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1.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919591

RESUMO

To improve the understanding of the pathophysiology of transposition of the great arteries with intact ventricular septum (TGA/IVS) and the cardiac remodeling occurring from fetal to neonatal life, we performed a morphometric and functional echocardiographic assessment in fetuses and newborns. This was a prospective case-control study performed in a tertiary referral center, which included fetuses and newborns with a diagnosis of TGA/IVS between 2011 and 2018. Morphometry and systolic and diastolic function parameters were compared with age and body surface-matched healthy controls. Twenty-one TGA/IVS patients were included during the study period and morphometric and functional echocardiographic data were recorded. TGA/IVS patients showed morphometric and functional changes of increased overall volume and output, predominantly in the aortic component from fetus to newborn, probably due to compensatory mechanisms secondary to brain hypoxia.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909552

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) is associated with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in neonates and adults; however cardiac structure and function in fetal CoA and the neonatal cardiac adaptation has not been described. We aimed to investigate the presence of cardiovascular structural remodeling and dysfunction in fetuses with CoA and their early postnatal cardiac adaptation. METHODS: A prospective observational case-control study was conducted in 30 fetuses with CoA and 60 gestational-age matched normal controls. A comprehensive echocardiographic evaluation was performed at third trimester of pregnancy and after birth (20 CoA and 44 controls). Additionally, myocardial microstructure was assessed in one fetus and one neonatal CoA, using synchrotron-based phase-contrast X-ray tomography and histology, respectively. RESULTS: Fetuses with CoA showed significant left-to-right volume redistribution with right ventricular (RV) size and output dominance and significant geometry alterations with an abnormally elongated left ventricle (LV) (LV sphericity: CoA median 2.4 (IQR 0.7) vs. controls 1.8 (0.4), p<0.001). Biventricular function was preserved, and no ventricular hypertrophy was observed. Synchrotron tomography and histological assessment revealed normal myocyte organization. Postnatally, the LV showed prompt remodeling becoming more globular (LV sphericity: CoA 1.5 (0.4) vs. controls 1.8 (0.3), p<0.001) with preserved systolic and normalized output, but altered diastolic parameters (LV E-wave velocity 97.0 (55.0) vs. 57.0 (16.0) cm/s; A-wave velocity 70.5 (24.8) vs. 47.0 (12.0) cm/s; A' 4.8 (5.1) vs. 6.0 (3.0) cm/s; p<0.05). The neonatal RV showed increased longitudinal function in the presence of a patent arterial duct. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a unique fetal cardiac remodeling in which the LV stays smaller from the decreased growth stimulus of reduced volume load. Postnatally, the LV is acutely volume loaded resulting in an overall geometry change with higher filling velocities and preserved systolic function. These findings improve our understanding of CoA from fetal to neonatal life. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 41(1): 175-180, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758211

RESUMO

Non-compacted cardiomyopathy (NCM) is a heterogenous myocardial disorder. Although much has been published in recent years, little is known about NCM in the neonatal period. The objective of this study is to characterize the involvement of newborns affected with NCM and to identify risk factors associated with increased mortality. This is a retrospective study including all neonates diagnosed with NCM between 2006 and 2018. Diagnosis was based on echocardiographic findings. Data were collected regarding prenatal history, gestational age and weight at birth, gender, age at diagnosis, left or biventricular involvement and associated malformations, medical and surgical treatments, and evolution. Fourteen patients were included. The median follow-up duration was 34 months (range 1-87 months). The left ventricular apex and lateral wall were involved in all cases (100%). Thirteen patients (92.8%) had other associated heart malformations. Six patients (42.8%) died during the follow-up period. Patients who had biventricular involvement and poor ventricular function presented a higher risk of death. The main cause of death was ventricular dysfunction (5/6 [83.3%]). During follow-up, eight patients (57.1%) underwent surgery for their cardiac malformations, without higher mortality. NCM must be included in the differential diagnosis of neonatal cardiomyopathy. The higher mortality observed in our series is related not only to the high association with congenital heart disease, but also to a greater presence of early and severe left ventricular dysfunction. We did not find that patients who underwent surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass had worse outcomes.

6.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 91(5): 336-343, nov. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET2-3989

RESUMO

Introducción: Los neonatos afectos de atresia pulmonar con tabique interventricular íntegro y estenosis pulmonar crítica representan un espectro amplio, incluyendo aquellos con hipoplasia significativa del ventrículo derecho. La presencia de fístulas arteriales coronarias a ventrículo derecho puede ser una contraindicación para la descompresión del ventrículo derecho. El principal objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar los resultados a corto y largo plazo durante 20 años de estos pacientes, e identificar los factores diferenciales entre ambos grupos incluyendo aquellos pacientes afectos por fístulas arteriales coronarias. Pacientes y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo donde se identificaron todos los pacientes diagnosticados de atresia pulmonar con septo interventricular íntegro y estenosis pulmonar crítica entre los meses de enero de 1996 y enero de 2018. Se recogieron y analizaron las características morfológicas del ventrículo derecho, el manejo quirúrgico, la intervención percutánea y la evolución a corto y a largo plazo. Resultados: Fueron incluidos cincuenta y un pacientes. Un total de 9 (17,6%) fallecieron durante el seguimiento. Ninguno de ellos presentaba fístulas arteriales coronarias a ventrículo derecho. La mediana de seguimiento de los restantes 42 supervivientes fue de 8,9 años (rango: 1-16). La clase funcional según la New York Heart Association en la revisión más reciente fue de 1,2. Los supervivientes del grupo de estenosis pulmonar crítica presentaban una clase funcional de 1,1 y los del grupo de atresia pulmonar con tabique interventricular íntegro de 1,6. No hubo diferencias entre los pacientes que presentaban fístulas arteriales coronarias a ventrículo derecho y los que no. Conclusiones: La presencia de fístulas arteriales coronarias a ventrículo derecho no es una contraindicación para la vía biventricular. Los pacientes con estenosis pulmonar crítica presentan una mejor evolución que los afectos de atresia pulmonar con tabique interventricular íntegro. La estrategia de apertura agresiva y precoz de la válvula pulmonar tiene una buena supervivencia global correlacionada con una buena clase funcional


Introduction: Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum and critical pulmonary stenosis in newborns encompasses a wide spectrum of disease, including cases with significant right ventricular hypoplasia and coronary artery to right ventricle fistulae, which may be considered a contraindication for decompression of the right ventricle. The aim of this study was to review the middle- and long-term outcomes of these patients over 20 years and identify differential factors between both groups, including patients with coronary artery fistulae. Patients and methods: We performed a descriptive retrospective study by identifying all patients that received a diagnosis of pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum and critical pulmonary stenosis between January 1996 and January 2018. We collected and analysed data regarding right ventricular morphology, surgical management, percutaneous intervention and medium- and long-term outcomes. Results: 51 patients were admitted. A total of 9 patients (17.6%) died during the follow up. None of the deceased patients had coronary artery to right ventricle fistulae. The median length of follow up in the 42 survivors was 8.9 years (1-16). The functional class based on the latest revision of the New York Heart Association classification was 1.2 for the overall sample. Survivors of critical pulmonary stenosis had a functional class of 1.1, and survivors of pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum a functional class of 1.6. There were no differences based on the presence or absence of coronary artery to right ventricle fistulae. Conclusions: Coronary artery to right ventricle fistulae may not be a contraindication for biventricular strategy. Patients with critical pulmonary stenosis had better outcomes compared to patients with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum. The aggressive strategy of opening the pulmonary valve early on was associated with a good overall survival and correlated to a good functional class

7.
Congenit Heart Dis ; 14(6): 1066-1077, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545015

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Three scores have been proposed to stratify the risk of mortality for each cardiac surgical procedure: The RACHS-1, the Aristotle Basic Complexity (ABC), and the STS-EACTS complexity scoring model. The aim was to compare the ability to predict mortality and morbidity of the three scores applied to a specific population. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Pediatric and neonatal intensive care units in a referral hospital. PATIENTS: Children under 18 years admitted to the intensive care unit after surgery. INTERVENTIONS: None. OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic, clinical, and surgical data were assessed. Morbidity was considered as prolonged length of stay (LOS > 75 percentile), high respiratory (>72 hours of mechanical ventilation), and high hemodynamic support (inotropic support >20). RESULTS: One thousand and thirty-seven patients were included, in which 205 were newborns (18%). The category 2 was the most frequent in the three scores: In RACHS-1, ABC, 44.9%, and STS-EACTS, 40.8%. Newborns presented significant higher categories. Children required cardiopulmonary bypass in more occasions (P < .001) but the times of bypass and aortic cross-clamp were significantly higher in newborns (P < .001 and P = .016). Thirty-two patients died (2.8%). A quarter of patients had a prolonged LOS, 17%, a high respiratory support, and 7.1%, a high hemodynamic support. RACHS-1 (AUC 0.760) and STS-EACTS (AUC 0.763) were more powerful for predicting mortality and STS-EACTS for predicting prolonged LOS (AUC 0.733) and the need for high respiratory support (AUC 0.742). CONCLUSIONS: STS-EACTS seems to stratify better risk of mortality, prolonged LOS, and need for respiratory support after surgery.

8.
Neonatology ; 116(2): 140-146, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096216

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a neonatal syndrome associated with significant morbidity and mortality that is caused by the failure of postnatal drop in pulmonary vascular resistance. In extreme cases, patients may require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy (ECMO). The aim of this study was to explore lung ultrasound (LUS) patterns in newborns with PPHN requiring ECMO. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 2014 to January 2018, LUS was performed on patients with PPHN admitted for ECMO treatment. PPHN diagnosis was based on clinical and echocardiographic findings. LUS was performed before patients underwent ECMO cannulation. An underlying diagnosis was made taking into account the patient's complete medical history, excluding LUS information. A blinded physician, unaware of the patient's clinical condition, analyzed the stored ultrasound images. Results were then compared with chest x-ray (CXR) diagnoses. RESULTS: Seventeen patients were recruited; 12 were male (70.6%). The median gestational age was 38.7 weeks, with 13 term newborns (76.5%). Twelve were cannulated for VA ECMO, with a median ECMO run of 111.2 h. Six patients (35%) survived. Patients with alveolar capillary dysplasia with misaligned pulmonary veins, fetal ductus arteriosus constriction, or sepsis had normal LUS patterns (A-lines with lung sliding). LUS showed a better sensitivity (88.9%) and specificity (85%) than CXR (55.6 and 77.5%, respectively) in identifying patients with nonparenchymal lung disease. CONCLUSIONS: LUS can provide essential information to help diagnose the underlying cause of PPHN in an earlier and more effective way than CXR. LUS is suitable for routine utilization in the intensive care unit.

9.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 54(8): 1319-1325, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932345

RESUMO

AIM: Nasal cannulas are used to provide oxygen support for infants and have been considered as a means for delivering aerosols to the lungs. To measure mucociliary clearance in the lungs of infants with congenital heart defects, we delivered radiopharmaceutical aerosols via a nasal cannula. Here we report on the pulmonary and nasal deposition of these aerosols. METHOD: A total of 18 infants (median age = 26 days; quartiles = 11-74 days) performed clearance measurements soon before or after corrective cardiac surgery. The regional aerosol deposition was assessed using gamma camera imaging. RESULTS: Cannula flow rate significantly affected pulmonary dosing. Flow rates useful for oxygen support were associated with low pulmonary deposition (2 L/min; mean, 4.5% of deposited dose; range, 2%-9%; n = 7) and high nasal deposition. Much lower cannula flow rates increased the pulmonary deposition (0.2 L/min; mean, 33.5% of deposited dose; range, 15%-51%; n = 5; P = 0.005 vs 2 L/min). The ratio of nose/lung dosing was approximately 26:1 at 2 L/min and 2:1 at 0.2 L/min. Bench studies demonstrated cannula output rates of 10.2 ± 1.7% (2 L/min) and 3.3 ± 0.4% (0.2 L/min) of the loaded nebulizer dose during a 2-minute delivery. Combining in vitro and in vivo results, we estimate that 0.46% of the loaded nebulizer dose reaches the lungs at 2 L/min vs 1.10% at 0.2 L/min during a 2-minute delivery. CONCLUSION: With the delivery system used here, pulmonary aerosol delivery via nasal cannula was very inefficient at the flow rates required to provide oxygen support. Even at low flows, nasal deposition was substantial and local toxicity must be considered.

10.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 91(5): 336-343, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952598

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum and critical pulmonary stenosis in newborns encompasses a wide spectrum of disease, including cases with significant right ventricular hypoplasia and coronary artery to right ventricle fistulae, which may be considered a contraindication for decompression of the right ventricle. The aim of this study was to review the middle- and long-term outcomes of these patients over 20 years and identify differential factors between both groups, including patients with coronary artery fistulae. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a descriptive retrospective study by identifying all patients that received a diagnosis of pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum and critical pulmonary stenosis between January 1996 and January 2018. We collected and analysed data regarding right ventricular morphology, surgical management, percutaneous intervention and medium- and long-term outcomes. RESULTS: 51 patients were admitted. A total of 9 patients (17.6%) died during the followup. None of the deceased patients had coronary artery to right ventricle fistulae. The median length of follow up in the 42 survivors was 8.9 years (1-16). The functional class based on the latest revision of the New York Heart Association classification was 1.2 for the overall sample. Survivors of critical pulmonary stenosis had a functional class of 1.1, and survivors of pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum a functional class of 1.6. There were no differences based on the presence or absence of coronary artery to right ventricle fistulae. CONCLUSIONS: Coronary artery to right ventricle fistulae may not be a contraindication for biventricular strategy. Patients with critical pulmonary stenosis had better outcomes compared to patients with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum. The aggressive strategy of opening the pulmonary valve early on was associated with a good overall survival and correlated to a good functional class.

11.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 107(5): 1416-1420, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing number of young adults living with congenital heart disease (CHD). The goal of this study was to ascertain the frequency of acute kidney injury (AKI) as well as the risk factors and outcomes associated with AKI in young adults with CHD after a surgical procedure. METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective cohort study including all patients 18 to 40 years of age with a diagnosis of CHD admitted to a quaternary care children's hospital cardiac intensive care unit postoperatively from 2004 to 2015. We defined AKI using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria for serum creatinine. We explored potential susceptibilities and exposures for AKI using multivariable logistic regression and determined the association of AKI with duration of mechanical ventilation and length of stay using Poisson regression. RESULTS: In 699 consecutively admitted patients AKI occurred in 13.2%. Suspected sepsis (odds ratio [OR], 2.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17 to 7.05), exposure to calcineurin inhibitors (OR, 5.80; 95% CI, 1.06 to 31.59), vancomycin (OR, 3.35; 95% CI, 1.11 to 10.14), and piperacillin-tazobactam (OR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.23 to 13.78) increased the odds of AKI even after controlling for age, ejection fraction, recent cardiac catheterization, repeat cardiopulmonary bypass, bypass time, cross-clamp time, and other potential nephrotoxic medications. AKI was associated with a longer duration of mechanical ventilation (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.89) and intensive care unit length of stay (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.30 to 1.72). CONCLUSIONS: AKI is common in young adults with CHD postoperatively and is associated with negative outcomes. The results highlight the importance future research and clinical efforts aimed at prevention and improved management of AKI in this patient group.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 107(6): 1831-1837, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with acquired and congenital heart disease both have low mortality but an increased risk of neurologic morbidity that is multifactorial. Our hypothesis was that acute neurologic injuries contribute to mortality in such children and are an important cause of death. METHODS: All admissions to the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) from January 2011 through January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were assessed for any acute neurologic events (ANEs) during admission, as defined by radiologic findings or seizures documented on an electroencephalogram. RESULTS: Of the 1,573 children admitted to the CICU, the incidence of ANEs was 8.6%. Mortality of the ANE group was 16.3% compared with 1.5% for those who did not have an ANE. The odds ratio for death with ANEs was 8.55 (95% confidence interval, 4.56 to 16.03). Patients with ANEs had a longer hospital length of stay than those without ANEs (41.4 ± 4 vs 14.2 ± 0.6 days; p < 0.001). Need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, previous cardiac arrest, and prematurity were independently associated with the presence of an ANE. CONCLUSIONS: Neurologic injuries are common in pediatric CICUs and are associated with an increase in mortality and hospital length of stay. Children admitted to the CICU are likely to benefit from improved surveillance and neuroprotective strategies to prevent neurologic death.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Cardiopatias/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/mortalidade , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 20(1): 27-37, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395106

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Examine the relationship between perioperative renal regional tissue oximetry, urinary biomarkers, and acute kidney injury in infants after congenital cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN: Prospective, observational. SETTING: Cardiac operating room and cardiac ICU. PATIENTS: Neonates and infants without history of kidney injury or anatomic renal abnormality. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Renal regional tissue oximetry was measured intraoperatively and for 48 hours postoperatively. Urinary levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 together with insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 were measured preoperatively, 2, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively. Patients were categorized as no acute kidney injury, stage 1, or Stage 2-3 acute kidney injury using the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria with 43 of 70 (61%) meeting criteria for any stage acute kidney injury. Stage 2-3 acute kidney injury patients had higher tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 at 2 hours (0.3 vs 0.14 for stage 1 acute kidney injury and 0.05 for no acute kidney injury; p = 0.052) and 24 hours postoperatively (1.71 vs 0.27 for stage 1 acute kidney injury and 0.19 for no acute kidney injury, p = 0.027) and higher neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels at 24 hours postoperatively (10.3 vs 3.4 for stage 1 acute kidney injury and 6.2 for no acute kidney injury, p = 0.019). Stage 2-3 acute kidney injury patients had lower mean cardiac ICU renal regional tissue oximetry (66% vs 79% for stage 1 acute kidney injury and 84% for no acute kidney injury, p = 0.038). Regression analyses showed that tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 at 2 hours postoperatively and nadir intraoperative renal regional tissue oximetry to be independent predictors of postoperative kidney damage as measured by urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. CONCLUSIONS: We observed modest differences in perioperative renal regional tissue oximetry and urinary biomarker levels compared between acute kidney injury groups classified by creatinine-dependent Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria, but there were significant correlations between renal regional tissue oximetry, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7, and postoperative neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels. Kidney injury after infant cardiac surgery may be undetectable by functional assessment (creatinine) alone, and continuous monitoring of renal regional tissue oximetry may be more sensitive to important subclinical acute kidney injury.

14.
Front Pediatr ; 6: 297, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30416991

RESUMO

Indications for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) are expanding, and echocardiography is a tool of utmost importance to assess safety, effectiveness and readiness for circuit initiation and separation. Echocardiography is key to anticipating complications and improving outcomes. Understanding the patient's as well as the ECMO circuit's anatomy and physiology is crucial prior to any ECMO echocardiographic evaluation. It is also vital to acknowledge that the utility of echocardiography in ECMO patients is not limited to the evaluation of cardiac function, and that clinical decisions should not be made exclusively upon echocardiographic findings. Though echocardiography has specific indications and applications, it also has limitations, characterized as: prior to and during cannulation, throughout the ECMO run, upon separation and after separation from the circuit. The use of specific and consistent echocardiographic protocols for patients on ECMO is recommended.

16.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 19(5): 451-458, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29528976

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify patient- and disease-related factors related to survival and favorable outcomes for children who underwent extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation after a refractory cardiac arrest. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study with prospective assessment of long-term functional outcome. PATIENTS: Fifty-six consecutive children undergoing extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation at our institution from 2007 to 2015. Median age at arrest was 3.5 months (interquartile range, 1-53). SETTING: Tertiary pediatric university hospital with a referral heart center. INTERVENTIONS: Health-related quality of life and family functioning assessment with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory and the McMaster Family Assessment Device. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Fifty-eight consecutive extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation episodes were included, with 46 (79.3%) related to primary cardiac conditions. Initial cannulation site was central in 19 (32.8%) and peripheral in 39 (67.2%). Survival to decannulation was 77.6% with survival at hospital discharge and at the end of the follow-up period being 65.5% and 62.1%, respectively. Time to follow-up was 38 months (interquartile range, 19-52). Patients who survived tended to be younger (3.5 mo [1 mo to 2 yr] vs 7 mo [1.25 mo to 17 yr]; p = 0.3) with decreased extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation times (28 min [15-47 min] vs 37.5 min [28.5-55 min]; p = 0.04). Those who received therapeutic hypothermia tended to have higher hospital survival (21/28 [75%] vs 16/29 [55%]; p = 0.08). Follow-up assessments of survivors demonstrated good quality of life and family functioning (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, 84 [76-89.5]; McMaster Family Assessment Device, 1.62 [1.33-1.83]). CONCLUSIONS: In this series, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation was associated with relatively high survival rates and a good health-related quality of life and family functioning. Larger series are needed to assess whether this technique should be more broadly available in the pediatric critical care community.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 89(1): 31-35, feb. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-887810

RESUMO

Resumen: El retorno venoso pulmonar anómalo total se caracteriza por la falla de conexión entre la aurícula primitiva y el retorno venoso pulmonar, este último se conecta al retorno venoso sistémico a través de la persistencia de conexiones embrionarias. En esta patología, el ventrículo izquierdo suele tener un tamaño en el límite inferior de la normalidad, con una aurícula izquierda pequeña y atrófica. En el período posoperatorio las cavidades izquierdas deben manejar todo el retorno venoso pulmonar, lo que podría determinar sobrecarga de estas cavidades. Presentamos dos casos de posoperatorio de retorno venoso pulmonar anómalo total, evaluando la relación entre el tamaño auricular izquierdo y los niveles de péptido natriurético. Se plantea como hipótesis una disfunción en el llenado de cavidades izquierdas como sustrato causal de este fenómeno, teniendo como consecuencia modificaciones adaptativas anatómicas y funcionales. La determinación de los niveles de péptido natriurético podría ser útil en la monitorización de este proceso adaptativo.


Summary: Total anomalous pulmonary venous return is a congenital heart disease characterized by failure of connection between the primitive left atrium and the pulmonary venous return, the latter drains to the systemic venous return trough persistent embryologic connections. In this pathology there is a normal size, but rather small, left ventricle with a small and undeveloped left atrium. In the postoperative period, the left chambers must handle all the pulmonary venous return, which could mean an increased wall stress. The study presents two cases of Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return, and the behavior of left atrial size and natriuretic peptide level after surgery. We set a hypothesis by which a dysfunction in the filling of the left chambers could explain this phenomenon and how this triggers compensatory modifications. Analyzing the level of natriuretic peptide might help monitor this process.


Assuntos
Humanos , Síndrome de Cimitarra/cirurgia , Evolução Clínica , Período Pós-Operatório , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/análise
19.
Pediatr Neurol ; 72: 56-61, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28571730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Newborns with congenital heart disease have associated brain damage that affects short-and long-term neurodevelopment. Several neuronal biomarkers exist that could predict brain damage. We investigated the pattern of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and s100B levels after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery in neonates with congenital heart disease. METHODS: We completed a prospective observational study of neonates with congenital heart disease who were undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. NSE and s100B levels were measured from serum samples obtained preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and once daily on postoperative days one to seven. Cranial ultrasounds were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively and findings were scored using an internally developed scoring system. RESULTS: Eighteen neonates were included. Immediate postoperative and peak levels of both NSE (58.0 [21.6] and 68.1 [55.7] µg/L) and s100B (0.14 [0.3] and 0.14 [0.3] µg/L) were significantly increased when compared with preoperative levels (34.0 [21.6] µg/L; P < 0.01 and 0.08 [0.1] µg/L; P < 0.02). By postoperative day seven, NSE and s100B levels were lower than preoperative levels: NSE (18 [5.7]; P = 0.09) and s100B (0.03 [0.05]; P < 0.01). Postoperative s100B levels were negatively correlated with age at surgery and positively correlated with circulatory arrest time. Although there was no significant correlation between either NSE or s100B levels and intensive care unit length of stay, hospital length of stay, and pediatric cerebral performance category score, there was a negative correlation between postoperative levels of NSE and ventriculomegaly. CONCLUSIONS: NSE and s100B levels increase after bypass surgery and return below preoperative baseline levels by postoperative day seven. The levels of s100B were positively correlated with circulatory arrest time and negatively correlated with age at time of surgery. This finding may be supportive of pre-existing prenatal brain injury that could be enhanced by longer surgical times but also of some brain protection effect associated with longer wait until surgery.


Assuntos
Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Cardiopatias Congênitas/sangue , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/sangue , Subunidade beta da Proteína Ligante de Cálcio S100/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Front Pediatr ; 5: 79, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28484689

RESUMO

Pericardial effusion (PEff) is defined by an increase in the physiological amount of fluid within the pericardial space. It can appear following different medical conditions, mainly related to inflammation and cardiac surgery. Cardiac tamponade is a critical condition that occurs after sudden and/or excessive accumulation of fluid in the pericardial space that restricts appropriate filling of the cardiac chambers disturbing normal hemodynamics and ultimately causing hypotension and cardiac arrest. It is, therefore, a life-threatening condition that must be diagnosed as soon as possible for correct treatment and management. Echocardiographic evaluation of PEff is paramount for timely and appropriate diagnosis and management. A structured echocardiographic approach including two-dimensional, M-mode, and Doppler echocardiographic evaluation assessing (i) quantity and quality of pericardial fluid, (ii) collapse of cardiac chambers, (iii) respiratory variation of the ventricular diameters, (iv) inferior vena cava collapsibility, and (v) flow patterns in atrioventricular valves should give the bedside clinician the necessary information to appropriately manage PEff. Here, we review these key echocardiographic signs that will ensure an appropriate assessment of a patient with PEff and/or cardiac tamponade.

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