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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(11): e2024329, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146735

RESUMO

Importance: Neighborhood deprivation is associated with age-related disease, mortality, and reduced life expectancy. However, biological pathways underlying these associations are not well understood. Objective: To evaluate the association between neighborhood deprivation and epigenetic measures of age acceleration and genome-wide methylation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from the Sister Study, a prospective cohort study comprising 50 884 women living in the US and Puerto Rico aged 35 to 74 years at enrollment who had a sister with breast cancer but had not had breast cancer themselves. Cohort enrollment occurred between July 2003 and March 2009. Participants completed a computer-assisted telephone interview on demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle, and residential factors and provided anthropometric measures and peripheral blood samples at a home examination. DNA methylation data obtained for 2630 non-Hispanic White women selected for a case-cohort study in 2014 were used in this cross-sectional analysis. DNA methylation was measured using the HumanMethylation450 BeadChips in whole blood samples collected at baseline. Data analysis for this study was performed from October 17, 2019, to August 27, 2020. Exposures: Each participants' primary address was linked to an established index of neighborhood deprivation. Main Outcomes and Measures: Epigenetic age was estimated using 4 epigenetic clocks (Horvath, Hannum, PhenoAge, and GrimAge). Age acceleration was determined using residuals from regressing chronologic age on each of the 4 epigenetic age metrics. Linear regression was used to estimate associations between neighborhood deprivation and epigenetic age acceleration as well as DNA methylation at individual cytosine-guanine sites across the genome. Results: Mean (SD) age of the 2630 participants was 56.9 (8.7) years. Those with the greatest (>75th percentile) vs least (≤25th percentile) neighborhood deprivation had higher epigenetic age acceleration estimated by Hannum (ß = 0.23; 95% CI, 0.01-0.45), PhenoAge (ß = 0.28; 95% CI, 0.06-.50), and GrimAge (ß = 0.37; 95% CI, 0.12-0.62). Increasing US quartiles of neighborhood deprivation exhibited a trend with Hannum, PhenoAge, and GrimAge. For example, GrimAge showed a significant dose-response (P test for trend <.001) as follows: level 2 vs level 1 (ß = 0.30; 95% CI, 0.17-0.42), level 3 vs level 1 (ß = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.19-0.50), and level 4 vs level 1 (ß = 0.37; 95% CI, 0.12-0.62). Neighborhood deprivation was found to be associated with 3 cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites, with 1 of these annotated to a known gene MAOB (P = 9.71 × 10-08). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that residing in a neighborhood with a higher deprivation index appears to be reflected by methylation-based markers of aging.

2.
Mitochondrion ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the feasibility of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number measurement in dried blood spots (DBS), its comparability with measurement in whole blood samples, and stability of mtDNA copy number from DBS over time. METHODS: Women in this pilot study were participants in the Sister Study, a large prospective cohort. Sister Study participants provided a whole blood sample and DBS at enrollment. A second DBS sample was collected 5-10 years later from a subcohort of women with and without an incident breast cancer diagnosis between collections. Among 54 women (27 with breast cancer, 27 without) we measured mtDNA copy number from whole blood at enrollment and from DBS at both time points. RESULTS: The average age at enrollment was 58.7 years (range:50-69). Values of mtDNA copy number measured in whole blood samples and DBS from enrollment were moderately correlated (Spearman R=0.45;p=0.005). Stability of mtDNA copy number in DBS from the two time points was moderate overall (ICC=0.50) and similar between women with (ICC=0.50) and without (ICC=0.51) a breast cancer diagnosis between the two collections. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that measurement of mtDNA copy number in DBS is feasible and may be a valid alternative to measurement in whole blood samples.

3.
Environ Int ; 146: 106187, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many pesticides are known to have thyroid-disrupting properties. However, few studies have evaluated the association between specific pesticide ingredients and risk of thyroid cancer. We investigated self-reported pesticide use and incident thyroid cancer in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a large cohort of occupationally-exposed male pesticide applicators. METHODS: The AHS is a prospective cohort of licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. At enrollment (1993-1997) and follow-up (1999-2005), participants reported use of 50 pesticides. We characterized exposure as ever use (44 pesticides with ≥5 exposed cases) and by cumulative intensity-weighted lifetime days (22 pesticides with ≥10 exposed cases), a metric that accounts for factors that influence exposure. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox regression for incident thyroid (n = 85 cases) cancer among male participants using follow-up through 2014/2015. RESULTS: Use of the fungicide metalaxyl (HR = 2.03, CI:1.16-3.52) and the organochlorine insecticide lindane (HR = 1.74, CI:1.06-2.84) was associated with increased risk of thyroid cancer. The herbicide chlorimuron-ethyl was inversely associated with risk when we restricted to papillary thyroid cancer, the most common subtype (HR = 0.52, CI:0.28-0.96). High use of the insecticide carbaryl (>median intensity-weighted days) was inversely associated with thyroid cancer (HR = 0.20, CI:0.08-0.53, ptrend = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort study, we observed increased risk of thyroid cancer associated with use of metalaxyl and lindane, and an inverse association with carbaryl. More work is needed to understand the potential role of these chemicals in thyroid carcinogenesis.

4.
Ann Work Expo Health ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill involved thousands of workers and volunteers to mitigate the oil release and clean-up after the spill. Health concerns for these participants led to the initiation of a prospective epidemiological study (GuLF STUDY) to investigate potential adverse health outcomes associated with the oil spill response and clean-up (OSRC). Characterizing the chemical exposures of the OSRC workers was an essential component of the study. Workers on the four oil rig vessels mitigating the spill and located within a 1852 m (1 nautical mile) radius of the damaged wellhead [the Discoverer Enterprise (Enterprise), the Development Driller II (DDII), the Development Driller III (DDIII), and the Helix Q4000] had some of the greatest potential for chemical exposures. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to characterize potential personal chemical exposures via the inhalation route for workers on those four rig vessels. Specifically, we presented our methodology and descriptive statistics of exposure estimates for total hydrocarbons (THCs), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and n-hexane (BTEX-H) for various job groups to develop exposure groups for the GuLF STUDY cohort. METHODS: Using descriptive information associated with the measurements taken on various jobs on these rig vessels and with job titles from study participant responses to the study questionnaire, job groups [unique job/rig/time period (TP) combinations] were developed to describe groups of workers with the same or closely related job titles. A total of 500 job groups were considered for estimation using the available 8139 personal measurements. We used a univariate Bayesian model to analyze the THC measurements and a bivariate Bayesian regression framework to jointly model the measurements of THC and each of the BTEX-H chemicals separately, both models taking into account the many measurements that were below the analytic limit of detection. RESULTS: Highest THC exposures occurred in TP1a and TP1b, which was before the well was mechanically capped. The posterior medians of the arithmetic mean (AM) ranged from 0.11 ppm ('Inside/Other', TP1b, DDII; and 'Driller', TP3, DDII) to 14.67 ppm ('Methanol Operations', TP1b, Enterprise). There were statistical differences between the THC AMs by broad job groups, rigs, and time periods. The AMs for BTEX-H were generally about two to three orders of magnitude lower than the THC AMs, with benzene and ethylbenzene measurements being highly censored. CONCLUSIONS: Our results add new insights to the limited literature on exposures associated with oil spill responses and support the current epidemiologic investigation of potential adverse health effects of the oil spill.

5.
Occup Environ Med ; 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pesticide exposure may impair human olfaction, but empirical evidence is limited. We examined associations between occupational use of 50 specific pesticides and olfactory impairment, both self-reported, among 20 409 participants in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort of pesticide applicators (mostly farmers, 97% male). METHODS: We used logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between pesticide use at enrolment (1993-1997) and olfactory impairment reported two decades later (2013-2016), adjusting for baseline covariates. RESULTS: About 10% of participants reported olfactory impairment. The overall cumulative days of any pesticide use at enrolment were associated with a higher odds of reporting olfactory impairment (OR (highest vs lowest quartile): 1.17 (95% CI: 1.02 to 1.34), p-trend = 0.003). In the analyses of 50 specific pesticides, ever-use of 20 pesticides showed modest associations with olfactory impairment, with ORs ranging from 1.11 to 1.33. Of these, higher lifetime days of use of 12 pesticides were associated with higher odds of olfactory impairment compared with never use (p-trend ≤ 0.05), including two organochlorine insecticides (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and lindane), two organophosphate insecticides (diazinon and malathion), permethrin, the fungicide captan and six herbicides (glyphosate, petroleum distillates, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid and metribuzin), although many of these did not exhibit clear, monotonic exposure-response patterns. CONCLUSION: Overall, we found relatively broad associations between pesticides and olfactory impairment, involving many individual pesticides and covering several chemical classes, suggesting that pesticides could affect olfaction through multiple pathways. Future epidemiological studies with objective measurement of olfaction are required to confirm these findings.

6.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 112, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Earlier age at menarche is an established risk factor for breast cancer. While age at menarche has been fairly stable over the past half-century, age at breast development (thelarche) has continued to decrease. Recently, earlier age at thelarche and a longer time between thelarche and menarche (pubertal tempo) were shown to be associated with increased breast cancer risk. Our objective was to examine how breast cancer risk was associated with pubertal timing and tempo in a prospective US cohort. METHODS: Women ages 35-74 years without a history of breast cancer, but who had a sister previously diagnosed with breast cancer, were enrolled in the Sister Study from 2003 to 2009 (N = 50,884). At enrollment, participants reported their ages at thelarche and menarche. Pubertal tempo was age at menarche minus age at thelarche. We estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each pubertal milestone and risk of breast cancer (invasive or ductal carcinoma in situ) using Cox proportional hazards regression. We examined whether associations between age at thelarche and breast cancer risk were modified by birth cohort, race/ethnicity, weight at age 10, and extent of breast cancer family history, as characterized by a Bayesian score based on first-degree family structure. RESULTS: During follow-up (mean = 9.3 years), 3295 eligible women were diagnosed with breast cancer. Early ages at thelarche (HR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.03-1.46 for < 10 vs. 12-13 years) and menarche (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.20 for < 12 vs. 12-13 years) were positively associated with breast cancer risk. Pubertal tempo was not associated with breast cancer risk (HR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.97-1.02 per 1-year longer tempo). When considering early thelarche (< 10 years) and early menarche (< 12 years) jointly, women with both had a 30% greater risk of breast cancer compared with women with neither risk factor (95% CI 1.07-1.57). The association between age at thelarche and breast cancer risk did not significantly vary by birth cohort, race/ethnicity, childhood weight, or Bayesian family history score. CONCLUSIONS: Earlier ages at thelarche and menarche may enhance susceptibility to breast carcinogenesis. Age at thelarche is an important risk factor to consider given secular trends towards earlier development.

7.
Environ Res ; 191: 110144, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension-related disease burden is a major challenge globally, with an estimated 1.56 billion adults expected to be affected by hypertension by 2025. Environmental factors, such as metals, could be risk factors for hypertension, but the relationship between airborne metals and hypertension is rarely studied. METHODS: Census-tract airborne metal concentrations (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, and antimony) from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment database were linked to enrollment residential addresses of 47,595 women in the Sister Study cohort. Hypertension was defined as high systolic (≥140 mm Hg) or diastolic (≥90 mm Hg) blood pressure measured by trained examiners at enrollment or taking anti-hypertensive medications. Multivariable log binomial regression was used to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between individual metals and hypertension, with and without co-adjustment for other metals. Quantile-based g-computation was used to estimate the joint effect of the overall metal mixture. RESULTS: Comparing the highest to lowest quartiles, risk of hypertension was higher among women with higher residential exposure to arsenic (PR = 1.05, 95%CI = 1.02,1.09), lead (PR = 1.04, 95%CI = 1.01,1.08), chromium (PR = 1.03, 95%CI = 1.00,1.06), cobalt (PR = 1.03, 95%CI = 1.00,1.07), and manganese (PR = 1.03, 95%CI = 1.00,1.06). Selenium was associated with lower risk of hypertension (PR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.93,0.99). Results were similar with mutual adjustment for all other metals. The associations varied by race/ethnicity, with greater PRs in other races/ethnicities (Hispanic, black, and other participants) compared to non-Hispanic white participants. The joint effect of a quartile increase in exposure to all the metals was 1.02 (95%CI = 0.99,1.04). CONCLUSION: We found that living in areas of higher exposure to arsenic, lead, chromium, cobalt, and manganese was related to higher risk of hypertension, whereas living in areas with higher selenium was inversely related to the risk of hypertension.

8.
Environ Res ; 191: 110186, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extensive literature suggests an association between general pesticide use and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, with few exceptions, little is known about associations between specific pesticides and PD. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated use of pesticides and incident PD in 38,274 pesticide applicators and 27,836 of their spouses in the Agricultural Health Study cohort followed over 20 years. METHODS: We used self-reported information on ever-use of 50 specific pesticides as of enrollment for both applicators and spouses, and considered intensity-weighted lifetime days (IWLD) reported at enrollment and through the first 5-year follow-up among applicators. We estimated covariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox regression. We also examined heterogeneity in associations by history of head injury and chemical resistant glove use. RESULTS: A total of 373 applicators and 118 spouses self-reported incident doctor-diagnosed PD. Ever-use of the insecticide terbufos (HR:1.31, 95%CI:1.02-1.68) and the herbicides trifluralin (HR:1.29, 95%CI: 0.99-1.70) and 2,4,5-T (HR:1.57, 95%CI:1.21-2.04) was associated with elevated PD risk. On the other hand, diazinon (HR:0.73, 95%CI: 0.58-0.94) and 2,4,5-TP (HR:0.39, 95%CI:0.25-0.62) were associated with reduced risk. We observed heterogeneity in ever-use associations by head injury and chemical-resistant glove use for some pesticides, with higher risk among those who reported a history of head injury, or who did not use gloves. PD risk was also elevated for applicators in the highest category of IWLD for dichlorvos, permethrin (animal use), and benomyl. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence of increased PD risk for some pesticides. Our results also suggest higher susceptibility for pesticide-associated PD among individuals with head injury as well as protection with use of chemical resistant gloves, although further research is needed to understand the impact of head injury. Research on current and newer pesticides, including mechanisms relevant to PD, is important given widespread pesticide use.

9.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997143

RESUMO

Socioeconomic status has been associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, few studies have examined this relationship among populations in the US Gulf coast region. We assessed neighborhood deprivation in relation to obesity and diabetes in 9,626 Gulf residents participating in the Gulf Long-term Follow-up Study (2011 - current) who completed a home visit (2011 - 2013) with height, weight, waist and hip measurements. Obesity was categorized as body mass index ≥ 30 and diabetes was defined by doctor's diagnosis or medication. Participant home addresses were linked to an established Area Deprivation Index and categorized into four levels (1=least deprived). In adjusted modified Poisson regression models, participants with greatest versus least deprivation were more likely to have obesity (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.35), central obesity (aPR 1.11, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.19), and diabetes (aPR 1.49, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.14). We repeated analyses among a subgroup (n=3,016) with hemoglobin a1c values measured in fingerstick samples taken 3 years later, and the association with diabetes (defined as diagnosis, medications or a1c ≥ 6.5) was similar (aPR 1.46, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.86). Results suggest neighborhood deprivation is associated with obesity and diabetes in a region of the US with high baseline prevalence.

10.
Ann Work Expo Health ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936300

RESUMO

The GuLF STUDY, initiated by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, is investigating the health effects among workers involved in the oil spill response and clean-up (OSRC) after the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) explosion in April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico. Clean-up included in situ burning of oil on the water surface and flaring of gas and oil captured near the seabed and brought to the surface. We estimated emissions of PM2.5 and related pollutants resulting from these activities, as well as from engines of vessels working on the OSRC. PM2.5 emissions ranged from 30 to 1.33e6 kg per day and were generally uniform over time for the flares but highly episodic for the in situ burns. Hourly emissions from each source on every burn/flare day were used as inputs to the AERMOD model to develop average and maximum concentrations for 1-, 12-, and 24-h time periods. The highest predicted 24-h average concentrations sometimes exceeded 5000 µg m-3 in the first 500 m downwind of flaring and reached 71 µg m-3 within a kilometer of some in situ burns. Beyond 40 km from the DWH site, plumes appeared to be well mixed, and the predicted 24-h average concentrations from the flares and in situ burns were similar, usually below 10 µg m-3. Structured averaging of model output gave potential PM2.5 exposure estimates for OSRC workers located in various areas across the Gulf. Workers located nearest the wellhead (hot zone/source workers) were estimated to have a potential maximum 12-h exposure of 97 µg m-3 over the 2-month flaring period. The potential maximum 12-h exposure for workers who participated in in situ burns was estimated at 10 µg m-3 over the ~3-month burn period. The results suggest that burning of oil and gas during the DWH clean-up may have resulted in PM2.5 concentrations substantially above the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM2.5 (24-h average = 35 µg m-3). These results are being used to investigate possible adverse health effects in the GuLF STUDY epidemiologic analysis of PM2.5 exposures.

11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2010-2018, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers have shared developmental pathways. Few studies have prospectively examined heterogeneity in risk factor associations across these three anatomic sites. METHODS: We identified 3,738 ovarian, 337 peritoneal, and 176 fallopian tube incident cancer cases in 891,731 women from 15 prospective cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Associations between 18 putative risk factors and risk of ovarian, peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancer, overall and for serous and high-grade serous tumors, were evaluated using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression. Heterogeneity was assessed by likelihood ratio tests. RESULTS: Most associations did not vary by tumor site (P het ≥ 0.05). Associations between first pregnancy (P het = 0.04), tubal ligation (P het = 0.01), and early-adult (age 18-21 years) body mass index (BMI; P het = 0.02) and risk differed between ovarian and peritoneal cancers. The association between early-adult BMI and risk further differed between peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer (P het = 0.03). First pregnancy and tubal ligation were inversely associated with ovarian, but not peritoneal, cancer. Higher early-adult BMI was associated with higher risk of peritoneal, but not ovarian or fallopian tube, cancer. Patterns were generally similar when restricted to serous and high-grade serous cases. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers appear to have both shared and distinct etiologic pathways, although most risk factors appear to have similar associations by anatomic site. IMPACT: Further studies on the mechanisms underlying the differences in risk profiles may provide insights regarding the developmental origins of tumors arising in the peritoneal cavity and inform prevention efforts.

12.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 88, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perinatal factors have been associated with some adult health outcomes, but have not been well studied in young-onset breast cancer. We aimed to evaluate the association between young-onset breast cancer and perinatal exposures and to explore etiologic heterogeneity in the relationship between associated perinatal factors and estrogen receptor status of the tumor. METHODS: We addressed this in a sister-matched case-control study. Cases were women who had been diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive breast cancer before the age of 50. Each case had a sister control who was free of breast cancer up to the same age at which her case sister developed the disease. The factors considered were self-reported and included the mother's preeclampsia in that pregnancy, mother's smoking in that pregnancy, gestational hypertension, prenatal diethylstilbestrol use, and gestational diabetes, as well as low birth weight (less than 5.5 pounds), high birth weight (greater than 8.8 pounds), short gestational length (less than 38 completed weeks), and being breastfed or being fed soy formula. RESULTS: In conditional logistic regression analyses, high birth weight (odds ratio [OR] = 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-2.36) and preeclampsia (adjusted OR = 1.92, CI 0.824-4.5162) were positively associated with risk. The association with preeclampsia was stronger when the analysis was restricted to invasive breast cancer (OR = 2.87, CI 1.08-7.59). We also used case-only analyses to assess etiologic heterogeneity for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive versus estrogen receptor-negative cancer. Women who were born to a preeclamptic pregnancy and later developed young-onset breast cancer were at increased odds for the ER-negative type (OR = 2.27; CI 1.05-4.92). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that being born to a preeclamptic pregnancy may increase risk for young-onset breast cancer, especially for the ER-negative subtype.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803843

RESUMO

Cannabis use is highly prevalent and is associated with adverse and beneficial effects. To better understand the full spectrum of health consequences, biomarkers that accurately classify cannabis use are needed. DNA methylation (DNAm) is an excellent candidate, yet no blood-based epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) in humans exist. We conducted an EWAS of lifetime cannabis use (ever vs. never) using blood-based DNAm data from a case-cohort study within Sister Study, a prospective cohort of women at risk of developing breast cancer (Discovery N = 1,730 [855 ever users]; Replication N = 853 [392 ever users]). We identified and replicated an association with lifetime cannabis use at cg15973234 (CEMIP): combined p = 3.3 × 10-8 . We found no overlap between published blood-based cis-meQTLs of cg15973234 and reported lifetime cannabis use-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs; p < .05), suggesting that the observed DNAm difference was driven by cannabis exposure. We also developed a multi-CpG classifier of lifetime cannabis use using penalized regression of top EWAS CpGs. The resulting 50-CpG classifier produced an area under the curve (AUC) = 0.74 (95% CI [0.72, 0.76], p = 2.00 × 10-5 ) in the discovery sample and AUC = 0.54 ([0.51, 0.57], p = 2.87 × 10-2 ) in the replication sample. Our EWAS findings provide evidence that blood-based DNAm is associated with lifetime cannabis use.

14.
Int J Behav Med ; 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traumatic childhood experiences (TCEs) are associated with poor adulthood sleep, but racial/ethnic disparities have not been well-studied. We investigated the TCE-adulthood sleep relationship among non-Hispanic (NH)-White, NH-Black, and Hispanic/Latina women. METHOD: Women enrolled in the Sister Study from 2003 to 2009 reported the following TCEs in a follow-up interview (2008-2012): natural disasters; major accidents; household dysfunction; and sexual, physical, and psychological/emotional abuse. Sleep characteristics included short sleep duration (< 7 h vs. 7-9 h), long sleep onset latency (SOL) (> 30 vs. ≤ 30 min), frequent night awakenings (≥ 3 times/night ≥ 3 times/week [yes vs. no]), and frequent napping (≥ 3 vs. < 3 times/week). Using log-binomial regression to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for sleep characteristics among women with vs. without TCEs, we investigated racial/ethnic-specific associations and race/ethnicity as a moderator. RESULTS: Among 40,082 participants (mean age = 55 ± 8.8 years), 55% reported ≥ 1 TCE (NH-White, 54%; NH-Black, 62%; Hispanic/Latina, 57%). NH-White, NH-Black, and Hispanic/Latina women reporting any TCE had a higher prevalence of short sleep compared with their within-race/ethnicity counterparts without TCEs. Associations were strongest among NH-Whites. Compared to NH-Whites with no TCEs, racial/ethnic minorities who reported any TCEs had a higher prevalence of short sleep (PRBlacks = 2.13 [95% CI 2.02-2.24], PRHispanics/Latinas = 1.47 [1.35-1.60]) and long SOL. When comparing racial/ethnic minorities with TCEs to NH-Whites with TCEs, PRs for short sleep (PRBlacks = 1.98 [1.88-2.08] and PRHispanics/Latinas = 1.36 [1.25-1.48]) and long SOL were weaker. CONCLUSION: TCEs were positively associated with poor sleep characteristics among women, and TCEs appear to contribute to short sleep duration and long SOL disparities.

15.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(6): 67011, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Agricultural work and occupational pesticide use have been associated with increased risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the most common form of kidney cancer. However, few prospective studies have investigated links to specific pesticides. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the lifetime use of individual pesticides and the incidence of RCC. METHODS: We evaluated the associations between intensity-weighted lifetime days (IWDs) of 38 pesticides and incident RCC in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort of licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. Among 55,873 applicators, 308 cases were diagnosed between enrollment (1993-1997) and the end of follow-up (2014-2015). We estimated incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Poisson regression, controlling for potential confounding factors, with lagged and unlagged pesticide exposures. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant increased risk of RCC among the highest users of 2,4,5-T compared with never users [unlagged RRIWD Tertile 3=2.92 (95% CI: 1.65, 5.17; ptrend=0.001)], with similar risk estimates for lagged exposure [20-y lag RRIWD Tertile 3=3.37 (95% CI: 1.83, 6.22; ptrend=0.001)]. In 20-y lagged analyses, we also found exposure-response associations with chlorpyrifos [RRIWD Quartile 4=1.68 (95% CI: 1.05, 2.70; ptrend=0.01)], chlordane [RRIWD Tertile 3=2.06 (95% CI: 1.10, 3.87; ptrend=0.02)], atrazine [RRIWD Quartile 4=1.43 (95% CI: 1.00, 2.03; ptrend=0.02)], cyanazine [RRIWD Quartile 4=1.61 (95% CI: 1.03, 2.50; ptrend=0.02)], and paraquat [RRIWD>Median=1.95 (95% CI: 1.03, 3.70; ptrend=0.04)]. CONCLUSIONS: This is, to our knowledge, the first prospective study to evaluate RCC risk in relation to various pesticides. We found evidence of associations with RCC for four herbicides (2,4,5-T, atrazine, cyanazine, and paraquat) and two insecticides (chlorpyrifos and chlordane). Our findings provide insights into specific chemicals that may influence RCC risk among pesticide applicators. Confirmation of these findings and investigations of the biologic plausibility and potential mechanisms underlying the observed associations are warranted. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6334.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727823

RESUMO

Periodontal disease may be associated with increased breast cancer risk, but studies have not considered invasive breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) separately in the same population. We assessed the relationship between periodontal disease and breast cancer in a large prospective cohort study. The Sister Study followed women without prior breast cancer ages 35 to 74 years from 2003 to 2017 (N = 49,968). Baseline periodontal disease was self-reported, and incident breast cancer was ascertained over a mean follow-up of 9.3 years. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusting for multiple potential confounders, including smoking status. Heterogeneity in risk for invasive breast cancer versus DCIS was also estimated. About 22% of participants reported a history of periodontal disease at baseline. A total of 3,339 incident breast cancers (2,607 invasive breast cancer, 732 DCIS) were identified. There was no clear association between periodontal disease and overall breast cancer risk (HR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.94-1.11). However, we observed a nonstatistically significant suggestive increased risk of invasive breast cancer (HR = 1.07; 95% CI, 0.97-1.17) and decreased risk of DCIS (HR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.72-1.04) associated with periodontal disease, with evidence for heterogeneity in the risk associations (relative HR for invasive breast cancer versus DCIS = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.52). A case-only analysis for etiologic heterogeneity confirmed this difference. We observed no clear association between periodontal disease and overall breast cancer risk. The heterogeneity in risk associations for invasive breast cancer versus DCIS warrants further exploration.

17.
Sleep Med ; 71: 97-105, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and poor sleep occur across all races/ethnicities in the U.S., although both are most common among racial/ethnic minorities. Few studies have investigated associations between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and various sleep dimensions in a multiethnic population. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional associations among 40,038 eligible Sister Study participants (enrollment: 2003-2009) who reported ever/never experiencing specific types of everyday (eg, treated unfairly at a store or restaurant) or major (eg, unfairly stopped, threatened, or searched by police) discrimination attributed to their race/ethnicity during a follow-up survey in 2008-2012. Participants also reported short sleep duration (<7 h), sleep debt (≥2-h difference between longest and shortest sleep duration), frequent napping (≥3 times/week), and insomnia. Poisson regression with robust variance estimation, adjusted for sociodemographic and health characteristics, estimated prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between each type of racial/ethnic discrimination and each sleep dimension, overall and by race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Mean age was 55 ± 8.9 years, 89% were Non-Hispanic (NH)-white, 8% NH-black, and 3% Hispanic/Latina. NH-black participants were the most likely to report everyday (76% vs. 4% [NH-whites] and 36% [Hispanics/Latinas]) and major racial/ethnic discrimination (52% vs. 2% [NH-whites] and 18% [Hispanics/Latinas]). Participants who experienced both types versus neither were more likely to report short sleep duration (PR = 1.17 [95% CI: 1.09-1.25]) and insomnia symptoms (PR = 1.10 [1.01-1.20]) but not other poor sleep dimensions. CONCLUSIONS: Racial/ethnic minority women were most likely to experience racial/ethnic discrimination, which was associated with certain poor sleep dimensions among women of all races/ethnicities.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186637

RESUMO

The rapid pace of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19) pandemic presents challenges to the real-time collection of population-scale data to inform near-term public health needs as well as future investigations. We established the COronavirus Pandemic Epidemiology (COPE) consortium to address this unprecedented crisis on behalf of the epidemiology research community. As a central component of this initiative, we have developed a COVID Symptom Study (previously known as the COVID Symptom Tracker) mobile application as a common data collection tool for epidemiologic cohort studies with active study participants. This mobile application collects information on risk factors, daily symptoms, and outcomes through a user-friendly interface that minimizes participant burden. Combined with our efforts within the general population, data collected from nearly 3 million participants in the United States and United Kingdom are being used to address critical needs in the emergency response, including identifying potential hot spots of disease and clinically actionable risk factors. The linkage of symptom data collected in the app with information and biospecimens already collected in epidemiology cohorts will position us to address key questions related to diet, lifestyle, environmental, and socioeconomic factors on susceptibility to COVID-19, clinical outcomes related to infection, and long-term physical, mental health, and financial sequalae. We call upon additional epidemiology cohorts to join this collective effort to strengthen our impact on the current health crisis and generate a new model for a collaborative and nimble research infrastructure that will lead to more rapid translation of our work for the betterment of public health.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-219604

RESUMO

The rapid pace of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19) pandemic presents challenges to the real-time collection of population-scale data to inform near-term public health needs as well as future investigations. We established the COronavirus Pandemic Epidemiology (COPE) consortium to address this unprecedented crisis on behalf of the epidemiology research community. As a central component of this initiative, we have developed a COVID Symptom Study (previously known as the COVID Symptom Tracker) mobile application as a common data collection tool for epidemiologic cohort studies with active study participants. This mobile application collects information on risk factors, daily symptoms, and outcomes through a user-friendly interface that minimizes participant burden. Combined with our efforts within the general population, data collected from nearly 3 million participants in the United States and United Kingdom are being used to address critical needs in the emergency response, including identifying potential hot spots of disease and clinically actionable risk factors. The linkage of symptom data collected in the app with information and biospecimens already collected in epidemiology cohorts will position us to address key questions related to diet, lifestyle, environmental, and socioeconomic factors on susceptibility to COVID-19, clinical outcomes related to infection, and long-term physical, mental health, and financial sequalae. We call upon additional epidemiology cohorts to join this collective effort to strengthen our impact on the current health crisis and generate a new model for a collaborative and nimble research infrastructure that will lead to more rapid translation of our work for the betterment of public health.

20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(4): 1326-1337, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The herbicide dicamba has been commonly used agriculturally and residentially. Recent approval of genetically engineered dicamba-resistant crops is expected to lead to increased dicamba use, and there has been growing interest in potential human health effects. A prior analysis in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) suggested associations between dicamba and colon and lung cancer. We re-evaluated dicamba use in the AHS, including an additional 12 years and 2702 exposed cancers. METHODS: The AHS is a prospective cohort of pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. At enrollment (1993-1997) and follow-up (1999-2005), participants reported dicamba use. Exposure was characterized by cumulative intensity-weighted lifetime days, including exposure lags of up to 20 years. We estimated relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using multivariable Poisson regression for incident cancers diagnosed from enrollment through 2014/2015. RESULTS: Among 49 922 applicators, 26 412 (52.9%) used dicamba. Compared with applicators reporting no dicamba use, those in the highest quartile of exposure had elevated risk of liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer (nexposed = 28, RRQ4 = 1.80, CI: 1.26-2.56, Ptrend < 0.001) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL, nexposed = 93, RRQ4 = 1.20, CI: 0.96-1.50, Ptrend = 0.01) and decreased risk of myeloid leukaemia (nexposed = 55, RRQ4 = 0.73, CI: 0.51-1.03, Ptrend = 0.01). The associations for liver cancer and myeloid leukaemia remained after lagging exposure of up to 20 years. CONCLUSIONS: With additional follow-up and exposure information, associations with lung and colon cancer were no longer apparent. In this first evaluation of liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer, there was an association with increasing use of dicamba that persisted across lags of up to 20 years.

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