glenoid retroversion inferior limit was 21°, whereas normals never presented with retroversion greater than 16°. CONCLUSION: Pathoanatomic metrics with the identified threshold values can be utilized to discriminate glenoid types in shoulders with PGHOA. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Anatomy Study; Imaging.

3.
J Orthop Res ; 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871082

RESUMO

Experimental analyses of post-traumatic knee arthrofibrosis utilize a rabbit model as a gold standard. However, a rodent model of arthrofibrosis offers many advantages including reduced cost and comparison with other models of organ fibrosis. This study aimed to characterize the biomechanical, histological, and molecular features of a novel post-traumatic model of arthrofibrosis in rats. 48 rats were divided into two equal groups. An immobilization procedure was performed on the right hind limbs of experimental rats. One group was immobilized for 4 weeks and the other for 8 weeks. Both groups were remobilized for 4 weeks. Limbs were studied biomechanically via assessment of torque versus degree of extension, histologically via whole knee specimen, and molecularly via gene expression of posterior capsular tissues. Significant differences were observed between experimental and control limbs at 4 N-cm of torque in the 4-week (knee extension: 115° ± 8° vs. 169° ± 17°, respectively; p=0.007) and 8-week immobilization groups (knee extension: 99° ± 12° vs. 174° ± 9°, respectively; p=0.008). Histologically, in each group experimental limbs demonstrated increased posterior capsular thickness and total area of tissue when compared to control limbs (p<0.05). Gene expression values evaluated in each group were comparable. This study presents a novel rat model of arthrofibrosis with severe and persistent knee contractures demonstrated biomechanically and histologically. Statement of clinical significance: Arthrofibrosis is a common complication following contemporary TKAs. The proposed model is reproducible, cost-effective, and can be employed for translational investigations studying the pathogenesis of arthrofibrosis and efficacy of neoadjuvant pharmacologic agents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glenoid component loosening is a primary cause of failure of anatomical total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) and is commonly associated with glenoid bone loss. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the outcome and survival following revision to a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) for the treatment of loosening of a polyethylene cemented glenoid component in the setting of failed TSA. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2017, 151 shoulders underwent revision to RSA for the treatment of loosening of an anatomical polyethylene glenoid component. Shoulders with staged reconstruction for the treatment of infection were excluded. One hundred and twenty-seven patients (67 women and 60 men) had a single-stage reconstruction and were available for follow-up. The mean age at the time of surgery was 70 years (range, 41 to 93 years). In all cases, the humeral component was revised and a standard glenoid baseplate was utilized. Bone graft was used at the discretion of the treating surgeon. Medical records and radiographs were reviewed to collect demographic, intraoperative, and postoperative data; to quantify glenoid bone loss; and to determine the radiographic outcome. The mean duration of follow-up was 35 months (range, 24 to 84 months). RESULTS: Revision to RSA resulted in significant improvements in terms of pain and motion. Sixteen shoulders (13%) underwent revision surgery for the treatment of baseplate loosening. Radiographic baseplate loosening was present in 6 additional shoulders (overall rate of baseplate loosening, 17%). Intraoperative fracture or fragmentation of the greater tuberosity occurred in 30 shoulders (24%). Other reoperations included resection for deep infection (3 shoulders), arthroscopic biopsies for unexplained persistent pain (2 shoulders), humeral tray exchange for dislocation (2 shoulders), revision for humeral loosening (1 shoulder), irrigation and debridement for hematoma (1 shoulder), and internal fixation of periprosthetic fracture (1 shoulder) (overall reoperation rate, 20%). Among shoulders with surviving implants at the time of the most recent follow-up, pain was rated as none or mild in 83 shoulders (65.4%) and the average active elevation and external rotation were 132° and 38°, respectively. With the numbers available, no risk factors for failure could be identified. CONCLUSIONS: Revision RSA for the treatment of loosening of an anatomical polyethylene component was associated with a 17% glenoid mechanical failure rate. Although this procedure resulted in improvements in terms of pain and function, it was not universally successful and thus needs further refinement in order to improve outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

5.
Orthopedics ; : 1-6, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561866

RESUMO

Poorly controlled Paget's disease leads to excessive blood loss following total hip arthroplasty. The effect in shoulder arthroplasty is unknown. The authors reviewed 3 patients with Paget's disease involving the proximal humerus, comparing them with 17 patients with Paget's disease but no humeral involvement. The 3 patients had an estimated blood loss of 1400 mL, 1100 mL, and 350 mL, compared with an average of 280 mL in the control group. The first 2 cases required 4 units of packed red blood cells intraoperatively, and both were not managed with bisphosphonates. Paget's disease of the humerus leads to more intraoperative blood loss and higher blood transfusion requirements, particularly in cases not managed with bisphosphonates. [Orthopedics. 2021;44(x):xx-xx.].

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a relatively frequent and oftentimes devastating complication after total elbow arthroplasty (TEA). Its microbiologic diagnosis is usually based on periprosthetic tissue culture (hereafter referred to as tissue culture), but the sensitivity of tissue culture is variable. Although implant sonication cultures have been shown to be superior to tissue cultures for the diagnosis of hip and knee PJI, only a single small study (of fewer than 10 infected implants) has assessed sonication for PJI diagnosis after elbow arthroplasty. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 112 sonicate fluid cultures from patients who underwent revision of a TEA at a single institution between 2007 and 2019, comparing results to those of tissue cultures. We excluded patients who had fewer than 2 tissues submitted for culture. Using the IDSA guidelines to define PJI, there were 49 infected cases and 63 aseptic failures. Median ages in the PJI and aseptic failure groups were 66 and 61 years, respectively. In the aseptic failure group, 65% were female versus 63% in the PJI group. We reviewed clinical characteristics and calculated the sensitivity and specificity of tissue compared to sonicate fluid culture. In addition, we compared the sensitivity of tissue culture to the combination of tissue and sonicate fluid culture. RESULTS: The most common pathogens were coagulase negative Staphylococcus species (49%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (12%). Sensitivity of tissue culture was 63% and sensitivity of sonicate fluid culture was 76% (p=0.109). Specificity of tissue culture was 94% and specificity of sonicate fluid culture was 100%. Sensitivity of sonicate fluid culture in combination with tissue culture was 84% (p=0.002 compared to tissue culture alone). CONCLUSION: In this study, we found that the combination of sonicate fluid and tissue culture had a greater sensitivity than tissue culture alone for microbiologic diagnosis of PJI after TEA. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III; Diagnostic Study.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an abnormal physiological condition that has been increasingly identified as a risk factor for complications after orthopedic surgery. Given the lack of information on the effect of MetS in shoulder arthroplasty (SA), this investigation analyzed the rates of postoperative complications and implant survivorship free from reoperation and revision in patients with and without MetS. METHODS: Between 2007 and 2017, data from 4635 adults who underwent a primary SA were collected and classified based on the presence or absence of MetS. MetS was defined as the existence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and a minimum of 2 of the following diagnoses: hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 within 1 year of surgery. Of the 4635 arthroplasties, 714 were performed in patients with MetS (anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty [aTSA] in 289 and reverse shoulder arthroplasty [RSA] in 425) and 3921 were performed in patients without MetS (aTSA in 1736 and RSA in 2185). Demographic characteristics, complications, reoperations, and revision surgery were compared. RESULTS: At a mean of follow-up of 4.5 ± 2.3 years, 67 MetS patients (9.4%) and 343 non-MetS patients (8.7%) had sustained at least 1 postoperative complication (P = .851). Rotator cuff failure was the most common complication overall, with 84 cases (1.8%) (15 MetS cases [2.1%] and 69 non-MetS cases [1.8%], P = .851), and in both MetS and non-MetS patients, followed by infection, with 68 cases (1.2%) (10 MetS cases [1.4%] and 58 non-MetS cases [1.2%], P = .913). For aTSAs, the most common complication was rotator cuff failure (84 shoulders, 1.8%); for RSAs, the most common complication was periprosthetic fracture (52 shoulders, 1.1%). In RSAs, the rates of deep infection (1.9% vs. 0.7%, P = .04), instability (3.1% vs. 1.5%, P = .04), and deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism (0.5% vs. 0.3%, P = .03) were found to be significantly higher in patients with MetS than in those without MetS. Reoperations were observed in 36 MetS patients (5%) and 170 non-MetS patients (4.3%) (P = .4). Revisions were performed in 30 MetS patients (4.2%) and 127 non-MetS patients (3.2%) (P = .19). The Kaplan-Meier 5-year rate of survivorship free from reoperation, revision, and prosthetic joint infection was equal between groups. CONCLUSIONS: A preoperative diagnosis of MetS in patients undergoing primary SA did not significantly increase the risk of postoperative complications, infection, reoperation, or revision following primary SA. However, in the RSA subgroup, complications were significantly more common in patients with MetS. Individual risk factors may be more appropriate than the umbrella diagnosis of MetS prior to aTSA.

8.
J Exp Orthop ; 8(1): 8, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515098

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The teres minor is particularly important for activities that require external rotation in abduction in the settings of both rotator cuff tears and reverse shoulder arthroplasty. This study sought to assess the incidence of teres minor fatty infiltration in a large cohort of consecutive patients evaluated with shoulder MRI for shoulder pain and to identify all associated pathologies in an effort to determine the various potential etiologies of teres minor involvement. METHODS: A retrospective review of 7,376 non-contrast shoulder MRI studies performed between 2010 and 2015 were specifically evaluated for teres minor fatty infiltration. Studies were reviewed by two fellowship trained musculoskeletal radiologists. Muscle atrophy was graded on a 3-point scale according to Fuchs and Gerber. The remaining rotator cuff tendons and muscles, biceps tendon, labrum, and joint surfaces were assessed on MRI as well. RESULTS: In this series, 209 (2.8%) shoulders were noted to have fatty infiltration of the teres minor. The rate of isolated fatty infiltration of the teres minor was 0.4%. Concomitant deltoid muscle atrophy was common, and occurred in 68% of the shoulders with fatty infiltration of the teres minor. Tearing of the teres minor tendon was extremely rare. CONCLUSION: Fatty infiltration of the teres minor can occur in isolation, be associated with deltoid muscle atrophy only, or occur in the setting of rotator cuff full tears. Thus, fatty infiltration of the teres minor may be related to a neurologic process or disuse. Further long term longitudinal studies are necessary to be elucidate the etiologies. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV.

9.
Int Orthop ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33447873

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) is associated with a relatively high complication rate, and exceptionally catastrophic complications might lead to amputation. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and aetiology of amputation performed at our institution in upper extremity limbs with a prior TEA. METHODS: Between 1973 and 2018, 1906 consecutive TEAs were performed at our institution. Upper extremity amputation was performed in seven (0.36%) elbows with five transhumeral amputations and two shoulder disarticulations. The group consisted of five females and two males with a mean age of 64 years (range, 37-80). The index TEA had been performed for rheumatoid arthritis (n = 2), rheumatoid arthritis with acute fracture (n = 2), radiation associated nonunion (n = 2), and metastatic cancer (n = 1). Mean follow-up after amputation was three years (range, 3 months-5 years). RESULTS: Mean time between amputation and TEA was 5 years (range, 2 months-13 years). The indications for amputation included uncontrolled deep infection in six (86%) elbows and tumor recurrence in one (14%) elbow. Only one elbow (14%) was fitted with a prosthesis. Six (86%) patients died at a mean of three years (range, 3 months-5 years) after amputation. CONCLUSION: The results of this study highlight a low incidence of amputation after TEA. Most amputations were the direct result of TEA complications, with infection being the most common cause of amputation. Outcomes after amputation are concerning, with poor overall survival and few patients being fit for a prosthesis.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507377

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The reasons for referral and travel patterns are lacking for patients undergoing reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). The purpose of this study was to compare comorbidities, surgical time, cost and complications between local and distant primary RSA patients. METHODS: Between 2007 and 2015, 1,666 primary RSAs were performed at our institution. Patients were divided into two cohorts, local patients (from within Olmstead county and surrounding counties, 492 RSAs) and those from a distance (1,174 RSAs). RESULTS: Local patients were older (74 vs 71 years, p < .001), more likely to have RSA for fracture, had a higher Charlson comorbidity score (3.8 vs 3.2, p < .001) and longer hospital stays (2.0 vs 1.8 days, p < 0.001) compared to referred patients. Referral patients required longer operative times (95 vs 88 min, p = .002), had higher hospitalization costs ($19,101 vs $18,735, p < .001), and had a higher rate of prior surgery (32% vs 24%, p < .001). There were no differences between cohorts regarding complications or need for reoperation. CONCLUSIONS: Patients traveling from a distance to undergo primary RSA had longer operative times and were more likely to have had prior surgery than local patients. This may demonstrate the referral bias seen at large academic centers and should be considered when reviewing RSA outcomes, hospital performance, and calculating insurance reimbursement. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relative indications of anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) and reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) continue to evolve. Some surgeons favor RSA over TSA for elderly patients with primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis (GHOA) and an intact rotator cuff due to fear of a postoperative (secondary) rotator cuff tear in this age group. However, RSA is associated with unique complications and a worse functional arc of motion compared with TSA. Therefore, it is important to understand the clinical outcomes and rates of revision surgery and secondary rotator cuff tears in elderly patients undergoing TSA. METHODS: Between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2017, 377 consecutive TSAs were performed for primary GHOA in 340 patients 70 years of age or older. The mean age at surgery was 76.2 years (standard deviation [SD], 4.9). Clinical evaluation included pain, motion, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score. Radiographs were reviewed for preoperative morphology and postoperative complications. All complications and reoperations were recorded. The average clinical follow-up time was 3.3 years (SD, 2.0). Statistical analyses were performed, and Kaplan-Meier implant survival estimates were calculated. For all analyses, a P value <.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The mean pain visual analog scale and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score at the final follow-up were 1.6 (SD, 2.2) and 78.0 (SD, 17.8), respectively. Forward elevation and external rotation increased from 96° (SD, 30°) and 26° (SD, 20°) preoperatively to 160° (SD, 32°) and 64° (SD, 26°) postoperatively (P < .001 for each). The percentage of patients who had internal rotation to L5 or greater increased from 24.8% preoperatively to 71.8% postoperatively (P < .001). Revision surgery was performed in 3 shoulders (0.8%), and the 5-year implant survival estimate was 98.9% (95% confidence interval: 97.3%-100%). There were 3 medical (0.8%), 10 minor surgical (2.7%), and 5 major surgical (1.3%) complications. No shoulder had radiographic evidence of humeral component loosening, whereas 7 (2%) had evidence of some degree of glenoid component loosening. In total, there were 5 secondary rotator cuff tears (1.3%), of which 2 (0.5%) required revision surgery. CONCLUSION: Elderly patients with primary GHOA and an intact rotator cuff have excellent clinical and radiographic outcomes after anatomic TSA, with high implant survival rates and a low incidence of secondary rotator cuff tears in the first 5 postoperative years. Age greater than 70 by itself should not be considered an indication for RSA over TSA.

13.
J Surg Oncol ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259663

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The proximal humerus is a common location for primary and non-primary tumors. Reconstruction of the proximal humerus is commonly performed with an endoprosthesis with low rates of structural failure. The incidence and risk factors for stress shielding are under reported. METHODS: Thirty-nine (19 male, 20 female) patients underwent resection of the proximal humerus and reconstruction with a cemented modular endoprosthesis between 2000 and 2018. The mean resection length was 12 ± 4 cm and was most commonly performed for metastatic disease (n = 26, 67%). RESULTS: Stress shielding was observed in 9 (23%) patients at a mean of 29 (6-132) months postoperatively. Patients with stress shielding were noted to have shorter intramedullary stem length (87 vs. 107 mm, p < .001), longer extramedullary implant length (16 vs. 14 cm, p = .01) and a higher extramedullary implant to stem length ratio (2.1 vs. 1.1, p < .001). The incidence of stress shielding was higher (p = .003) in patients reconstructed with 75 mm stem (n = 6, 67%) lengths. CONCLUSION: Stress shielding of the humerus was associated with the use of shorter stems and long extramedullary implants. The long-term ramifications of stress shielding on implant stability, complications at the time of revision surgery, and overall patient outcomes remain unknown.

14.
Shoulder Elbow ; 12(6): 390-398, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281943

RESUMO

Introduction: Cutibacterium acnes is a recognized culprit for implant-associated infections, but positive cultures do not always indicate clinically relevant infection. Studies have shown a correlation between the ß-hemolytic phenotype of C. acnes and its infectious capacity, but correlation with genetic phylotype has not been performed in literature. The purpose of this study is to evaluate ß-hemolysis phenotype, genetic phylotype, and mid-term clinical outcomes of C. acnes isolated from orthopedic surgical sites. Methods: Fifty-four C. acnes isolates previously obtained from surgical wounds of patients undergoing hip, knee, shoulder, or spine implant removal were re-cultured. There were 21 females and 33 males with an average age of 59 years (range, 18-84). Twenty-four were from clinically infected sites whereas 30 were considered contaminants. De novo ß-hemolysis was analyzed and a retrospective chart review was performed to evaluate clinical outcomes at 7.1 years (range, 0.1-12.8). Results: On Brucella agar with 5% rabbit blood, 46% of contaminant and 43% of infectious isolates were hemolytic. Type II phylotype was significantly more nonhemolytic regardless of infectious or contaminant status (p < 0.05). Type 1B correlated with a hemolytic-infectious phenotype and Type 1A with a hemolytic-contaminant phenotype but was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The ß-hemolytic profile of C. acnes did not correlate with phylotype or clinically relevant orthopedic infection.

15.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 8(11): 2325967120962515, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241059

RESUMO

Background: The rate of osteoarthritis (OA) in patients with a history of previous anterior shoulder instability (ASI) varies within the literature, with the majority of studies investigating rates after surgical stabilization. ASI appears to lead to increased rates of OA, although risk factors for developing OA in cohorts treated nonoperatively and operatively are not well-defined. Purpose: To determine the incidence of clinically symptomatic OA and identify potential risk factors for the development of OA in patients younger than 40 years with a known history of ASI. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: An established, geographically based database was used to identify patients in the United States who were younger than 40 years and were diagnosed with ASI between 1994 and 2014. Patient information, including demographic, imaging, and surgical details, was collected. Comparative analysis was performed between groups with and without OA at final follow-up as well as between patients who underwent surgical and nonsurgical management. Results: The study population consisted of 154 patients with a mean follow-up of 15.2 years (range, 5.1-29.8 years). The mean age at initial instability event was 20.9 years (95% CI, 19.9-22.0 years). Overall, 22.7% of patients developed clinically symptomatic glenohumeral OA. Multivariate analysis revealed that current or former smokers (odds ratio [OR], 4.3; 95% CI, 1.1-16.5; P = .030), hyperlaxity (OR, 10.1; 95% CI, 1.4-72.4; P = .020), laborer occupation (OR, 6.1; 95% CI, 1.02-36.1; P = .043), body mass index (BMI) (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.03-1.3; P = .012), and age at initial instability (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.02-1.2; P = .013) as potential independent risk factors when accounting for other demographic and clinical variables. Conclusion: In a US geographic population of patients younger than 40 years with ASI, approximately one-fourth of patients developed symptomatic OA at a mean follow-up of 15 years from their first instability event. When accounting for differences in patient demographic and clinical data, we noted a potentially increased risk for the development of OA in patients who are current or former smokers, have hyperlaxity, are laborers, have higher BMI, and have increased age at initial instability event. Smoking status, occupation, and BMI are modifiable factors that could potentially decrease risk for the development of symptomatic OA in these patients.

16.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213041

RESUMO

(1) Background: Arthrofibrosis is a common cause of patient debility and dissatisfaction after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The diversity of molecular pathways involved in arthrofibrosis disease progression suggest that effective treatments for arthrofibrosis may require a multimodal approach to counter the complex cellular mechanisms that direct disease pathogenesis. In this study, we leveraged RNA-seq data to define genes that are suppressed in arthrofibrosis patients and identified adiponectin (ADIPOQ) as a potential candidate. We hypothesized that signaling pathways activated by ADIPOQ and the cognate receptors ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 may prevent fibrosis-related events that contribute to arthrofibrosis. (2) Methods: Therefore, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 were analyzed in a TGFß1 inducible cell model for human myofibroblastogenesis by both loss- and gain-of-function experiments. (3) Results: Treatment with AdipoRon, which is a small molecule agonist of ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2, decreased expression of collagens (COL1A1, COL3A1, and COL6A1) and the myofibroblast marker smooth muscle α-actin (ACTA2) at both mRNA and protein levels in basal and TGFß1-induced cells. (4) Conclusions: Thus, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 represent potential drug targets that may attenuate the pathogenesis of arthrofibrosis by suppressing TGFß-dependent induction of myofibroblasts. These findings also suggest that AdipoRon therapy may reduce the development of arthrofibrosis by mediating anti-fibrotic effects in joint capsular tissues.

17.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 8(10): 2325967120959141, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134400

RESUMO

Background: The rate of elbow medial ulnar collateral ligament (MUCL) injury and surgery continues to rise steadily. While authors have failed to reach a consensus on the optimal graft or anchor configuration for MUCL reconstruction, the vast majority of the literature is focused on the young, elite athlete population utilizing autograft. These studies may not be as applicable for the "weekend warrior" type of patient or for young kids playing on high school leagues or recreationally without the intent or aspiration to participate at an elite level. Purpose: To investigate the clinical outcomes and complication rates of MUCL reconstruction utilizing only allograft sources in nonelite athletes. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Patient records were retrospectively analyzed for individuals who underwent allograft MUCL reconstruction at a single institution between 2000 and 2016. A total of 25 patients met inclusion criteria as laborers or nonelite (not collegiate or professional) athletes with a minimum of 2 years of postoperative follow-up. A review of the medical records for the included patients was performed to determine survivorship free of reoperation, complications, and clinical outcomes with use of the Summary Outcome Determination (SOD) and Timmerman-Andrews scores. Statistical analysis included a Wilcoxon rank-sum test to compare continuous variables between groups with an alpha level set at .05 for significance. Subgroup analysis included comparing outcome scores based on the allograft type used. Results: Twenty-five patients met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. The mean time to follow-up was 91 months (range, 25-195 months), and the mean age at the time of surgery was 25 years (range, 12-65 years). There were no revision operations for recurrent instability. The mean SOD score was 9 (range, 5-10) at the most recent follow-up, and the Timmerman-Andrews scores averaged 97 (range, 80-100). Three patients underwent subsequent surgical procedures for ulnar neuropathy (n = 2) and contracture (n = 1), and 1 patient underwent surgical intervention for combined ulnar neuropathy and contracture. Conclusion: Allograft MUCL reconstruction in nonelite athletes demonstrates comparable functional scores with many previously reported autograft outcomes in elite athletes. These results may be informative for elbow surgeons who wish to avoid autograft morbidity in common laborers and nonelite athletes with MUCL incompetency.

18.
J Surg Oncol ; 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095924

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The proximal humerus is a common site of primary and metastatic disease in the upper extremity. Historically, the goal of a hemiarthroplasty reconstruction was to provide a stable platform for hand and elbow function, with limited shoulder function. Techniques utilizing a reverse endoprosthesis (endoprosthetic replacement [EPR]) and allograft-prosthetic composite (APC) have been developed; however, there is a paucity of comparative studies. METHODS: A total of 83 (42 females, 41 males) patients undergoing an intraarticular resection of the humerus were reviewed. Reconstructions included 30 reverse and 53 hemiarthroplasty; including hemiarthroplasty EPR (n = 36) and APC (n = 17), and reverse EPR (n = 20) and APC (n = 10). RESULTS: Reverse reconstructions had improved forward elevation (85° vs. 44°, p < .001) and external rotation (30° vs. 21°; p < .001) versus a hemiarthroplasty. Reverse reconstructions had improved American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores (65 vs. 57; p = .01) and Musculoskeletal Tumor Society 93 scores (72 vs. 63; p < .001) versus hemiarthroplasty. Subluxation of the reconstruction was a common (n = 23, 27%), only occurring in hemiarthroplasty patients (EPR [n = 13, 36%] and APC [n = 10, 59%]). CONCLUSION: The current series highlights the improved functional outcome in patients undergoing reconstruction with a reverse arthroplasty compared to the traditional hemiarthroplasty. Currently reverse shoulder arthroplasty (APC or EPR) is our preferred methods of reconstruction in this patient population.

19.
J Arthroplasty ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to improve institutional value-based patient care processes, provider collaboration, and continuous process improvement mechanisms for primary total hip arthroplasties and total knee arthroplasties through establishment of a perioperative orthopedic surgical home. METHODS: On June 1, 2017, an institutionally sponsored initiative commenced known as the orthopedic surgery and anesthesiology surgical improvement strategy project. A multidisciplinary team consisting of orthopedic surgeons, anesthesiologists, advanced practice providers, nurses, pharmacists, physical therapists, social workers, and hospital administration met regularly to identify areas for improvement in the preoperative, intraoperative, and post-anesthesia care unit, and postoperative phases of care. RESULTS: Mean hospital length of stay decreased from 2.7 to 2.2 days (P < .001), incidence of discharge to a skilled nursing facility decreased from 24% to 17% (P = .008), and the number of patients receiving physical therapy on the day of surgery increased from 10% to 100% (P < .001). Press-Ganey scores increased from 74.9 to 75.8 (94th percentile), while mean and maximum pain scores, opioid consumption, and hospital readmission rates remained unchanged (lowest P = .29). Annual total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty surgical volume increased by 11.4%. Decreased hospital length of stay and increased surgical volume yielded a combined annual savings of $2.5 million across the 9 involved orthopedic surgeons. CONCLUSION: Through application of perioperative surgical home tools and concepts, key advances included phase of care integration, enhanced data management, decreased length of stay, coordinated perioperative management, increased surgical volume without personnel additions, and more efficient communication and patient care flow across preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative phases. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III Therapeutic.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930096

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Progressive glenoid bone loss and humeral head subluxation occur in primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis (GHOA), but less is known about the rate and pattern by which this occurs. The purpose of this study was to determine how glenohumeral subluxation and glenoid bone loss changed over time in shoulders that underwent arthroplasty and had been evaluated with radiographs at 1 or more time points over the 5-15 years before arthroplasty. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 48 shoulders that had been evaluated with high-quality radiographs both before arthroplasty and at least once 5-15 years earlier. Axillary radiographs were used to classify glenoid morphology using the modified Walch classification on the oldest, most recent, and all intervening radiographs. The mean interval time between the oldest and most recent radiographs was 8.9 years (range 5-15 years). Nineteen patients had a single intervening radiograph (mean, 6.7 years from most recent radiograph; range 4.4-8.9 years), 6 patients had 2 (mean, 5.6 years; range 0.2-13.9 years), 3 had 3 (mean, 5 years; range 2.4-8.3 years), 2 had 5 (mean, 3.4 years; range 1.1-5.7 years), and 1 had 6 (0.5 years). RESULTS: Glenoid morphology on the earliest radiograph was classified as A1 in 22, A2 in 13, B1 in 1, B2 in 9, B3 in 1, and D in 2 shoulders. Walch A patterns identified on early radiographs most commonly maintained an A pattern over time, but 20% developed eccentric wear with 5 of 35 becoming B type and 2 of 35 becoming a D type before arthroplasty. All B-type glenoids remained B type. Classic progression of bone loss along the same concentric or eccentric "track" occurred 41% of the time, with 9 of 22 A1 glenoids becoming A2 glenoids, the only B1 glenoid becoming a B2 glenoid, and 56% (5/9) of B2 glenoids becoming B3 glenoids before arthroplasty. Only 15% (2/13) of A2 glenoids developed eccentric wear compared with 32% (7/22) of A1 glenoids. CONCLUSION: In primary GHOA, humeral head subluxation and glenoid bone loss do progress over time, but not universally and not always through the same pathway. Shoulders presenting with posterior subluxation (B types) remained posteriorly subluxed. Shoulders presenting with concentric arthritis developed an eccentric pattern 20% of the time. For concentric arthritis, progression of bone loss from A1 to A2 occurred 41% of the time. For eccentric arthritis, progression of bone loss from B2 to B3 occurred 56% of the time.

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