Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 19 de 19
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570130

RESUMO

A key assumption of Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis is that there is no association between the genetic variants used as instruments and the outcome other than through the exposure of interest. One way in which this assumption can be violated is through population stratification, which can introduce confounding of the relationship between the genetic variants and the outcome and so induce an association between them. Negative control outcomes are increasingly used to detect unobserved confounding in observational epidemiological studies. Here we consider the use of negative control outcomes in MR studies to detect confounding of the genetic variants and the exposure or outcome. As a negative control outcome in an MR study, we propose the use of phenotypes which are determined before the exposure and outcome but which are likely to be subject to the same confounding as the exposure or outcome of interest. We illustrate our method with a two-sample MR analysis of a preselected set of exposures on self-reported tanning ability and hair colour. Our results show that, of the 33 exposures considered, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of adiposity and education-related traits are likely to be subject to population stratification that is not controlled for through adjustment, and so any MR study including these traits may be subject to bias that cannot be identified through standard pleiotropy robust methods. Negative control outcomes should therefore be used regularly in MR studies to detect potential population stratification in the data used.

2.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest an association between reduced lung function and risk of coronary artery disease and ischaemic stroke, independent of shared cardiovascular risk factors such as cigarette smoking. We use the latest genetic epidemiological methods to determine if impaired lung function is causally associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mendelian Randomisation uses genetic variants as instrumental variables to investigate causation. Preliminary analysis used two sample Mendelian Randomisation with lung function single nucleotide polymorphisms. To avoid collider bias the main analysis used single nucleotide polymorphisms for lung function identified from UKBiobank in a Multivariable Mendelian Randomisation model conditioning for height, body mass index and smoking.Multivariable Mendelian Randomisation shows strong evidence that reduced FVC causes increased risk of coronary artery disease, Odds Ratio:1·32 (1·19-1·46) per Standard Deviation. Reduced FEV1 is unlikely to be cause increased risk of coronary artery disease as evidence of its effect becomes weak after conditioning for height 1·08 (0·89, 1·30). There is weak evidence that reduced lung function increases risk of ischaemic stroke. CONCLUSION: There is strong evidence that reduced FVC is independently and causally associated with coronary artery disease. Although the mechanism remains unclear, FVC could be taken into consideration when assessing cardiovascular risk and considered a potential target for reducing cardiovascular events. FEV1 and airflow obstruction do not appear to cause increased cardiovascular events, confounding and collider bias may explain previous findings of a causal association.

3.
Nat Genet ; 53(1): 54-64, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414548

RESUMO

In cross-platform analyses of 174 metabolites, we identify 499 associations (P < 4.9 × 10-10) characterized by pleiotropy, allelic heterogeneity, large and nonlinear effects and enrichment for nonsynonymous variation. We identify a signal at GLP2R (p.Asp470Asn) shared among higher citrulline levels, body mass index, fasting glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and type 2 diabetes, with ß-arrestin signaling as the underlying mechanism. Genetically higher serine levels are shown to reduce the likelihood (by 95%) and predict development of macular telangiectasia type 2, a rare degenerative retinal disease. Integration of genomic and small molecule data across platforms enables the discovery of regulators of human metabolism and translation into clinical insights.


Assuntos
Saúde , Metabolismo/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Oftalmopatias/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Loci Gênicos , Pleiotropia Genética , Genoma Humano , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 2/genética , Glicina/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Metaboloma/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Telangiectasia Retiniana/genética , Tamanho da Amostra , Serina/metabolismo
4.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 396, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher adiposity increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether this relationship varies by anatomical sub-site or by sex is unclear. Further, the metabolic alterations mediating the effects of adiposity on CRC are not fully understood. METHODS: We examined sex- and site-specific associations of adiposity with CRC risk and whether adiposity-associated metabolites explain the associations of adiposity with CRC. Genetic variants from genome-wide association studies of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, unadjusted for BMI; N = 806,810), and 123 metabolites from targeted nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics (N = 24,925), were used as instruments. Sex-combined and sex-specific Mendelian randomization (MR) was conducted for BMI and WHR with CRC risk (58,221 cases and 67,694 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry). Sex-combined MR was conducted for BMI and WHR with metabolites, for metabolites with CRC, and for BMI and WHR with CRC adjusted for metabolite classes in multivariable models. RESULTS: In sex-specific MR analyses, higher BMI (per 4.2 kg/m2) was associated with 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08, 1.38) times higher CRC odds among men (inverse-variance-weighted (IVW) model); among women, higher BMI (per 5.2 kg/m2) was associated with 1.09 (95% CI = 0.97, 1.22) times higher CRC odds. WHR (per 0.07 higher) was more strongly associated with CRC risk among women (IVW OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.43) than men (IVW OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.81, 1.36). BMI or WHR was associated with 104/123 metabolites at false discovery rate-corrected P ≤ 0.05; several metabolites were associated with CRC, but not in directions that were consistent with the mediation of positive adiposity-CRC relations. In multivariable MR analyses, associations of BMI and WHR with CRC were not attenuated following adjustment for representative metabolite classes, e.g., the univariable IVW OR for BMI with CRC was 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00, 1.26), and this became 1.11 (95% CI = 0.99, 1.26) when adjusting for cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein particles. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that higher BMI more greatly raises CRC risk among men, whereas higher WHR more greatly raises CRC risk among women. Adiposity was associated with numerous metabolic alterations, but none of these explained associations between adiposity and CRC. More detailed metabolomic measures are likely needed to clarify the mechanistic pathways.

5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6071, 2020 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247085

RESUMO

The independent effects of smoking and alcohol in head and neck cancer are not clear, given the strong association between these risk factors. Their apparent synergistic effect reported in previous observational studies may also underestimate independent effects. Here we report multivariable Mendelian randomization performed in a two-sample approach using summary data on 6,034 oral/oropharyngeal cases and 6,585 controls from a recent genome-wide association study. Our results demonstrate strong evidence for an independent causal effect of smoking on oral/oropharyngeal cancer (IVW OR 2.6, 95% CI = 1.7, 3.9 per standard deviation increase in lifetime smoking behaviour) and an independent causal effect of alcohol consumption when controlling for smoking (IVW OR 2.1, 95% CI = 1.1, 3.8 per standard deviation increase in drinks consumed per week). This suggests the possibility that the causal effect of alcohol may have been underestimated. However, the extent to which alcohol is modified by smoking requires further investigation.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: How insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is related to OA is not well understood. We determined relationships between IGF-1 and hospital-diagnosed hand, hip and knee OA in UK Biobank, using Mendelian randomization (MR) to determine causality. METHODS: Serum IGF-1 was assessed by chemiluminescent immunoassay. OA was determined using Hospital Episode Statistics. One-sample MR (1SMR) was performed using two-stage least-squares regression, with an unweighted IGF-1 genetic risk score as an instrument. Multivariable MR included BMI as an additional exposure (instrumented by BMI genetic risk score). MR analyses were adjusted for sex, genotyping chip and principal components. We then performed two-sample MR (2SMR) using summary statistics from Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genetic Epidemiology (CHARGE) (IGF-1, N = 30 884) and the recent genome-wide association study meta-analysis (N = 455 221) of UK Biobank and Arthritis Research UK OA Genetics (arcOGEN). RESULTS: A total of 332 092 adults in UK Biobank had complete data. Their mean (s.d.) age was 56.5 (8.0) years and 54% were female. IGF-1 was observationally related to a reduced odds of hand OA [odds ratio per doubling = 0.87 (95% CI 0.82, 0.93)], and an increased odds of hip OA [1.04 (1.01, 1.07)], but was unrelated to knee OA [0.99 (0.96, 1.01)]. Using 1SMR, we found strong evidence for an increased risk of hip [odds ratio per s.d. increase = 1.57 (1.21, 2.01)] and knee [1.30 (1.07, 1.58)] OA with increasing IGF-1 concentration. By contrast, we found no evidence for a causal effect of IGF-1 concentration on hand OA [0.98 (0.57, 1.70)]. Results were consistent when estimated using 2SMR and in multivariable MR analyses accounting for BMI. CONCLUSION: We have found evidence that increased serum IGF-1 is causally related to higher risk of hip and knee OA.

7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3519, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665587

RESUMO

Estimates from Mendelian randomization studies of unrelated individuals can be biased due to uncontrolled confounding from familial effects. Here we describe methods for within-family Mendelian randomization analyses and use simulation studies to show that family-based analyses can reduce such biases. We illustrate empirically how familial effects can affect estimates using data from 61,008 siblings from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study and UK Biobank and replicated our findings using 222,368 siblings from 23andMe. Both Mendelian randomization estimates using unrelated individuals and within family methods reproduced established effects of lower BMI reducing risk of diabetes and high blood pressure. However, while Mendelian randomization estimates from samples of unrelated individuals suggested that taller height and lower BMI increase educational attainment, these effects were strongly attenuated in within-family Mendelian randomization analyses. Our findings indicate the necessity of controlling for population structure and familial effects in Mendelian randomization studies.


Assuntos
Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
9.
BMJ ; 369: m1203, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376654

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether body size in early life has an independent effect on risk of disease in later life or whether its influence is mediated by body size in adulthood. DESIGN: Two sample univariable and multivariable mendelian randomisation. SETTING: The UK Biobank prospective cohort study and four large scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) consortiums. PARTICIPANTS: 453 169 participants enrolled in UK Biobank and a combined total of more than 700 000 people from different GWAS consortiums. EXPOSURES: Measured body mass index during adulthood (mean age 56.5) and self-reported perceived body size at age 10. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. RESULTS: Having a larger genetically predicted body size in early life was associated with an increased odds of coronary artery disease (odds ratio 1.49 for each change in body size category unless stated otherwise, 95% confidence interval 1.33 to 1.68) and type 2 diabetes (2.32, 1.76 to 3.05) based on univariable mendelian randomisation analyses. However, little evidence was found of a direct effect (ie, not through adult body size) based on multivariable mendelian randomisation estimates (coronary artery disease: 1.02, 0.86 to 1.22; type 2 diabetes:1.16, 0.74 to 1.82). In the multivariable mendelian randomisation analysis of breast cancer risk, strong evidence was found of a protective direct effect for larger body size in early life (0.59, 0.50 to 0.71), with less evidence of a direct effect of adult body size on this outcome (1.08, 0.93 to 1.27). Including age at menarche as an additional exposure provided weak evidence of a total causal effect (univariable mendelian randomisation odds ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.06) but strong evidence of a direct causal effect, independent of early life and adult body size (multivariable mendelian randomisation odds ratio 0.90, 0.85 to 0.95). No strong evidence was found of a causal effect of either early or later life measures on prostate cancer (early life body size odds ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 1.40; adult body size 0.87, 0.70 to 1.08). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the positive association between body size in childhood and risk of coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes in adulthood can be attributed to individuals remaining large into later life. However, having a smaller body size during childhood might increase the risk of breast cancer regardless of body size in adulthood, with timing of puberty also putatively playing a role.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Criança , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341063

RESUMO

Mendelian randomization (MR) is the use of genetic variants associated with an exposure to estimate the causal effect of that exposure on an outcome. Mediation analysis is the method of decomposing the effects of an exposure on an outcome, which act directly, and those that act via mediating variables. These effects are decomposed through the use of multivariable analysis to estimate the causal effects between three types of variables: exposures, mediators, and an outcome. Multivariable MR (MVMR) is a recent extension to MR that uses genetic variants associated with multiple, potentially related exposures to estimate the effect of each exposure on a single outcome. MVMR allows for equivalent analysis to mediation within the MR framework and therefore can also be used to estimate mediation effects. This approach retains the benefits of using genetic instruments for causal inference, such as avoiding bias due to confounding, while allowing for estimation of the different effects required for mediation analysis. This review explains MVMR, what is estimated when one exposure is a mediator of another in an MVMR estimation, and how MR and MVMR can therefore be used to estimate mediated effects. This review then goes on to consider the advantages and limitations of using MR and MVMR to conduct mediation analysis.

11.
PLoS Med ; 17(3): e1003062, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating lipoprotein lipids cause coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the precise way in which one or more lipoprotein lipid-related entities account for this relationship remains unclear. Using genetic instruments for lipoprotein lipid traits implemented through multivariable Mendelian randomisation (MR), we sought to compare their causal roles in the aetiology of CHD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating non-fasted lipoprotein lipid traits in the UK Biobank (UKBB) for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B to identify lipid-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Using data from CARDIoGRAMplusC4D for CHD (consisting of 60,801 cases and 123,504 controls), we performed univariable and multivariable MR analyses. Similar GWAS and MR analyses were conducted for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I. The GWAS of lipids and apolipoproteins in the UKBB included between 393,193 and 441,016 individuals in whom the mean age was 56.9 y (range 39-73 y) and of whom 54.2% were women. The mean (standard deviation) lipid concentrations were LDL cholesterol 3.57 (0.87) mmol/L and HDL cholesterol 1.45 (0.38) mmol/L, and the median triglycerides was 1.50 (IQR = 1.11) mmol/L. The mean (standard deviation) values for apolipoproteins B and A-I were 1.03 (0.24) g/L and 1.54 (0.27) g/L, respectively. The GWAS identified multiple independent SNPs associated at P < 5 × 10-8 for LDL cholesterol (220), apolipoprotein B (n = 255), triglycerides (440), HDL cholesterol (534), and apolipoprotein A-I (440). Between 56%-93% of SNPs identified for each lipid trait had not been previously reported in large-scale GWASs. Almost half (46%) of these SNPs were associated at P < 5 × 10-8 with more than one lipid-related trait. Assessed individually using MR, LDL cholesterol (odds ratio [OR] 1.66 per 1-standard-deviation-higher trait; 95% CI: 1.49-1.86; P < 0.001), triglycerides (OR 1.34; 95% CI: 1.25-1.44; P < 0.001) and apolipoprotein B (OR 1.73; 95% CI: 1.56-1.91; P < 0.001) had effect estimates consistent with a higher risk of CHD. In multivariable MR, only apolipoprotein B (OR 1.92; 95% CI: 1.31-2.81; P < 0.001) retained a robust effect, with the estimate for LDL cholesterol (OR 0.85; 95% CI: 0.57-1.27; P = 0.44) reversing and that of triglycerides (OR 1.12; 95% CI: 1.02-1.23; P = 0.01) becoming weaker. Individual MR analyses showed a 1-standard-deviation-higher HDL cholesterol (OR 0.80; 95% CI: 0.75-0.86; P < 0.001) and apolipoprotein A-I (OR 0.83; 95% CI: 0.77-0.89; P < 0.001) to lower the risk of CHD, but these effect estimates attenuated substantially to the null on accounting for apolipoprotein B. A limitation is that, owing to the nature of lipoprotein metabolism, measures related to the composition of lipoprotein particles are highly correlated, creating a challenge in making exclusive interpretations on causation of individual components. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that apolipoprotein B is the predominant trait that accounts for the aetiological relationship of lipoprotein lipids with risk of CHD.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína B-100/genética , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Apolipoproteína A-I/genética , Apolipoproteína B-100/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/genética , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
12.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(4): 1163-1172, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003800

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether educational attainment and intelligence have causal effects on risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), independently of each other. DESIGN: Two-sample univariable and multivariable Mendelian randomization (MR) to estimate the causal effects of education on intelligence and vice versa, and the total and independent causal effects of both education and intelligence on AD risk. PARTICIPANTS: 17 008 AD cases and 37 154 controls from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP) consortium. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Odds ratio (OR) of AD per standardized deviation increase in years of schooling (SD = 3.6 years) and intelligence (SD = 15 points on intelligence test). RESULTS: There was strong evidence of a causal, bidirectional relationship between intelligence and educational attainment, with the magnitude of effect being similar in both directions [OR for intelligence on education = 0.51 SD units, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.54; OR for education on intelligence = 0.57 SD units, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.66]. Similar overall effects were observed for both educational attainment and intelligence on AD risk in the univariable MR analysis; with each SD increase in years of schooling and intelligence, odds of AD were, on average, 37% (95% CI: 23-49%) and 35% (95% CI: 25-43%) lower, respectively. There was little evidence from the multivariable MR analysis that educational attainment affected AD risk once intelligence was taken into account (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.68-1.93), but intelligence affected AD risk independently of educational attainment to a similar magnitude observed in the univariate analysis (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.44-0.88). CONCLUSIONS: There is robust evidence for an independent, causal effect of intelligence in lowering AD risk. The causal effect of educational attainment on AD risk is likely to be mediated by intelligence.

13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1010, 2020 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081875

RESUMO

In Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis, variants that exert horizontal pleiotropy are typically treated as a nuisance. However, they could be valuable in identifying alternative pathways to the traits under investigation. Here, we develop MR-TRYX, a framework that exploits horizontal pleiotropy to discover putative risk factors for disease. We begin by detecting outliers in a single exposure-outcome MR analysis, hypothesising they are due to horizontal pleiotropy. We search across hundreds of complete GWAS summary datasets to systematically identify other (candidate) traits that associate with the outliers. We develop a multi-trait pleiotropy model of the heterogeneity in the exposure-outcome analysis due to pathways through candidate traits. Through detailed investigation of several causal relationships, many pleiotropic pathways are uncovered with already established causal effects, validating the approach, but also alternative putative causal pathways. Adjustment for pleiotropic pathways reduces the heterogeneity across the analyses.


Assuntos
Pleiotropia Genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Modelos Genéticos , Causalidade , Simulação por Computador , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
14.
Elife ; 82019 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526476

RESUMO

Intelligence and education are predictive of better physical and mental health, socioeconomic position (SEP), and longevity. However, these associations are insufficient to prove that intelligence and/or education cause these outcomes. Intelligence and education are phenotypically and genetically correlated, which makes it difficult to elucidate causal relationships. We used univariate and multivariable Mendelian randomization to estimate the total and direct effects of intelligence and educational attainment on mental and physical health, measures of socioeconomic position, and longevity. Both intelligence and education had beneficial total effects. Higher intelligence had positive direct effects on income and alcohol consumption, and negative direct effects on moderate and vigorous physical activity. Higher educational attainment had positive direct effects on income, alcohol consumption, and vigorous physical activity, and negative direct effects on smoking, BMI and sedentary behaviour. If the Mendelian randomization assumptions hold, these findings suggest that both intelligence and education affect health.


Assuntos
Educação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inteligência , Adulto , Idoso , Bioestatística , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2949, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270314

RESUMO

Recent analyses have shown educational attainment to be associated with a number of health outcomes. This association may, in part, be due to an effect of educational attainment on smoking behaviour. In this study, we apply a multivariable Mendelian randomisation design to determine whether the effect of educational attainment on smoking behaviour is due to educational attainment or general cognitive ability. We use individual data from the UK Biobank study (N = 120,050) and summary data from large GWA studies of educational attainment, cognitive ability and smoking behaviour. Our results show that more years of education are associated with a reduced likelihood of smoking that is not due to an effect of general cognitive ability on smoking behaviour. Given the considerable physical harms associated with smoking, the effect of educational attainment on smoking is likely to contribute to the health inequalities associated with differences in educational attainment.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Escolaridade , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Fumar/genética , Viés , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Razão de Chances
17.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(3): 713-727, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mendelian randomization (MR) is a powerful tool in epidemiology that can be used to estimate the causal effect of an exposure on an outcome in the presence of unobserved confounding, by utilizing genetic variants that are instrumental variables (IVs) for the exposure. This has been extended to multivariable MR (MVMR) to estimate the effect of two or more exposures on an outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: We use simulations and theory to clarify the interpretation of estimated effects in a MVMR analysis under a range of underlying scenarios, where a secondary exposure acts variously as a confounder, a mediator, a pleiotropic pathway and a collider. We then describe how instrument strength and validity can be assessed for an MVMR analysis in the single-sample setting, and develop tests to assess these assumptions in the popular two-sample summary data setting. We illustrate our methods using data from UK Biobank to estimate the effect of education and cognitive ability on body mass index. CONCLUSION: MVMR analysis consistently estimates the direct causal effect of an exposure, or exposures, of interest and provides a powerful tool for determining causal effects in a wide range of scenarios with either individual- or summary-level data.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Cognição , Escolaridade , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econométricos , Análise Multivariada
18.
Int J Epidemiol ; 47(2): 587-596, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29088358

RESUMO

Background: Negative control exposure studies are increasingly being used in epidemiological studies to strengthen causal inference regarding an exposure-outcome association when unobserved confounding is thought to be present. Negative control exposure studies contrast the magnitude of association of the negative control, which has no causal effect on the outcome but is associated with the unmeasured confounders in the same way as the exposure, with the magnitude of the association of the exposure with the outcome. A markedly larger effect of the exposure on the outcome than the negative control on the outcome strengthens inference that the exposure has a causal effect on the outcome. Methods: We investigate the effect of measurement error in the exposure and negative control variables on the results obtained from a negative control exposure study. We do this in models with continuous and binary exposure and negative control variables using analysis of the bias of the estimated coefficients and Monte Carlo simulations. Results: Our results show that measurement error in either the exposure or negative control variables can bias the estimated results from the negative control exposure study. Conclusions: Measurement error is common in the variables used in epidemiological studies; these results show that negative control exposure studies cannot be used to precisely determine the size of the effect of the exposure variable, or adequately adjust for unobserved confounding; however, they can be used as part of a body of evidence to aid inference as to whether a causal effect of the exposure on the outcome is present.


Assuntos
Viés , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Causalidade , Humanos
19.
J Econom ; 190(2): 212-221, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29129953

RESUMO

We consider testing for weak instruments in a model with multiple endogenous variables. Unlike Stock and Yogo (2005), who considered a weak instruments problem where the rank of the matrix of reduced form parameters is near zero, here we consider a weak instruments problem of a near rank reduction of one in the matrix of reduced form parameters. For example, in a two-variable model, we consider weak instrument asymptotics of the form [Formula: see text] where [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are the parameters in the two reduced-form equations, [Formula: see text] is a vector of constants and [Formula: see text] is the sample size. We investigate the use of a conditional first-stage [Formula: see text]-statistic along the lines of the proposal by Angrist and Pischke (2009) and show that, unless [Formula: see text], the variance in the denominator of their [Formula: see text]-statistic needs to be adjusted in order to get a correct asymptotic distribution when testing the hypothesis [Formula: see text]. We show that a corrected conditional [Formula: see text]-statistic is equivalent to the Cragg and Donald (1993) minimum eigenvalue rank test statistic, and is informative about the maximum total relative bias of the 2SLS estimator and the Wald tests size distortions. When [Formula: see text] in the two-variable model, or when there are more than two endogenous variables, further information over and above the Cragg-Donald statistic can be obtained about the nature of the weak instrument problem by computing the conditional first-stage [Formula: see text]-statistics.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA