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2.
Heart Lung Circ ; 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418874

RESUMO

In the context of the current global COVID-19 pandemic, this Consensus Statement provides current recommendations for patients with, or at risk of developing, genetic heart disease, and for their health care management and service provision in Australia and New Zealand. Apart from general recommendations, there are specific recommendations for the following conditions: cardiomyopathy, Brugada syndrome (including in children), long QT syndrome (LQTS) and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). Other recommendations are relevant to patient self-care and primary health care.

3.
Equine Vet J ; 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional electroanatomical mapping is of potential interest in equine cardiology to identify arrhythmia mechanisms, characterise electroanatomical substrates and guide ablation strategies. OBJECTIVES: To describe three-dimensional electroanatomical mapping in standing horses. STUDY DESIGN: Research methodology, proof of concept study. METHODS: Four Standardbred horses (2 geldings, 2 mares, median age 4.5 [4-9] years, mean bodyweight 485 [440-550] kg) were sedated and placed in stocks. Via the jugular vein, a high-density multipolar grid catheter (Advisor™ HD Grid Mapping Catheter with EnSite VelocityTM, Abbott Medical) was used for endocardial mapping of the right atrium. The P-wave on the surface ECG was used as a timing reference for simultaneous local activation time- and bipolar voltage-mapping. For a positional reference a 10-pole catheter (Abbott Medical) was placed in the caudal vena cava. RESULTS: Endocardial right atrial mapping guided by the three-dimensional mapping system and local electrograms was successfully performed in all four horses. A median of 32719 [25499-65078] points, covering the entire right atrium, were collected. Three-dimensional electroanatomical mapping provided detailed information about activation patterns and electrogram-characteristics of the sinoatrial node, intervenous tubercle and cavotricuspid isthmus. Additionally, transvenous biopsy forceps connected to the mapping system were visualised on screen to guide biopsy collection. MAIN LIMITATIONS: The feasibility of electroanatomical mapping for the left atrium and in larger breeds requires further study. CONCLUSIONS: High-density three-dimensional electroanatomical mapping of the right atrium is feasible in the standing horse.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endocardial pacing may be beneficial in patients who fail to improve following conventional epicardial cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The potential to pace anywhere inside the left ventricle thus avoiding myocardial scar and targeting the latest activating segments may be particularly important. The WiSE-CRT system (EBR systems, Sunnyvale, CA) reliably produces wireless, endocardial left ventricular (LV) pacing. The purpose of this analysis was to determine whether this system improved symptoms or led to LV remodeling in patients who were nonresponders to conventional CRT. METHOD: An international, multicenter registry of patients who were nonresponders to conventional CRT and underwent implantation with the WiSE-CRT system was collected. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were included; 20 patients underwent successful implantation with confirmation of endocardial biventricular pacing and in 2 patients, there was a failure of electrode capture. Eighteen patients proceeded to 6-month follow-up; endocardial pacing resulted in a significant reduction in QRS duration compared with intrinsic QRS duration (26.6 ± 24.4 ms; P = .002) and improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (4.7 ± 7.9%; P = .021). The mean reduction in left ventricular end-diastolic volume was 8.3 ± 42.3 cm3 (P = .458) and left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) was 13.1 ± 44.3 cm3 (P = .271), which were statistically nonsignificant. Overall, 55.6% of patients had improvement in their clinical composite score and 66.7% had a reduction in LVESV ≥15% and/or absolute improvement in LVEF ≥5%. CONCLUSION: Nonresponders to conventional CRT have few remaining treatment options. We have shown in this high-risk patient group that the WiSE-CRT system results in improvement in their clinical composite scores and leads to LV remodeling.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(7): e015587, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233752

RESUMO

Background The association between mitral valve prolapse (MVP) and sudden death remains controversial. We aimed to describe histopathological changes in individuals with autopsy-determined isolated MVP (iMVP) and sudden death and document cardiac arrest rhythm. Methods and Results The Australian National Coronial Information System database was used to identify cases of iMVP between 2000 and 2018. Histopathological changes in iMVP and sudden death were compared with 2 control cohorts matched for age, sex, height, and weight (1 group with noncardiac death and 1 group with cardiac death). Data linkage with ambulance services provided cardiac arrest rhythm for iMVP cases. From 77 221 cardiovascular deaths in the National Coronial Information System database, there were 376 cases with MVP. Individual case review yielded 71 cases of iMVP. Mean age was 49±18 years, and 51% were women. Individuals with iMVP had higher cardiac mass (447 g versus 355 g; P<0.001) compared with noncardiac death, but similar cardiac mass (447 g versus 438 g; P=0.64) compared with cardiac death. Individuals with iMVP had larger mitral valve annulus compared with noncardiac death (121 versus 108 mm; P<0.001) and cardiac death (121 versus 110 mm; P=0.002), and more left ventricular fibrosis (79% versus 38%; P<0.001) compared with noncardiac death controls. In those with iMVP and witnessed cardiac arrest, 94% had ventricular fibrillation. Conclusions Individuals with iMVP and sudden death have increased cardiac mass, mitral annulus size, and left ventricular fibrosis compared with a matched cohort, with cardiac arrest caused by ventricular fibrillation. The histopathological changes in iMVP may provide the substrate necessary for development of malignant ventricular arrhythmias.

7.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(4): 676-687, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential association of atrial fibrillation (AF) to syncope and falls, we undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis given the increasing prevalence of AF in older adults as well as emerging data that it is a risk factor for dementia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: CENTRAL, PubMed, and EMBASE databases were searched from inception to January 31, 2019, to retrieve relevant studies. Search terms consisted of MeSH, tree headings, and keywords relating patients with "AF," "falls," "syncope," and "postural hypotension." When possible; results were pooled using a random-effects model. RESULTS: A total of 10 studies were included, with 7 studies (36,444 patients; mean ± SD age, 72±10 years) reporting an association between AF and falls and 3 studies (6769 patients; mean ± SD age, 65±3 years) reporting an association between AF and syncope. Pooled analyses demonstrate that AF is independently associated with falls (odds ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.33; P=.001) and syncope (odds ratio, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.20-2.94; P=.006). There was overall moderate bias and low-moderate heterogeneity (I2=37%; P=.11) for falls and moderate bias with low statistical heterogeneity (I2=0%; P=.44) for syncope. Persistent AF, but not paroxysmal AF, was associated with orthostatic intolerance in 1 study (4408 patients; mean ± SD age, 66±6 years). CONCLUSION: AF is independently associated with syncope and falls in older adults. Further studies are needed to delineate mechanistic links and to guide management to improve outcomes in these patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO: trial identifier: CRD4201810721.

8.
J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a growing epidemic. Current models of care delivery are inadequate in meeting the needs of the population with AF. Furthermore, quality of life is known to be poor in patients with AF and is associated with adverse patient outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine if nurse-led education and cardiovascular risk factor modification, undertaken using the principles of motivational interviewing, facilitated by an electronic decision support tool to ensure the appropriate use of oral anticoagulation (OAC), could improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL), guideline adherence to OAC, and cardiovascular risk factor profiles in individuals with AF. METHODS: This was a multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled feasibility study of 72 individuals with AF. The intervention involved 1 face-to-face nurse-delivered education and risk factor management session with 4 follow-up telephone calls over a 3-month period to monitor progress. The primary outcome measure was HRQoL as assessed by the Short Form-12 survey. RESULTS: A total of 72 participants were randomized, with 36 individuals in each arm completing follow-up. Mean age was 65 ± 11 years and 44% were women. At 3 months follow-up, no significant differences between groups were observed for the physical or mental component summary scores of the Short Form-12, nor any of the subscales. Appropriate use of OAC did not differ between groups at final follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: A brief nurse-delivered educational intervention did not significantly impact on HRQoL or risk factor status in individuals with AF. Further research should focus on interventions of greater intensity to improve outcomes in this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12615000928516.

10.
Circulation ; 141(16): e750-e772, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148086

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, is associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and healthcare use. Great strides have been made in stroke prevention and rhythm control strategies, yet reducing the incidence of AF has been slowed by the increasing incidence and prevalence of AF risk factors, including obesity, physical inactivity, sleep apnea, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and other modifiable lifestyle-related factors. Fortunately, many of these AF drivers are potentially reversible, and emerging evidence supports that addressing these modifiable risks may be effective for primary and secondary AF prevention. A structured, protocol-driven multidisciplinary approach to integrate lifestyle and risk factor management as an integral part of AF management may help in the prevention and treatment of AF. However, this aspect of AF management is currently underrecognized, underused, and understudied. The purpose of this American Heart Association scientific statement is to review the association of modifiable risk factors with AF and the effects of risk factor intervention. Implementation strategies, care pathways, and educational links for achieving impactful weight reduction, increased physical activity, and risk factor modification are included. Implications for clinical practice, gaps in knowledge, and future directions for the research community are highlighted.

11.
J Med Econ ; : 1-8, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207636

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies support operational benefits when moving insertable cardiac monitor (ICM) insertions outside the cardiac catheterization/electrophysiology laboratories, but this has not been directly assessed in a randomized trial or when the procedure is specifically moved to the office setting. To gain insight, the RIO 2 US study collected resource utilization and procedure time intervals for ICM insertion in-office and in-hospital and these data were used to calculate costs associated with staff time and supply use in each setting.Methods and results: The Reveal LINQ In-Office 2 US study (randomized [1:1], multicenter, unblinded) included 482 patients to undergo insertion of the ICM in-hospital (in an operating room or CATH/EP laboratory) (n = 251) or in-office (n = 231). Detailed information on resource utilization was collected prospectively by the study and used to compare resource utilization and procedure time intervals during ICM insertion procedures performed in-office vs. in-hospital. In addition, costs associated with staff time and supply use in each setting were calculated retrospectively. Total visit duration (check-in to discharge) was 107 min shorter in-office vs. in-hospital (95% CI = 97-116 min; p < 0.001). Patient preparation and education in-office were more likely to occur in the same room as the procedure, compared with in-hospital (91.6% vs. 34.2%, p < 0.001 and 87.3% vs. 22.1%, p < 0.001, respectively). There was a reduction in registered nurse and cardiovascular/operating room technologist involvement in-office, accompanied by higher physician and medical assistant participation. Overall staff time spent per case was 75% higher in-hospital, leading to 50% higher staffing costs compared to in-office.Conclusions: ICM insertion in a physician's office vs. a hospital setting resulted in reduced patient visit time and reduced overall staff time, with a consequent reduction in staffing costs. Clinical trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02395536.

13.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 31(5): 1211-1212, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108401

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation is triggered by the pulmonary veins in humans. Although atrial fibrillation is known to occur in other species, the mechanisms of disease in these are not known. Here we present evidence for pulmonary vein triggers in the horse, where 3D HD Grid mapping was undertaken in the conscious state in the absence of fluoroscopy.

15.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(1): 34-44, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971904

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to describe functional endocardial-epicardial dissociation (FEED), signal complexities, and three-dimensional activation dynamics of the human atrium with structural heart disease (SHD). BACKGROUND: SHD commonly predisposes to arrhythmias. Although progressive remodeling is implicated, direct demonstration of FEED in the human atrium has not been reported previously. METHODS: Simultaneous intraoperative mapping of the endocardial and epicardial lateral right atrial wall was performed by using 2 high-density grid catheters during sinus rhythm, pacing drive (600 ms and 400 ms cycle length), and premature extrastimulation (PES). Unipolar electrograms (EGMs) were exported into custom-made software for activation and phase mapping. Difference of ≥20 ms between paired endocardial and epicardial electrodes defined dissociation. EGMs with ≥3 deflections were classified as fractionated. RESULTS: Sixteen patients (mean age 60.5 ± 4.1 years; 18.7% with a history of atrial fibrillation) with SHD (43% ischemia, 57% valvular disease) were included. A total of 9,218 EGMs were analyzed. Compared with sinus rhythm, phase and activation analyses showed significant FEED during pacing at 600 ms and 400 ms (phase mapping 22.4% vs. 10% [p < 0.0001] and 25.8% vs. 10% [p < 0.0001], respectively; activation mapping 25.4% vs. 7.8% [p < 0.0001] and 27.7% vs. 7.8% [p < 0.0001]) and PES (phase mapping 34% vs. 10% [p < 0.0001]; activation mapping 29.5% vs. 7.8% [p < 0.0001]). Fractionated EGMs occurred significantly more during PES compared with sinus rhythm (50.2% vs. 39.5%; p < 0.0001). Activation patterns differed significantly during pacing drive and PES, with preferential epicardial exit during the latter (15.9% vs. 13.8%; p = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: Simultaneous endocardial-epicardial mapping revealed significant FEED with signal fractionation and preferential epicardial breakthroughs with PES. Such complex three-dimensional interaction in electrical activation provides mechanistic insights into atrial arrhythmogenesis with SHD.

16.
Eur Heart J ; 41(15): 1479-1486, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951255

RESUMO

AIMS: Physical activity reduces cardiovascular disease burden and mortality, although its relationship with cardiac arrhythmias is less certain. The aim of this study was to assess the association between self-reported physical activity and atrial fibrillation (AF), ventricular arrhythmias and bradyarrhythmias, across the UK Biobank cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 402 406 individuals (52.5% female), aged 40-69 years, with over 2.8 million person-years of follow-up who underwent self-reported physical activity assessment computed in metabolic equivalent-minutes per week (MET-min/wk) at baseline, detailed physical assessment and medical history evaluation. Arrhythmia episodes were diagnosed through hospital admissions and death reports. Incident AF risk was lower amongst physically active participants, with a more pronounced reduction amongst female participants [hazard ratio (HR) for 1500 vs. 0 MET-min/wk: 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74-0.98] than males (HR for 1500 vs. 0 MET-min/wk: 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-1.0). Similarly, we observed a significantly lower risk of ventricular arrhythmias amongst physically active participants (HR for 1500 MET-min/wk 0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.96) that remained relatively stable over a broad range of physical activity levels between 0 and 2500 MET-min/wk. A lower AF risk amongst female participants who engaged in moderate levels of vigorous physical activity was observed (up to 2500 MET-min/wk). Vigorous physical activity was also associated with reduced ventricular arrhythmia risk. Total or vigorous physical activity was not associated with bradyarrhythmias. CONCLUSION: The risk of AF and ventricular arrhythmias is lower amongst physically active individuals. These findings provide observational support that physical activity is associated with reduced risk of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias.

18.
Europace ; 22(2): 288-298, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995177

RESUMO

AIMS: There is growing evidence that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning in patients with non-conditional cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) can be performed safely. Here, we aim to assess the safety of MRI in patients with non-conditional CIEDs. METHODS AND RESULTS: English scientific literature was searched using PubMed/Embase/CINAHL with keywords of 'magnetic resonance imaging', 'pacemaker', 'implantable defibrillator', and 'cardiac resynchronization therapy'. Studies assessing outcomes of adverse events or significant changes in CIED parameters after MRI scanning in patients with non-conditional CIEDs were included. References were excluded if the MRI conditionality of the CIEDs was undisclosed; number of patients enrolled was <10; or studies were case reports/series. About 35 cohort studies with a total of 5625 patients and 7196 MRI scans (0.5-3 T) in non-conditional CIEDs were included. The overall incidence of lead failure, electrical reset, arrhythmia, inappropriate pacing and symptoms related to pocket heating, or torque ranged between 0% and 1.43%. Increase in pacing lead threshold >0.5 V and impedance >50Ω was seen in 1.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-1.8%] and 4.8% (95% CI 3.3-6.4%) respectively. The incidence of reduction in P- and R-wave sensing by >50% was 1.5% (95% CI 0.6-2.9%) and 0.4% (95% CI 0.06-1.1%), respectively. Battery voltage reduction of >0.04 V was reported in 2.2% (95% CI 0.2-6.1%). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis affirms the safety of MR imaging in non-conditional CIEDs with no death or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks and extremely low incidence of lead or device-related complications.

19.
Eur Heart J ; 41(4): 533-541, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590586

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the composition of nocturnal hypoxaemic burden and its prognostic value for cardiovascular (CV) mortality in community-dwelling older men. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed overnight oximetry data from polysomnograms obtained in 2840 men from the Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men (MrOS Sleep) study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00070681) to determine the number of acute episodic desaturations per hour (oxygen desaturation index, ODI) and time spent below 90% oxygen saturation (T90) attributed to acute desaturations (T90desaturation) and to non-specific drifts in oxygen saturation (T90non-specific), respectively, and their relationship with CV mortality. After 8.8 ± 2.7 years follow-up, 185 men (6.5%) died from CV disease. T90 [hazard ratio (HR) 1.21, P < 0.001], but not ODI (HR 1.13, P = 0.06), was significantly associated with CV death in univariate analysis. T90 remained significant when adjusting for potential confounders (HR 1.16, P = 0.004). Men with T90 > 12 min were at an elevated risk of CV mortality (HR 1.59; P = 0.006). Approximately 20.7 (5.7-48.5) percent of the variation in T90 could be attributed to non-specific drifts in oxygen saturation. T90desaturation and T90non-specific were individually associated with CV death but combining both variables did not improve the prediction. CONCLUSION: In community-dwelling older men, T90 is an independent predictor of CV mortality. T90 is not only a consequence of frank desaturations, but also reflects non-specific drifts in oxygen saturation, both contributing towards the association with CV death. Whether T90 can be used as a risk marker in the clinical setting and whether its reduction may constitute a treatment target warrants further study.

20.
Heart ; 106(1): 58-68, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530572

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the meta-analysis was to determine the association of obesity and heart failure (HF) and the cardiac impact of intentional weight loss following bariatric surgery on cardiac structure and myocardial function in obese subjects. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase and Web of Science were searched up to 3 April 2018. Studies reporting association and prognostic impact of obesity in HF and the impact of intentional weight loss following bariatric surgery on cardiac structure and myocardial function in obesity were included in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: 4959 citations were reviewed. After exclusions, 29 studies were analysed. A 'J curve' relationship was observed between body mass index (BMI) and risk of HF with maximum risk in the morbidly obese (1.73 (95% CI 1.30 to 2.31), p<0.001, n=11). Although 'obesity paradox' was observed for all-cause mortality, the overweight group was associated with lower cardiovascular (CV) mortality (OR=0.86 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.94), n=11) with no significant differences across other BMI groups. Intentional weight loss induced by bariatric surgery in obese patients (n=9) without established HF, atrial fibrillation or known coronary artery disease, was associated with a reduction in left ventricular mass index (p<0.0001), improvement in left ventricular diastolic function (p≤0.0001) and a reduction in left atrial size (p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the increased risk of HF with obesity, an 'obesity paradox' is observed for all-cause mortality. However, the nadir for CV mortality is observed in the overweight group. Importantly, intentional weight loss was associated with improvement in indices of cardiac structure and myocardial function in obese patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: APP 74412.

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