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1.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) associated with some maternal diagnoses in pregnancy. However, such associations have not been studied systematically, accounting for comorbidity between maternal disorders. Therefore our aim was to comprehensively test the associations between maternal diagnoses around pregnancy and ASD risk in offspring. METHODS: This exploratory case-cohort study included children born in Israel from 1997 to 2008, and followed up until 2015. We used information on all ICD-9 codes received by their mothers during pregnancy and the preceding year. ASD risk associated with each of those conditions was calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for the confounders (birth year, maternal age, socioeconomic status and number of ICD-9 diagnoses during the exposure period). RESULTS: The analytic sample consisted of 80 187 individuals (1132 cases, 79 055 controls), with 822 unique ICD-9 codes recorded in their mothers. After extensive quality control, 22 maternal diagnoses were nominally significantly associated with offspring ASD, with 16 of those surviving subsequent filtering steps (permutation testing, multiple testing correction, multiple regression). Among those, we recorded an increased risk of ASD associated with metabolic [e.g. hypertension; HR = 2.74 (1.92-3.90), p = 2.43 × 10-8], genitourinary [e.g. non-inflammatory disorders of cervix; HR = 1.88 (1.38-2.57), p = 7.06 × 10-5] and psychiatric [depressive disorder; HR = 2.11 (1.32-3.35), p = 1.70 × 10-3] diagnoses. Meanwhile, mothers of children with ASD were less likely to attend prenatal care appointment [HR = 0.62 (0.54-0.71), p = 1.80 × 10-11]. CONCLUSIONS: Sixteen maternal diagnoses were associated with ASD in the offspring, after rigorous filtering of potential false-positive associations. Replication in other cohorts and further research to understand the mechanisms underlying the observed associations with ASD are warranted.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2032779, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416885

RESUMO

Importance: Adverse long-term outcomes in individuals born before full gestation are not confined to individuals born at extreme gestational ages. Little is known regarding mortality patterns among individuals born in the weeks close to ideal gestation, and the exact causes are not well understood; both of these are crucial for public health, with the potential for modification of risk. Objective: To examine the risk of all-cause and noncommunicable diseases (NCD) deaths among young adults born preterm and early term. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multinational population-based cohort study used nationwide birth cohorts from Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Finland for individuals born between 1967 and 2002. Individuals identified at birth who had not died or emigrated were followed up for mortality from age 15 years to 2017. Analyses were performed from June 2019 to May 2020. Exposures: Categories of gestational age (ie, moderate preterm birth and earlier [23-33 weeks], late preterm [34-36 weeks], early term [37-38 weeks], full term [39-41 weeks] and post term [42-44 weeks]). Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality from NCD, defined as cancer, diabetes, chronic lung disease, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results: A total of 6 263 286 individuals were followed up for mortality from age 15 years. Overall, 339 403 (5.4%) were born preterm, and 3 049 100 (48.7%) were women. Compared with full-term birth, the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for all-cause mortality were 1.44 (95% CI, 1.34-1.55) for moderate preterm birth and earlier; 1.23 (95% CI, 1.18-1.29) for late preterm birth; and 1.12 (95% CI, 1.09-1.15) for early-term birth. The association between gestational age and all-cause mortality were stronger in women than in men (P for interaction = .03). Preterm birth was associated with 2-fold increased risks of death from CVD (aHR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.45-2.47), diabetes (aHR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.44-2.73), and chronic lung disease (aHR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.36-3.82). The main associations were replicated across countries and could not be explained by familial or individual confounding factors. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study strengthen the evidence of increased risk of death from NCDs in young adults born preterm. Importantly, the increased death risk was found across gestational ages up to the ideal term date and includes the much larger group with early-term birth. Excess mortality associated with shorter gestational age was most pronounced for CVDs, chronic lung disease, and diabetes.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Nascimento Prematuro/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade Prematura , Noruega/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
3.
J Neurodev Disord ; 12(1): 44, 2020 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical studies found that medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is effective in coexisting autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but current research is based on small clinical studies mainly performed on children or adolescents. We here use register data to examine if individuals with ADHD and coexisting ASD present differences in the prescribing patterns of ADHD medication when compared to individuals with pure ADHD. METHODS: Data with information on filled prescriptions and diagnoses was retrieved from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register and the National Patient Register. We identified 34,374 individuals with pure ADHD and 5012 individuals with ADHD and coexisting ASD, aged between 3 and 80 years. The first treatment episode with ADHD medications (≥ 2 filled prescriptions within 90 days) and daily doses of methylphenidate during a 3-year period was measured. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for the likelihood of being prescribed ADHD medication in individuals with and without ASD and Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare group differences in dose per day. RESULTS: Individuals with ADHD and coexisting ASD were less likely to start continuous treatment with ADHD medication (ADHD 80.5%; ADHD with ASD 76.2%; OR, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.86), were less likely to be prescribed methylphenidate, and were more commonly prescribed second line treatments such as dexamphetamine, amphetamine, or modafinil. No group difference was observed for atomoxetine. In adults with ADHD and coexisting ASD, methylphenidate was prescribed in lower daily doses over three years as compared to individuals with pure ADHD. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that there are differences in the medical treatment of individuals with or without ASD. If these differences are due to different medication responses in ASD or due to other factors such as clinicians' perceptions of medication effects in patients with ASD, needs to be further studied.

4.
Autism Res ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103358

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is highly heritable, yet how its familial risk and heritability may vary by cognitive ability is not well understood. In this population-based cohort study, we examined the familial risk and heritability of ASD with and without co-occurring intellectual disability (ID). We estimated odds ratios and heritability of ASD with ID (ASD+ID) and ASD without ID (ASD-ID) using register-based diagnosis data of 567,436 index persons born in 1984-2009 in Stockholm County, Sweden, and their parents, siblings, cousins, aunts, and uncles. The familial risk profile exhibited differences between ASD-ID and ASD+ID, most notably for index persons with affected parents. For example, for an index person who had at least one parent with ASD, the child's odds of ASD-ID and ASD+ID (95% confidence interval (CI)) increased by 16.2 (14.2-18.6) and 7.4 (5.5-10.0) folds, respectively. The more closely related a family member with ASD was, the greater the observed risk was of ASD in the index person, especially for ASD-ID. The broad-sense heritability (95% CI) for ASD - ID and ASD+ID were 64.6% (46.0-100.0%) and 33.4% (14.4-58.4%), respectively. Familial risk and heritability of ASD may vary by intellectual ability, which implies that risk factors between these ASD phenotypes may differ. Our findings from the heritability analysis and familial risk analysis suggest that ASD-ID may have a greater genetic basis than ASD+ID, although this should be verified in future studies. LAY SUMMARY: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is highly heritable, yet how its familial risk and heritability may vary by cognitive ability is not well-understood. In a population-based cohort study on families of 567,436 index persons using Swedish registers data, we found that the familial risk profile differed between ASD with and without intellectual disability. Our findings from the heritability analysis and familial risk analysis suggest that ASD-ID may have a greater genetic basis than ASD+ID, although this should be verified in future studies.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011213

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It is unclear whether deviations in brain and behavioral development, that may underpin elevated substance use during adolescence, are predispositions for or are consequences of substance use initiation. Here, we examine behavioral and neuroimaging indices at early and mid-adolescence in drug naïve youth to identify possible predisposing factors for substance use initiation and its possible consequences. METHOD: Among 304 drug-naïve adolescents at baseline (age 14) from the IMAGEN dataset, 83 stayed drug-naïve, 133 used alcohol on 1-9 occasions, 42 on 10-19 occasions, 27 on 20-39 occasions, and 19 on >40 occasions at follow-up (age 16). Baseline measures included brain activation during the Monetary Incentive Delay task, whereas data at both baseline and follow-up included measures of trait impulsivity and delay discounting. RESULTS: From baseline to follow-up, impulsivity decreased in the 0 and 1-9 occasions groups (p<.004), did not change in the 10-19 and 20-29 occasions groups (p>.294), and uncharacteristically increased in the >40 occasions group (p=.046). Further, blunted mOFC activation during reward outcome at baseline significantly predicted higher alcohol use frequency at follow-up, above and beyond behavioral and clinical variables (p=.008). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that transition from no use to frequent drinking in early to mid-adolescence may disrupt normative developmental changes in behavioral control. Additionally, blunted activity of the mOFC during reward outcome may underscore a predisposition to the development of more severe alcohol use in adolescents. This distinction is clinically important as it informs early intervention efforts in preventing the onset of substance use disorder in adolescents.

6.
Mov Disord ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean diet has been proposed to protect against neurodegeneration. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the association of adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) at middle age with risk for Parkinson's disease (PD) later in life. METHOD: In a population-based cohort of >47,000 Swedish women, information on diet was collected through a food frequency questionnaire during 1991-1992, from which adherence to MDP was calculated. We also collected detailed information on potential confounders. Clinical diagnosis of PD was ascertained from the Swedish National Patient Register through 2012. RESULTS: We observed an inverse association between adherence to MDP and PD, multivariable hazard ratio of 0.54 (95% confidence interval: 0.30-0.98), comparing high with low adherence. The association was noted primarily from age 65 years onward. One unit increase in the adherence score was associated with a 29% lower risk for PD at age ≥ 65 years (95% confidence interval: 0.57-0.89). CONCLUSION: Higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet at middle age was associated with lower risk for PD. © 2020 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

7.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003207, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960896

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The complex etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is still unresolved. Preterm birth (<37 weeks of gestation) and its complications are the leading cause of death of babies in the world, and those who survive often have long-term health problems. Length of gestation, including preterm birth, has been linked to ASD risk, but robust estimates for the whole range of gestational ages (GAs) are lacking. The primary objective of this study was to provide a detailed and robust description of ASD risk across the entire range of GAs while adjusting for sex and size for GA. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our study had a multinational cohort design, using population-based data from medical registries in three Nordic countries: Sweden, Finland, and Norway. GA was estimated in whole weeks based on ultrasound. Children were prospectively followed from birth for clinical diagnosis of ASD. Relative risk (RR) of ASD was estimated using log-binomial regression. Analyses were also stratified by sex and by size for GA. The study included 3,526,174 singletons born 1995 to 2015, including 50,816 (1.44%) individuals with ASD. In the whole cohort, 165,845 (4.7%) were born preterm. RR of ASD increased by GA, from 40 to 24 weeks and from 40 to 44 weeks of gestation. The RR of ASD in children born in weeks 22-31, 32-36, and 43-44 compared to weeks 37-42 were estimated at 2.31 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.15-2.48; 1.67% vs 0.83%; p-value < 0.001), 1.35 (95% CI 1.30-1.40; 1.08% vs 0.83%; p-value < 0.001), and 1.37 (95% CI 1.21-1.54; 1.74% vs 0.83%; p-value < 0.001), respectively. The main limitation of this study is the lack of data on potential causes of pre- or postterm birth. Also, the possibility of residual confounding should be considered. CONCLUSION: In the current study, we observed that the RR of ASD increased weekly as the date of delivery diverged from 40 weeks, both pre- and postterm, independently of sex and size for GA. Given the unknown etiology of ASD and the lifelong consequences of the disorder, identifying groups of increased risk associated with a potentially modifiable risk factor is important.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etiologia , Idade Gestacional , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
8.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936210

RESUMO

Importance: Early menarche and early menopause are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in midlife, but little is known about the association between reproductive life span and the risk of CVD. Objective: To investigate the association between the length of reproductive life span and risk of incident CVD events, while also considering the timing of menarche and menopause. Design, Setting, and Participants: Individual-level data were pooled from 12 studies participating in the International Collaboration for a Life Course Approach to Reproductive Health and Chronic Disease Events consortium. Women provided complete information on the timing of menarche and menopause, nonfatal CVD events, and covariates. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% CIs, adjusted for covariates. The association between reproductive life span and CVD was adjusted for age at menarche and age at menopause separately. Analysis began March 2018 and ended December 2019. Exposures: Reproductive life span was calculated by subtracting age at menarche from age at menopause and categorized as younger than 30, 30 to 32, 33 to 35, 36 to 38 (reference group), 39 to 41, 42 to 44, and 45 years or older. Main Outcomes and Measures: First nonfatal CVD event, including coronary heart disease and stroke events. Results: A total of 307 855 women were included. Overall, the mean (SD) ages at menarche, menopause, and reproductive life span were 13.0 (1.5) years, 50.2 (4.4) years, and 37.2 (4.6) years, respectively. Pooled analyses showed that women with a very short reproductive life span (<30 years) were at 1.71 (95% CI, 1.58-1.84) times higher risk of incident CVD events than women with a reproductive life span of 36 to 38 years after adjustment for covariates. This association remained unchanged when adjusted for age at menarche but was attenuated to 1.26 (95% CI, 1.09-1.46) when adjusted for age at menopause. There was a significant interaction between reproductive life span and age at menarche associated with CVD risk (P < .001). Women who had both short reproductive life span (<33 years) and early menarche (age ≤11 years) had the highest risk of CVD (hazard ratio, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.76-2.41) compared with those with a reproductive life span of 36 to 38 years and menarche at age 13 years. Conclusions and Relevance: Short reproductive life span was associated with an increased risk of nonfatal CVD events in midlife, and the risk was significantly higher for women with early age at menarche.

9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(10): 2309-2318, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946366

RESUMO

Healthcare-associated Legionnaires' disease (HCA LD) can cause nosocomial outbreaks with high death rates. We compared community-acquired LD cases with HCA LD cases in Europe during 2008-2017 using data from The European Surveillance System. A total of 29 countries reported 40,411 community-acquired and 4,315 HCA LD cases. Of the HCA LD cases, 2,937 (68.1%) were hospital-acquired and 1,378 (31.9%) were linked to other healthcare facilities. The odds of having HCA LD were higher for women, children and persons <20 years of age, and persons >60 years of age. Out of the cases caused by Legionella pneumophila with a known serotype, community-acquired LD was more likely to be caused by L. pneumophila serogroup 1 (92.3%) than was HCA LD (85.1%). HCA LD patients were more likely to die. HCA LD is associated with specific patient demographics, causative strains, and outcomes. Healthcare facilities should consider these characteristics when designing HCA LD prevention strategies.

10.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(8): 597-604, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are concerns that influenza vaccine exposure during pregnancy may be associated with increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk for ASD in offspring of mothers who were vaccinated against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 ("swine flu") during pregnancy. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study using nationwide registers. SETTING: Seven health care regions in Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Live births between October 2009 and September 2010, with follow-up through December 2016. In total, 39 726 infants were prenatally exposed to H1N1 vaccine (13 845 during the first trimester) and 29 293 infants were unexposed. MEASUREMENTS: Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the primary outcome, ASD, before and after adjustment for potential confounders. The secondary outcome was autistic disorder (AD). RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 6.7 years in both unexposed and exposed children. During follow-up, 394 (1.0%) vaccine-exposed and 330 (1.1%) unexposed children had a diagnosis of ASD. In adjusted analyses, prenatal exposure to H1N1 vaccination was not associated with a later diagnosis of ASD (adjusted HR [aHR], 0.95 [95% CI, 0.81 to 1.12]) or AD (aHR, 0.96 [CI, 0.80 to 1.16]). The 6-year standardized cumulative incidence difference between the unexposed and exposed children was 0.04% (CI, -0.09% to 0.17%) for ASD and 0.02% (CI, -0.09% to 0.14%) for AD. Restricting the analysis to vaccination in the first trimester of pregnancy did not influence risk estimates (aHR, 0.92 [CI, 0.74 to 1.16] for ASD and 0.91 [CI, 0.70 to 1.18] for AD). LIMITATION: Data on H1N1 influenza infection are lacking. CONCLUSION: This large cohort study found no association between maternal H1N1 vaccination during pregnancy and risk for ASD in the offspring. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Swedish Research Council.

11.
Schizophr Res ; 223: 220-226, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807646

RESUMO

Knowledge is limited regarding the risks of death and dementia in very-late onset schizophrenia-like psychosis (VLOS). This study aims to scrutinize the associations between VLOS with the risks of death and dementia. Based on a prospective Israeli cohort study with national coverage, 94,120 persons without dementia or schizophrenia diagnoses aged 60 to 90 in 2012 were followed-up for the risks of dementia or death from 2013 to 2017. VLOS was classified as present from the age of the first ICD-9 diagnosis during follow-up, otherwise as absent. Hazard ratios (HR) with confidence intervals (95% CI) were computed with survival models to quantify the associations between VLOS and the risks of death and dementia, without and with adjustment for confounding. Nine sensitivity analyses were computed to examine the robustness of the results. The group with VLOS, compared to the group without, had higher death (n = 61, 18.5% vs. n = 7028, 7.5%, respectively) and dementia (n = 64, 19.5% vs. n = 5962, 6.4%, respectively) rates. In the primary analysis, the group with VLOS compared to the group without had increased risks of death (unadjusted HR = 3.10, 95% CI = 2.36, 4.06, P < .001; adjusted HR = 2.89, 95% CI = 2.15, 3.89; P < .001) and dementia (unadjusted HR = 3.81, 95% CI = 2.90, 4.99, P < .001; adjusted HR = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.82, 3.91; P < .001). The results remained statistically significant (P < .05) in all sensitivity analyses, including among persons without antipsychotic medication. The results may support notions of increased dementia risk and accelerated aging in VLOS, or that VLOS is a prodromal state of dementia.

12.
Hum Reprod ; 35(8): 1933-1943, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563191

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: How does the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) vary with type and age of menopause? SUMMARY ANSWER: Earlier surgical menopause (e.g. <45 years) poses additional increased risk of incident CVD events, compared to women with natural menopause at the same age, and HRT use reduced the risk of CVD in women with early surgical menopause. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Earlier age at menopause has been linked to an increased risk of CVD mortality and all-cause mortality, but the extent that this risk of CVD varies by type of menopause and the role of postmenopausal HRT use in reducing this risk is unclear. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Pooled individual-level data of 203 767 postmenopausal women from 10 observational studies that contribute to the International collaboration for a Life course Approach to reproductive health and Chronic disease Events (InterLACE) consortium were included in the analysis. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Postmenopausal women who had reported menopause (type and age of menopause) and information on non-fatal CVD events were included. Type of menopause (natural menopause and surgical menopause) and age at menopause (categorised as <35, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, 50-54 and ≥55 years) were exposures of interest. Natural menopause was defined as absence of menstruation over a period of 12 months (no hysterectomy and/or oophorectomy) and surgical menopause as removal of both ovaries. The study outcome was the first non-fatal CVD (defined as either incident coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke) event ascertained from hospital medical records or self-reported. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CI for non-fatal CVD events associated with natural menopause and surgical menopause. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Compared with natural menopause, surgical menopause was associated with over 20% higher risk of CVD (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.16-1.28). After the stratified analysis by age at menopause, a graded relationship for incident CVD was observed with lower age at menopause in both types of natural and surgical menopause. There was also a significant interaction between type of menopause and age at menopause (P < 0.001). Compared with natural menopause at 50-54 years, women with surgical menopause before 35 (2.55, 2.22-2.94) and 35-39 years (1.91, 1.71-2.14) had higher risk of CVD than those with natural menopause (1.59, 1.23-2.05 and 1.51, 1.33-1.72, respectively). Women who experienced surgical menopause at earlier age (<50 years) and took HRT had lower risk of incident CHD than those who were not users of HRT. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Self-reported data on type and age of menopause, no information on indication for the surgery (e.g. endometriosis and fibroids) and the exclusion of fatal CVD events may bias our results. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: In clinical practice, women who experienced natural menopause or had surgical menopause at an earlier age need close monitoring and engagement for preventive health measures and early diagnosis of CVD. Our findings also suggested that timing of menopause should be considered as an important factor in risk assessment of CVD for women. The findings on CVD lend some support to the position that elective bilateral oophorectomy (surgical menopause) at hysterectomy for benign diseases should be discouraged based on an increased risk of CVD. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): InterLACE project is funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council project grant (APP1027196). GDM is supported by Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Principal Research Fellowship (APP1121844). There are no competing interests.

13.
J Hepatol ; 73(4): 863-872, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is known to have a female predominance while other biliary tract cancers (BTCs) have a male predominance. However, the role of female reproductive factors in BTC etiology remains unclear. METHODS: We pooled data from 19 studies of >1.5 million women participating in the Biliary Tract Cancers Pooling Project to examine the associations of parity, age at menarche, reproductive years, and age at menopause with BTC. Associations for age at menarche and reproductive years with BTC were analyzed separately for Asian and non-Asian women. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by study. RESULTS: During 21,681,798 person-years of follow-up, 875 cases of GBC, 379 of intrahepatic bile duct cancer (IHBDC), 450 of extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EHBDC), and 261 of ampulla of Vater cancer (AVC) occurred. High parity was associated with risk of GBC (HR ≥5 vs. 0 births 1.72; 95% CI 1.25-2.38). Age at menarche (HR per year increase 1.15; 95% CI 1.06-1.24) was associated with GBC risk in Asian women while reproductive years were associated with GBC risk (HR per 5 years 1.13; 95% CI 1.04-1.22) in non-Asian women. Later age at menarche was associated with IHBDC (HR 1.19; 95% CI 1.09-1.31) and EHBDC (HR 1.11; 95% CI 1.01-1.22) in Asian women only. CONCLUSION: We observed an increased risk of GBC with increasing parity. Among Asian women, older age at menarche was associated with increased risk for GBC, IHBDC, and EHBDC, while increasing reproductive years was associated with GBC in non-Asian women. These results suggest that sex hormones have distinct effects on cancers across the biliary tract that vary by geography. LAY SUMMARY: Our findings show that the risk of gallbladder cancer is increased among women who have given birth (especially women with 5 or more children). In women from Asian countries, later age at menarche increases the risk of gallbladder cancer, intrahepatic bile duct cancer and extrahepatic bile duct cancer. We did not see this same association in women from Western countries. Age at menopause was not associated with the risk of any biliary tract cancers.

14.
Biol Psychiatry ; 88(6): 480-487, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is highly familial, with a positively skewed male-to-female ratio that is purported to arise from the so-called female protective effect. A serious implication of a female protective effect is that familial ASD liability would be expected to aggregate asymptomatically in sisters of affected probands, who would incur elevated rates of ASD among their offspring. Currently, there exist no data on second-generation recurrence rates among families affected by ASD. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Swedish National Patient Register and the Multi-Generation Register for a cohort of children born between 2003 and 2012. ASD was ascertained in both the child and parental generations. RESULTS: Among 847,732 children, 13,103 (1.55%) children in the cohort were diagnosed with ASD. Among their maternal/paternal aunts and uncles, 1744 (0.24%) and 1374 (0.18%) were diagnosed with ASD, respectively. Offspring of mothers with a sibling(s) diagnosed with ASD had higher rates of ASD than the general population (relative risk, 3.05; 95% confidence interval, 2.52-3.64), but not more than would be predicted for second-degree relatives within a generation, and only slightly more than was observed for fathers with siblings with ASD (relative risk, 2.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.53-2.67). Models adjusting for temporal trends and for psychiatric history in the parental generation did not alter the results. CONCLUSIONS: These findings establish a robust general estimate of ASD transmission risk for siblings of individuals affected by ASD, the first ever reported. Our findings do not suggest female protective factors as the principal mechanism underlying the male sex bias in ASD.

17.
Cancer Res Treat ; 52(3): 848-854, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138465

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to assess the association between the dietary intake of fish-derived omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risk of colorectal cancer among Swedish women. Materials and Methods: A total of 48,233 women with information on dietary intake were included in the analysis. Participants were followed for incident colorectal cancer until 31 December 2012. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the association between baseline fatty acid intake and colorectal cancer risk. All analyses were stratified by colon and rectal cancers. RESULTS: During a median of 21.3 years of follow-up, a total of 344 colorectal cancer cases were ascertained. Although there was no overall association between omega-3 fatty acid intake and colorectal cancer risk, high intake of fish-derived docosahexaenoic acid was associated with reduced risk of rectal cancer (hazard ratios for the third and the highest quartiles were 0.59 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37 to 0.96) and 0.62 (95% CI, 0.39 to 0.98), respectively). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we found only limited support for an association between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and colorectal cancer in a large Swedish cohort of middle-aged women.

18.
Biol Psychiatry ; 87(12): 1045-1051, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While genetic variation has a known impact on the risk for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), there is also evidence that there are maternal components to this risk. Here, we partitioned sources of variation, including direct genetic and maternal effects, on risk for OCD. METHODS: The study population consisted of 822,843 individuals from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, born in Sweden between January 1, 1982, and December 31, 1990, and followed for a diagnosis of OCD through December 31, 2013. Diagnostic information about OCD was obtained using the Swedish National Patient Register. RESULTS: A total of 7184 individuals in the birth cohort (0.87%) were diagnosed with OCD. After exploring various generalized linear mixed models to fit the diagnostic data, genetic maternal effects accounted for 7.6% (95% credible interval: 6.9%-8.3%) of the total variance in risk for OCD for the best model, and direct additive genetics accounted for 35% (95% credible interval: 32.3%-36.9%). These findings were robust under alternative models. CONCLUSIONS: Our results establish genetic maternal effects as influencing risk for OCD in offspring. We also show that additive genetic effects in OCD are overestimated when maternal effects are not modeled.

19.
Eur Psychiatry ; 63(1): e22, 2020 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current approaches for early identification of individuals at high risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the general population are limited, and most ASD patients are not identified until after the age of 4. This is despite substantial evidence suggesting that early diagnosis and intervention improves developmental course and outcome. The aim of the current study was to test the ability of machine learning (ML) models applied to electronic medical records (EMRs) to predict ASD early in life, in a general population sample. METHODS: We used EMR data from a single Israeli Health Maintenance Organization, including EMR information for parents of 1,397 ASD children (ICD-9/10) and 94,741 non-ASD children born between January 1st, 1997 and December 31st, 2008. Routinely available parental sociodemographic information, parental medical histories, and prescribed medications data were used to generate features to train various ML algorithms, including multivariate logistic regression, artificial neural networks, and random forest. Prediction performance was evaluated with 10-fold cross-validation by computing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC; C-statistic), sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, false positive rate, and precision (positive predictive value [PPV]). RESULTS: All ML models tested had similar performance. The average performance across all models had C-statistic of 0.709, sensitivity of 29.93%, specificity of 98.18%, accuracy of 95.62%, false positive rate of 1.81%, and PPV of 43.35% for predicting ASD in this dataset. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that ML algorithms combined with EMR capture early life ASD risk as well as reveal previously unknown features to be associated with ASD-risk. Such approaches may be able to enhance the ability for accurate and efficient early detection of ASD in large populations of children.

20.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 55(10): 1383-1393, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907560

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The EGOS study (Epidemiology and Genetics of Obsessive-compulsive disorder and chronic tic disorders in Sweden) is a large-scale, epidemiological, prospective cohort that is used to identify genetic and environmental risk factors in the etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and chronic tic disorders (CTD). METHODS: Individuals born between January 1954 and December 1998 with at least two diagnoses of OCD or CTD at different timepoints in the National Patient Register (NPR), and followed between January 1997 and December 2012, represent the EGOS source population (n = 20,374). The Swedish Multi-Generation Registry (MGR) are then used to define family relatedness for all cases and additional phenotypic and demographic data added to the resultant database. To create an epidemiologically valid subset of the source cohort that also includes biospecimens and additional phenotyping, we contact cases from within the source population. To date, 6832 invitations have been sent out and 1853 (27%) have elected to participate in the EGOS biospecimen collection. RESULTS: To date, 1608 biological samples have been collected, of which 1249 are genotyped and 832 supplementary Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R) and/or Florida Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (FOCI) have been completed by individuals with OCD and/or CTD, age 16-64 years. DNA samples are genotyped using Infinium Global Screening Array and will undergo whole-exome sequencing in the future. Detailed information is available for each individual through linkage to the Swedish national registers, e.g., identification of additional psychiatric diagnoses, medical diagnoses, birth-related variables, and relevant demographic and social data. CONCLUSION: EGOS benefits from a genetically homogeneous sample with epidemiological ascertainment, minimizing the risk of confounding due to population stratification on ascertainment bias. In addition, this study is built upon clinical diagnoses of OCD and CTD in specialized psychiatric care, which reduces further biases and case misclassification.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Transtornos de Tique , Síndrome de Tourette , Humanos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Suécia/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Tique/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Tique/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Tique/genética
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