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1.
Heart ; 105(8): 616-622, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays enable the early risk stratification of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome to identify those at low risk of myocardial infarction or cardiac death. We evaluated the performance of a novel high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assay in early rule out pathways. METHODS: In 1920 patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome, cardiac troponin was measured using the Siemens Atellica high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assay (99th centile: 34 ng/L women, 53 ng/L men). We evaluated three pathways which use either low risk-stratification thresholds of cardiac troponin (High-SensitivityTroponin in the Evaluation of patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (High-STEACS) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 1 hour pathway) or the 99th centile diagnostic threshold (ESC 3 hour pathway) to rule out myocardial infarction. RESULTS: The primary outcome of myocardial infarction or cardiac death at 30 days occurred in 14.4% (277/1920). The High-STEACS pathway ruled out 63% of patients (1218/1920), with five missed events for a negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.5% (95% CI (CI) 99.1% to 99.8%). Similar performance was observed for the ESC 1 hour pathway with an NPV of 99.0% (97.6% to 99.8%). In contrast, the ESC 3 hour pathway ruled out 65% of patients (1248/1920), but missed 25 events for an NPV of 98.0% (97.1% to 98.7%). CONCLUSIONS: A novel high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assay can safely identify patients at low risk of myocardial infarction or cardiac death. Diagnostic pathways that use low cardiac troponin concentrations for risk stratification miss fewer events than those that rely on the 99th centile to rule out myocardial infarction. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT1852123.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Procedimentos Clínicos , Morte , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Escócia/epidemiologia
2.
Circulation ; 138(16): 1654-1665, 2018 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays can help to identify patients who are at low risk of myocardial infarction in the emergency department. We aimed to determine whether the addition of clinical risk scores would improve the safety of early rule-out pathways for myocardial infarction. METHODS: In 1935 patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of 2 rule-out pathways alone or in conjunction with low-risk TIMI (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) (0 or 1), GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) (≤108), EDACS (Emergency Department Assessment of Chest Pain Score) (<16), or HEART (History, ECG, Age, Risk factors, Troponin) (≤3) scores. The European Society of Cardiology 3-hour pathway uses a single diagnostic threshold (99th percentile), whereas the High-STEACS (High-Sensitivity Troponin in the Evaluation of Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome) pathway applies different thresholds to rule out (<5 ng/L) and rule in (>99th percentile) myocardial infarction. RESULTS: Myocardial infarction or cardiac death during the index presentation or at 30 days occurred in 14.3% of patients (276/1935). The European Society of Cardiology pathway ruled out 70%, with 27 missed events giving a negative predictive value of 97.9% (95% CI, 97.1-98.6). The addition of a HEART score ≤3 reduced the proportion ruled out by the European Society of Cardiology pathway to 25% but improved the negative predictive value to 99.7% (95% CI, 99.0-100; P<0.001). The High-STEACS pathway ruled out 65%, with 3 missed events for a negative predictive value of 99.7% (95% CI, 99.4-99.9). No risk score improved the negative predictive value of the High-STEACS pathways, but all reduced the proportion ruled out (24% to 47%; P<0.001 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical risk scores significantly improved the safety of the European Society of Cardiology 3-hour pathway, which relies on a single cardiac troponin threshold at the 99th percentile to rule in and rule out myocardial infarction. Where lower thresholds are used to rule out myocardial infarction, as applied in the High-STEACS pathway, risk scores halve the proportion of patients ruled out without improving safety. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01852123.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Lancet ; 392(10151): 919-928, 2018 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays permit use of lower thresholds for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, but whether this improves clinical outcomes is unknown. We aimed to determine whether the introduction of a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assay with a sex-specific 99th centile diagnostic threshold would reduce subsequent myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: In this stepped-wedge, cluster-randomised controlled trial across ten secondary or tertiary care hospitals in Scotland, we evaluated the implementation of an hs-cTnI assay in consecutive patients who had been admitted to the hospitals' emergency departments with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they presented with suspected acute coronary syndrome and had paired cardiac troponin measurements from the standard care and trial assays. During a validation phase of 6-12 months, results from the hs-cTnI assay were concealed from the attending clinician, and a contemporary cardiac troponin I (cTnI) assay was used to guide care. Hospitals were randomly allocated to early (n=5 hospitals) or late (n=5 hospitals) implementation, in which the high-sensitivity assay and sex-specific 99th centile diagnostic threshold was introduced immediately after the 6-month validation phase or was deferred for a further 6 months. Patients reclassified by the high-sensitivity assay were defined as those with an increased hs-cTnI concentration in whom cTnI concentrations were below the diagnostic threshold on the contemporary assay. The primary outcome was subsequent myocardial infarction or death from cardiovascular causes at 1 year after initial presentation. Outcomes were compared in patients reclassified by the high-sensitivity assay before and after its implementation by use of an adjusted generalised linear mixed model. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01852123. FINDINGS: Between June 10, 2013, and March 3, 2016, we enrolled 48 282 consecutive patients (61 [SD 17] years, 47% women) of whom 10 360 (21%) patients had cTnI concentrations greater than those of the 99th centile of the normal range of values, who were identified by the contemporary assay or the high-sensitivity assay. The high-sensitivity assay reclassified 1771 (17%) of 10 360 patients with myocardial injury or infarction who were not identified by the contemporary assay. In those reclassified, subsequent myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death within 1 year occurred in 105 (15%) of 720 patients in the validation phase and 131 (12%) of 1051 patients in the implementation phase (adjusted odds ratio for implementation vs validation phase 1·10, 95% CI 0·75 to 1·61; p=0·620). INTERPRETATION: Use of a high-sensitivity assay prompted reclassification of 1771 (17%) of 10 360 patients with myocardial injury or infarction, but was not associated with a lower subsequent incidence of myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death at 1 year. Our findings question whether the diagnostic threshold for myocardial infarction should be based on the 99th centile derived from a normal reference population. FUNDING: The British Heart Foundation.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
4.
JAMA ; 318(19): 1913-1924, 2017 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29127948

RESUMO

Importance: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I testing is widely used to evaluate patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. A cardiac troponin concentration of less than 5 ng/L identifies patients at presentation as low risk, but the optimal threshold is uncertain. Objective: To evaluate the performance of a cardiac troponin I threshold of 5 ng/L at presentation as a risk stratification tool in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Data Sources: Systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases from January 1, 2006, to March 18, 2017. Study Selection: Prospective studies measuring high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I concentrations in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome in which the diagnosis was adjudicated according to the universal definition of myocardial infarction. Data Extraction and Synthesis: The systematic review identified 19 cohorts. Individual patient-level data were obtained from the corresponding authors of 17 cohorts, with aggregate data from 2 cohorts. Meta-estimates for primary and secondary outcomes were derived using a binomial-normal random-effects model. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was myocardial infarction or cardiac death at 30 days. Performance was evaluated in subgroups and across a range of troponin concentrations (2-16 ng/L) using individual patient data. Results: Of 11 845 articles identified, 104 underwent full-text review, and 19 cohorts from 9 countries were included. Among 22 457 patients included in the meta-analysis (mean age, 62 [SD, 15.5] years; n = 9329 women [41.5%]), the primary outcome occurred in 2786 (12.4%). Cardiac troponin I concentrations were less than 5 ng/L at presentation in 11 012 patients (49%), in whom there were 60 missed index or 30-day events (59 index myocardial infarctions, 1 myocardial infarction at 30 days, and no cardiac deaths at 30 days). This resulted in a negative predictive value of 99.5% (95% CI, 99.3%-99.6%) for the primary outcome. There were no cardiac deaths at 30 days and 7 (0.1%) at 1 year, with a negative predictive value of 99.9% (95% CI, 99.7%-99.9%) for cardiac death. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome, a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I concentration of less than 5 ng/L identified those at low risk of myocardial infarction or cardiac death within 30 days. Further research is needed to understand the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of this approach to risk stratification.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Morte , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos
5.
Circulation ; 135(17): 1586-1596, 2017 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28034899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays enable myocardial infarction to be ruled out earlier, but the optimal approach is uncertain. We compared the European Society of Cardiology rule-out pathway with a pathway that incorporates lower cardiac troponin concentrations to risk stratify patients. METHODS: Patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (n=1218) underwent high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I measurement at presentation and 3 and 6 or 12 hours. We compared the European Society of Cardiology pathway (<99th centile at presentation or at 3 hours if symptoms <6 hours) with a pathway developed in the High-STEACS study (High-Sensitivity Troponin in the Evaluation of Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome) population (<5 ng/L at presentation or change <3 ng/L and <99th centile at 3 hours). The primary outcome was a comparison of the negative predictive value of both pathways for index type 1 myocardial infarction or type 1 myocardial infarction or cardiac death at 30 days. We evaluated the primary outcome in prespecified subgroups stratified by age, sex, time of symptom onset, and known ischemic heart disease. RESULTS: The primary outcome occurred in 15.7% (191 of 1218) patients. In those less than the 99th centile at presentation, the European Society of Cardiology pathway ruled out myocardial infarction in 28.1% (342 of 1218) and 78.9% (961 of 1218) at presentation and 3 hours, respectively, missing 18 index and two 30-day events (negative predictive value, 97.9%; 95% confidence interval, 96.9-98.7). The High-STEACS pathway ruled out 40.7% (496 of 1218) and 74.2% (904 of 1218) at presentation and 3 hours, missing 2 index and two 30-day events (negative predictive value, 99.5%; 95% confidence interval, 99.0-99.9; P<0.001 for comparison). The negative predictive value of the High-STEACS pathway was greater than the European Society of Cardiology pathway overall (P<0.001) and in all subgroups, including those presenting early or known to have ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: Use of the High-STEACS pathway incorporating low high-sensitivity cardiac troponin concentrations rules out myocardial infarction in more patients at presentation and misses 5-fold fewer index myocardial infarctions than guideline-approved pathways based exclusively on the 99th centile. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01852123.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Escócia , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima
6.
Lancet ; 386(10012): 2481-8, 2015 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26454362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suspected acute coronary syndrome is the commonest reason for emergency admission to hospital and is a large burden on health-care resources. Strategies to identify low-risk patients suitable for immediate discharge would have major benefits. METHODS: We did a prospective cohort study of 6304 consecutively enrolled patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome presenting to four secondary and tertiary care hospitals in Scotland. We measured plasma troponin concentrations at presentation using a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assay. In derivation and validation cohorts, we evaluated the negative predictive value of a range of troponin concentrations for the primary outcome of index myocardial infarction, or subsequent myocardial infarction or cardiac death at 30 days. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT01852123). FINDINGS: 782 (16%) of 4870 patients in the derivation cohort had index myocardial infarction, with a further 32 (1%) re-presenting with myocardial infarction and 75 (2%) cardiac deaths at 30 days. In patients without myocardial infarction at presentation, troponin concentrations were less than 5 ng/L in 2311 (61%) of 3799 patients, with a negative predictive value of 99·6% (95% CI 99·3-99·8) for the primary outcome. The negative predictive value was consistent across groups stratified by age, sex, risk factors, and previous cardiovascular disease. In two independent validation cohorts, troponin concentrations were less than 5 ng/L in 594 (56%) of 1061 patients, with an overall negative predictive value of 99·4% (98·8-99·9). At 1 year, these patients had a lower risk of myocardial infarction and cardiac death than did those with a troponin concentration of 5 ng/L or more (0·6% vs 3·3%; adjusted hazard ratio 0·41, 95% CI 0·21-0·80; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Low plasma troponin concentrations identify two-thirds of patients at very low risk of cardiac events who could be discharged from hospital. Implementation of this approach could substantially reduce hospital admissions and have major benefits for both patients and health-care providers. FUNDING: British Heart Foundation and Chief Scientist Office (Scotland).


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Escócia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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